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VOLUME XII (Old Seiues). 



-■- -iJ- -" '•'-'■ fc'1 


JOHN N. McCLINTOCK, Editor and Publisher. 



a 69fSSl 


(Second Series.) 


Jonathan Sawyer. (Portrait) . 

Sepulchral Symbols. C. 0. Lord 

Faithful unto Death. William O. Clough 

The Bulow Plantation 
* Tilton Genealogy .... 

Dover Gubernatorial Candidates in 1852. Herman W. Stevens 

Major Samuel Young. By Samuel Emery 

Captain Isaac Patterson 

Howells's Modern Italian Poets. Adelaide Cilley Waldro 

Through Faith Believing. Virginia C. Hollis 

Lawyers omitted in History of Belknap County Bench and 

The West. Chamber. Henrietta E. Page . 

The Canisted Mystery. W. A. Fergusson 

Colonel Joseph Hutehins. J. Q. Bittinger 

From the French of Sully Prudhomme. Ethel S. Mason 

A Vanished City ..... 

Hon. Chester B. Jordan. (Portrait) 

The Scotch-Irish 

Hon. William Plumer, Jr. ... 

•The Shaw Family . . 

Hon. Robert J. Walker. Charles S. Spaulding 

Cap f <iin Alden Partridge. Rev. S. C. Beane 

Correspondence .... 

Brinsley Perkins. C. C. Lord . 

The Palatine Hill. Fred Myron Colby 

Daniel Hough and His Descendants. C. C. Benton 

A Lyric of Lyrics. R. H. Stoddard . 

Charter of Lebanon .... 

Early History of Lebanon 

Henry *H. Furbish. (Portrait) 

Berlin ...... 

Hon. William E. Chandler 

Dr. Phinehas Parkhurst. C. C. Benton 

Modes of Burial. Fred Myron Colby 

Colonial Law vs. Freeman's Oath. C. S 

Plea for New Hampshire Men. Frank B. Sanborn 

E. A. II 







23, 83 


































#* — rt 

Book Notices 

Concord Business Houses 

General Albert S. Twitchell 

Penacook. in the War for the Union. John C. Linehan 

A Picture. Helen Mar Bean . 

Rev. Israel Evans. George L. Porter 
♦The Bailey Family . . 

•The Shaw Family .... 

In the Night. Laura Garland Carr . 

The Girl Soldiers . . ... 

Loneliness. Laura Garland Carr 

My Lord Bangs. By the author of Widow W 

John Park's Bide. C. Jennie Swain 

The History of New Hampshire 

Hon. David A. Taggart. (Portrait) 

Hon. Hiram D. Upton. (Portrait) . 

Granville P. Conn, A. M., M. D. . 

Where? Laura Garland Carr. 

David Morrill ..... 

Wilton Past and Present William O. dough 

Manchester and the Amoskeag Company 

Sighs. Laura Garland Carr 

Captain Winborn A. Sanborn 

Soldiers' Monument at Deny 

Jack's Doves. Laura Garland Carr . 

Ancient Church Lore in New England. Austin I. Batchel 

Some Indian Names. Hon. Samuel Abbott Green 

White Lies. Helen Mar Bean ....... 

An Account of the Battle of Bunker Hill. Gen. Henry De 

Gen. Putnam. John Adams, Reuben Kemp 

Hon. Jesse Johnson. W . A. Wallace 

A Remarkable History 

The Rebellion. Josiah I. Plimpton, Louis Bell, Charles V. 
Pearson ..... 

Davis Centennial Celebration. A. P. Davis 

A Sail. Mary H. Wheeler 

Dr. Scth Eastman .... 

A Country Highway. C. H. C. Howard 

Captain John Weeks 

The Kite. Laura Garland Carr 

J. Q. A. Brackett .... 

W. H. Haile 

Abandoned Farms in New Hampshire 

Book Notices ..... 


_ - 

126, 28; 


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Jonathan Sawyer, .... 
Sepulchral Symbols — C. C. Lor I 
Faithful unto Death — Wm. 0. Clou< 

■Cii. X, 

The Bulow Plantation- 

TlLTON Gl N E VLOGY, ...... 

D< ■.:«•■: i B52— Herrr 

Maj. Samuj l v ^ oun< - - muel Emery, . 
Capt. Isaac Patterson, . 

an W. Stevens, 

Howells's Modern Italian Poets- 

ide Ciller Waldro 

Through Faith Believing — Virginia C. Hollis, 
Lawyers . . »H ..' C01 . > \ Bench 

Bap. — E. A. Hibbard, ....... 

The West Chamber — Henrietta E. P ... 

The Canisteo Mystery — \V. A. Fergusson, 

Col. Joseph Hutchins — J. Q. Bittinger, .... 

From the French of Sully Prudhomme — Ethel S. Mason, 
A Vanished City, ........ 

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'Devoted to Literature, ^Biography, History, an J State Progress. 

Vol,. II. (New Series.) JANUARY, > 

vol. xil FEBRUARY, \ 


Nos. 1, 2. 


The follow'mg account of Jonathan 
Sawyer and his ancestors is from the 
pen of Rev. Geo. B. Spalding, i>. d., 
in " Successful New Hampshire 

1. John Sawyer, a farmer in Lin- 
colnshire, England, had three sons, 
William, Edward, and Thomas, who 
emigrated to this country in 1636, be- 
ing passengers in a ship commanded 
by Capt. Parker. Thomas Saw- 
yer settled in Rowley, Mass. 

2. Thomas Sawyer went to Lan- 
caster, Mass., as early as 10-17. when 
he was twenty-four years of age. 
This section of the Nashaway valley, 
comprising eighty square miles in ex- 
tent, had been purchased in 1643 by 
Thomas King, of Watertown, Mass., 
of Scholan, sachem of the Nashaway 
Indians. Thomas Sawyer was one 
of the first six settlers. His name 
appears in the petition made to the 
general court in 1653 for the incor- 
poration of the town of Lancaster. 
In 1647, the year of his arrival, he 
married Mary Prescott. She was the 
daughter of John Prescott, to whom 

belongs the houor of being the first 
permanent inhabitant of Lancaster. 
The eminent historian, William H. 
Prescott, traces his ancestral line to 
this John Prescott. There were born 
to Thomas Sawyer and Mary Pres- 
cott eleven children. This family 
figures largely in that most tragic 
page of the history of Lancaster 
which tells of the massacres and cap- 
tivities of^jits inhabitants, and the 
entire destruction of the town itself 
by the Indians. On the land of 
Thomas Sawyer stood the Sawyer 
garrison, into which were gathered 
the survivors of that most murderous 
attack made upon the town in the 
winter of lGTO-'TG. At this time his 
second son, Ephraim, who was at the 
Prescott garrison, was killed by the 
Indians. Thirty-two years later, 
1708, the oldest son, Thomas, and 
his sou Elias, were captured by the 
Indians and taken to Canada. When 
the party reached Montreal, the father 
offered to put up a mill on the river 
Chambly, on condition that the 
French governor would obtain the 

Jonathan Sawyer. 

release of all the captives. Thus the 
first mill in Canada was built by 
Thomas Sawyer. He was liberated, 
but his sou Elias was detained for a 
time to teach the Canadian's 4k the art 
of sawing and keeping the mill in 
order, and then was dismissed with 
rich presents." 

3. Caleb Sawyer, the sixth child of 
Thomas, was born in 1G59, in Lan- 
caster, Mass. He married Sarah 
Houghton, thus effecting an alliance 
between two of the most prominent 
families who organized the town of 
Lancaster. Caleb Sawyer died in 
1755, leaving two sons and two 

4. Seth Sawyer, the oldest son of 
Caleb, was born in 1705; married 
Miss Ilepsabeth Whitney ; died in 

5. Caleb Sawyer, the second son 
of Seth, was born in 1737, at Har- 
vard, Mass., a part of Lancaster 
which in 1732 had been incorporated 
as a town by itself. He married Miss 
Sarah Patch in 1766. They had two 
sons, Pbineas and Jonathan. Jona- 
than remained on the home farm at 
Harvard, which is still occupied by 
his descendants. 

G. Pbineas Sawyer was born at 
Harvard, Mass., in 17G8. He went 
to Marlborough, Mass., now Hudson, 
in 1800. He bought a mill property 
there, consisting of a saw-, grist-, and 
wire-drawing mill. In 180G he built 
a cotton-mill, and operated it until 
the close of the war iu 1815. It re- 
quired in those days great enter- 
prise and energy to project and carry 
on such a work as a cotion-factory. 
The machinery was procured from 
Rhode Island. The ginning-machine 
had not yet come into general use. 

The cotton, wheu received, was dis- 
tributed among the farmers, to have 
the seeds picked out one by one by 
their families. It was carded and 
spun by water-power, at the mill. It 
was then sent out again among the 
farmers to be woven into cloth. 
Phineas Sawyer was a man of great 
independenee of character, self-re- 
liant, and full of courage. These 
qualities, so conspicuous in his busi- 
ness affairs, shone out with undimin- 
ished power in his religious life. He 
lived at a time in Massachusetts- 
when Methodism was regarded with 
special disfavor. But Mr. Sawyer, 
believing that the Methodists were 
right, believed so with all his heart, 
and the petty persecutions to which 
his faith was subjected only intensi- 
fied his zeal and loyalty. His house 
was the home for all travelling Meth- 
odists, and the place where they gath- 
ered for religious worship. He was 
well versed in the best Methodist lit- 
erature of his times. He stands forth 
in the annals of his church as one of 
the foremost men for sagacity, bold- 
ness, and piety in the Needham cir- 
cuit. He had for his wife a worthy 
helpmeet, Hannah Whitney, of Har- 
vard. She was as ardently attached 
to Methodism as was her husband. 
and bore- her full share of service and 
sacrifice for it in its days of weak u ess 
and perseeutiou. The sudden death 
of her husband, which took place in 
1820, left Mrs. Sawyer to provide for 
the support of twelve children, the 
youngest, Jonathan, being then two 
years old. This truly noble woman, 
with but little means, faced the diffi- 
culties before her with an unflinching 
spirit of faith and hopefulness. If 
required superlative fortitude, fiuest 

Jonathan Sawyer. 

sagacity, and sternest self-sacrifice 
to enable this mother to success- 
fully rear these twelve children, give 
to them a good education, and estab- 
lish all of them in respectable posi- 
tions in the world. She continued to 
live in Marlborough some nine years, 
leasing the mill property. In 1829 
she went to Lowell, where she lived 
twenty years, dying there in 184:?% 
greatly respected by all who knew 
her, and held in honor and affection 
by her many children. 

7. Jonathan Sawyer, the subject 
of this sketch, was the youngest child 
of Phineas. He was born at Mart- 
borough, Mass., in 1817. He went 
with his mother aud other members 
of the family, when he was twelve 
years old. to Lowell, where for the 
next few years he attended school!. 
He was a member of the first clasps 
that entered the high school of tha£ 
city, having among his mates Hon. 
Benjamin F. Butler, Gov. E. A„ 
Straw, and G. V. Fox, assistaut sec- 
retary of the navy during the civil 
war. Thomas M. Clark, now Bishop 
of the Diocese of Rhode Island, was 
then principal of this school. On ac- 
count of a severe sickness, vouns; 
Sawyer, at sixteen years of age, left, 
school, and while recruiting his health 
made a visit to his brother, Alfred 
Ira Sawyer, who, after some expe- 
rience as a dyer at Amesbury and 
Great Falls, had come in 1824 to 
Dover, N. II., where he was operat- 
ing a grist-mill, a custom carding 
and cloth-dressing-mill, converting 
this last into a flannel-mill. Jona- 
than remained in Dover two years, 
going to school and working for his 
brother. In the fall of 1835 he re- 
turned to Lowell. His mother, for 

the purpose of conferring upon her 
son a more complete education, sent 
him to the great Methodist school at 
Wiibrabam, which at that time was a 
most flourishing preparatory school 
for the Wesleyan University at Mid- 
dletown. Conn. Here he remained 
two terms, when, at nineteen years 
of age, returning to Lowell, he went 
into a woollen establishment as a 
dyer. Afterwards he went into this 
business on his own account, and con- 
tinued in it until 1830. 

During the latter part of this time 
he was not so engrossed in his busi- 
ness but that he found time to make 
frequent visits to New Ipswich, where 
Miss Martha Perkins, of Barnard, 
Vt., was attending school. In 1839 
they were married, aud went to 
Watertown. N. Y., where Mr. Saw- 
yer became the superintendent of the 
Hamilton Woollen Company. After 
two and a half years Mr. Sawyer 
went into business for the manufact- 
ure of satinets. In 1850, his brother 
Alfred having died at Dover, N. H., 
the year before, and the children be- 
ing too voung to carrv on the busi- 
ness, Mr. Jonathan Sawyer assumed 
its control in connection with his 
brother Zenas. Two years later 
Zeuas retired, and Francis A. Saw- 
yer, wdio had been a prominent builder 
in Boston, became a partner with 
Jonathan, the object being to con- 
tinue the manufacture of woollen flan- 
nels. In 1858 the property below 
known as the "Moses mill," another 
flannel manufactory, was purchased. 
This mill was enlarged in 18G0 to four 
sets of machinery, again in 1863 to 
eight, and in 1880 aud 1882 to six- 
teen sets. The old machinery is now 
completely replaced by new. The 

Jonathan Sawyer. 

old mill, started in 1832, was in 1S72 
replaced by the present substantial 
structure, which contains eighteen 
sets of machinery, with preparing 
and finishing machinery for forty 
sets in both mills. 

Since 1S66 the attention of these 
noted manufacturers has been entirely 
devoted to the manufacture of fine 
fancy cassimere cloths and suitings. 
Already they have established for 
these goods a foremost place in then- 
class. At the Centennial Exhibition 
at Philadelphia, a medal and diploma 
were awarded the Sawyer goods for 
their "high intrinsic merit." The 
business has, since 1873, been carried 
on as a corporation, having a capital 
of six hundred thousand dollars. 
The corporation consists of the old 
firm of F. A. 1 and J. Sawyer, and 
Charles H. Sawyer, the present agent 
of the establishment. In 1866 this 
company made a bold innovation on 
the method that was so long in vogue 
among manufacturers, of consigning 
their goods to commission houses. 
The undertaking upon which this 
company entered, of selling their own 
goods, was met with great opposi- 
tion ; but their boldness and fore- 
sight have already been justified by 
the success which they have made, 
and the adoption of their methods by 
other manufacturers. This establish- 
ment can now look back upon a half 
century of remarkable history. The 
un marred reputation for strictest in- 
tegrity which these managers have 
won, their far-reaching enterprise, 
and the unsurpassed excellences of 
their fabrics, have enabled them to 
prosperously pass through all the 

financial depressions and panics which 
so many times have swept over the 
country during this long period. 

Mr. Jonathan Sawyer, with his 
vigor of mind and body still unim- 
paired, lives in his elegant mansion, 
which looks out upon a magnificent 
picture of wood and vale and moun- 
tain range, and dowu upon the busy 
scene of his many years of tireless 
industry. He loves his home, in the 
adornment of which his tine taste finds 
full play. When free from business 
he is always there. He loves his 
books, and his conversation shows an 
unusual breadth of reading in science, 
history, and politics. He is possessed 
of a strong, clear intellect, a calm, 
dispassionate judgment, and sympa- 
thies which always bring him to the 
side of the wronged and the suffer- 
ing. At a time when anti-slavery 
sentiments were unpopular, Mr. Saw- 
yer was free in their utterance, and 
was among the first to form the Free- 
soil party. Since the organization 
of the Republican party. Mr. Sawyer 
has been among its strongest sup- 
porters. He has persistent!}* de- 
clined the many offices of honor and 
profit which those acquainted with 
his large intelligence and sagacity 
and stainless honesty have sought to 
confer upon him. He is abundantly 
content to exercise his business pow- 
ers in developing still more the great 
manufactory, and his affections upon 
his large household and his chosen 
friends, and his public spirit in help- 
ing every worthy cause and person in 
the community. 

The children of Mr. Sawyer, all of 
whom have grown up to maturity, 

1 Francis A. 5awytr died .June 16, 1881. 

Jonathan Sawyer, 

are Charles Henry, Mary Elizabeth, 
Francis Asbury, Roswell Douglas, 
Martha Frances, Alice May, Frederic 

Who can estimate the advantages 
which the influence and character of 
one man may exert upon a com- 
munity? A poor boy, a mill-opera- 
tive, perhaps, may settle in a town, 
his advent unheralded ; but within 
him is a force, an executive ability 
and sagacity, which are destined to 
create a vast industry, and materially 
affect many generations. He may 
find some water-power whose latent 
forces have been unutilized since the 
settlement of the country, and by 
the river-bank he may start a mill. 
From small beginnings he builds up 
a great enterprise. Good judgment 
is required to so direct affairs that 
success is assured. Success means 
not only wealth to the proprietor, but 
hundreds of happy homes added to 
the community. 

Over fifty years ago Dover received 
Jonathan Sawyer, then a young man 
full of hope and ambition, houesty 
and executive ability, whose career 
has done so much to advance the 
prosperity of his adopted home. He 
found on Bellamy river a small water- 
power about which to-day is built 
one of the largest and most prosper- 
ous manufacturing establishments 
within New England, the products of 
which are welcomed in a million 
American homes. He gathered about 
him a score of working people at 
first, whose pay was small in those 
early days of free trade. But when 
our government threw its protecting 

arm and fostering care about the in- 
fant industries of the country, the 
establishment prospered and grew. 
Willing hands found ready work. 
The fame of the goods became wide- 
spread ; new mills were built; new 
machinery was introduced ; new ope- 
ratives were employed. The profits 
of the business were embarked in its 
enlargement until five hundred busy 
workmen found employment. While 
their number was increasing the pay 
had doubled. They are a happy and 
contented class. They get good 
wages ; they never strike ; they own 
their own cottages and gardens ; they 
educate their children at the best of 
public schools ; they support the 
church of their choice ; they read the 
newspapers and the books from the 
excellent public library of the city, 
and vote for the candidates whom 
they wish elected. Several genera- 
tions of the same family have worked 
for Mr. Sawyer. 

Other towns have water-powers 
whose forces are as useless now as in 
the days of Passaconaway. The man 
has not yet appeared who will har- 
ness their giant strength and direct it 
to the advantage of himself and the 

Mr. Sawyer is a descendant of 
those Puritans whose unlovely traits 
of character, softened by time and 
the influence of free institutions, have 
developed into those traits which give 
New England and its institutions 
such weight in the Union. Dover 
people from the first were always 
partial to the Puritans, and gladly 
welcomed them to their midst. 

Sep ttlch ral Syni b o Is , 

By C. C. Lord. 

The word sepulchral is derived from 
sepulchre, a grave. Sepulchre is de- 
rived from the Latin sepelire, to bury. 
Hence, etyinologically speaking, the 
word sepulchral conveys no idea of a 
special doctrine, sentiment, or con- 
ception in respect to the grave. Yet 
it is the popular fact that the grave 
is suggestive of gloom v ideas. This 
is why the word sepulchral convey- to 
the popular mind a gloomy meaning. 

In all historic ages, sepulture, or 
burying the dead, has been associated 
with appropriate emblems. Death 
and burial have always conveyed 
some idea enforced by a sepulchral 
symbol. TVe do not propose to re- 
view the subject of these symbols to 
a great extent. AA'e propose mainly 
to discuss some of the more local as- 
pects of the theme. 

In Hopkintou, N.H., the home of 
the writer, there are two very old se- 
pulchral headstones. They are the 
oldest in town. They are in the old 
cemetery on Putney's bill. They 
are in memory of Aaron and Jere- 
miah Kimball, two very early resi- 
dents of the town. On each of tbese 
gravestones is a specimen of "s 
less sculpture." On each is carved a 
grotesque, not to say hideous, repre- 
sentation of a head and a pair of 
wings. In viewing these old grave- 
stones, a question is suggested. Are 
these horrid representations purposely 
such, or does their hideousness result 
from immature art? It is a difficult 
thing to give a direct answer to this 
question. If these gravestones stood 
alone, as constructive products of 

their time, or if all the gravestones 
of their time were just like them, it 
were easy to infer that the sculpture 
is only rude art. But there are other 
eminent gravestones in New Hamp- 
shire. On most or all of them are 
similar hideous figures. Beside the 
frightful head and wings, there are 
the skull and cross-bones, the hour- 
glass, and perchance a word or two 
of ghostly sepulchral sentiment. This 
fact tends to confirm the idea of in- 
tention. It would appear that at least 
the partial purpose was to impress the 
observer and reader with a dread of 

"Whose head and wings are repre- 
sented on these two old gravestones 
on Putney's hill? This is another 
somewhat difficult question. Through 
the study of history, and by construc- 
tive inference, we get a clue to an an- 
swer. This head, these wings, belong 
to old Father Time. He is old Sat- 
urn, who is otherwise Chronos, or 
Time. We find him pictorially repre- 
sented in the New England Primer, 
that once influential juvenile book. 
His figure is attended by this leg- 
end : 

Time cuts down all, 
Both great and small. 

^Ve find him again in the older al- 
manacs, that are preserved in some 
old New Hampshire families. In 
these old pamphlets, be is sometimes 
shown with the familiar legend, as 
follows : 

Time was is past, thou canst not it recall ; 
Time is. thou ha>t, employ the portion small ; 
Time futur- is not, and may never be; 
Time present i* the only time for ttiee. 

Sepulchral Symbols 

Old Father Time is often now a 
pictorial feature of the annual alma- 
nac. He is represented as an old 
tnau, with a flowing beard, a scythe 
(or sickle), an hour-glass, and a 
globe, — some, or all of them. The 
geueral symbolic impression is that 
time rules and ends all things. 

Why is old Father Time repre- 
sented so hideously on the old New 
England gravestones? Here we re- 
vert to our first question. The sub- 
ject of death has a double reference. 
It looks back to what is past, and for- 
ward to what is to come. The sub- 
ject of death is intimately related to 
that of religion, because it is a prom- 
inent part of religion to w * bridge over 
the river of death." Yet this is not 
all the work of religion, though a very 
important part. The earlier religion 
of New Englanders is reputed to have 
been very gloomy. Its devotees were 
impressed by a profound seriousness. 
This was specially true of their relig- 
ion as relating to the subject of death. 
In death were involved great contin- 
gencies. Before the face of death, 
men stood in awful suspense. If 
present joys were considered uncer- 
tain, future joys were more so. In 
theory, the elect were safe. But who 
were the elect? The humble believer 
of years dared not presume too much 
personally. He was not sure that he 
was one of the elect. He hoped he 
was, but he could not prove it. This 
was the situation in Calvinism, at first 
the prevailing religion. Perhaps this 
phase of thought had some direct re- 
lation to the hideous representation 
of old Father Time, transformed into 
the frightful il Angel of Death." 

New England religion as it was has 
passed awav ; as it is, it contains traces 

of the former apparent conceptions of 
death. The writer has been forcibly 
impressed by the direct or indirect 
admissions of two Christian men. 
One was a Methodist clergyman. He 
was delivering a funeral discourse. 
He said in substance, — *' I am alarmed, 
dismayed, appalled, at the certainty 
of death ; I fly to the Christian Sav- 
iour for a refuge." This seemed to 
be the burden of his whole religious 
theme. The other Christian man, of 
impressive speech, was a Baptist dea- 
con. He was leading a week-day 
prayer-meeting.^ Iu offering a prayer 
his first sentence was, " Lord, we 
would realize that we are in a dying 
world." The writer admits that both 
these men impressed him, but more 
when their separate statements were 
put together. In intellectual posi- 
tion, they were both analogous and 
anomalous. In the first instance, it 
would appear that, if there had been 
no such thing as death, neither of 
these men would have been religions. 
Apparently, the doctrine that godli- 
ness is profitable for the life that now 
is, had no place in their thought. In 
this they were analogous. In the sec- 
ond instance, while one apparently 
would gladly flee the subject of death, 
the other as gladly invited it. In this 
they were anomalous. Vv r e have here 
a spectacle of two devotees, both of 
the same religion, in contemplation 
of the subject of death, but viewing 
it from opposite stand-points. ' They 
were like two men looking in opposite 
directions — the one towards the rising 
and the other towards the setting sun. 
This is not a unique conception. All 
subjects seem to be capable of oppo- 
site interpretations. Hence the same 
subject or object in itself seldom con- 


Sepulchral Symbols. 

veys an unmistakable meaning. So 
it is somewhat difficult to look back a 
hundred years or more and tell just 
what the forefathers meant when they 
put old Father Time in such a guise 
upon their tomb-stones. 

Viewing the ancient New England 
religion as predominantly a gloomy 
one, its gloom could not last. The 
law of nature seems to forbid perma- 
nent intense energy in a given direc- 
tion. A very intense man is the one 
most likely to change his views. A 
very enthusiastic advocate of a scheme 
is likely to have just made a change, 
or to be just about to make one. A 
crooked line, rather than a straight 
one, seems to represent the direction 
of the intenser forces of nature. But 
we are digressing. The gloomy as- 
pect of the earlier New England re- 
ligion passed substantially away. 
The incidental causes of this change 
were numerous. The old Calvinism 
had to encounter formidable relig- 
ious rivals. Methodism came shout- 
ing " Salvation's free !" and also sing- 
ing, — 

Keligion never was designed 
To ruake our pleasure? lees. 

Universalism came saying, a As in 
Adam all die, even so in Christ shall 
all be made alive." Unitarianism 
came asserting the power of the 
gospel of love and good works. 
Swedenborgianism mapped out the 
whole geography of the future world, 
and tlien substantially supported the 
Unitarian doctrine of the efficacy of 
good works. These and other sys- 
tems had able advocates, each aiming 
his controversial shafts more or less 
directly at Calvinism. Yet Calvinism 
was not destroyed, but, in being sav- 
ed, was modified. The face of pop- 

ular religion, the aspect of death, was 
changed. The symbol on the grave- 
stone received new touches. The 
figure of old Father Time, transformed 
into the Angel of Death, passed 
away, but not till his face was chang- 
ed. Was this change religiously in- 
tentional, or was it improved art 

People will observe that about the 
close of the last century the face of 
old Father Time grew placid. It was 
no longer the expression of a hideous 
grimace. It became round, moony, 
almost expressionless, excepting its 
inane placidity. There is just such 
a face on the tombstone of the Rev. 
Elijah Fletcher, in the old village 
cemetery of Hopkiuton, N. II. The 
Rev. Mr. Fletcher died in 1786, and 
the town erected a gravestone in his 
memory. In contemplating such an 
engraved face on one of the old New 
England gravestones, the writer is 
reminded of the text. ''He giveth His 
beloved sleep," for the eyes of this 
placid face are closed. Did the 
sculptor think of this text when he 
engraved that stone? The only an- 
swer to this question is inferential. 

The aucient face and wings and 
kindred appurtenances were super- 
seded by another combination of se- 
pulchral symbols. As a rule, the 
headstone or slab that named the 
underlying dead became smaller in 
proportions, more delicately carved, 
and bore the engraved likeness of a 
pillar, surmounted by an urn, by 
which stood a mourning female, the 
overshadowing branches of a weeping 
willow tree covering the scene. Slabs 
of this kind are quite frequently seen 
in our older NewEuglaud graveyards. 
They doubtless represent the progres- 

Sepulchral Symbols. 

yive tendencies of local sculptured 
art. But there is more than this to 
them. The world's life is composite. 
When one dominant feature of social 
life changes, everything is affected by 
it, though such an affected condition 
is not always apparent to every one's 

In the olden time, the popular 
thought upon the great subjects of 
life and death was predominantly 
dogmatic. When it changed it be- 
came sympathetic. The individual 
was no longer swallowed up in the 
immensity of a universal contingency. 
Yet there appears to have been no 
open confession of this fact in the 
ordering of tombstones. The idea 
stole upon men's minds silently, so 
far as we can perceive. The inter- 
pretation of the new sepulchral sym- 
bols is easy. The ancient in cinerary 
urn, once holding the ashes of the 
cremated dead, is the emblem of a 
perpetual tender memory. The mourn- 
ing woman and the gracefully droop- 
ing branches of the weeping willow are 
sufficiently clear in their own sugges- 
tiveness. "We remember and weep 
for the lost," is the language of this 
sculptured picture. The representa- 
tion seems to invite a tear of sympa- 
thy from the casually observing stran- 
ger. The idea is natural, simple, 

In the pursuit of our subject, we 
note an important apparent fact. We 
are now in an era of sepulchral sym- 
bolism that is transitional. The 
marble age of tombstone architecture 
is now prevailing. About half a 
century ago a new era dawned in the 
construction of mementos of the 
dead of our public cemeteries. The 
former slab of slate, hornblendic, 

talcose, or whatever else it may have 
been to those familiar with proper min- 
eral nomenclature, gave place gradu- 
ally and finally to the pure white dolo- 
mitic or real marble. Then came the 
solid monument, occasionally granite, 
but usually marble, with a tendency 
to a constantly increasing stateliness. 
Increasing wealth has doubtless much 
to do with this feature of sepulchral 
symbolism, but not all. We have no 
sympathy with those who see only 
material causes for most earthly 
things. We fain conceive that there 
is something suggestive of sweet pu- 
rity in white marble, as well as some- 
thing of enduring permanence in both 
marble and granite wrought in more 
massive columns. Indeed, there is 
something so completely suggestive 
in white marble alone, that, on its 
advent in our public cemeteries, it 
seemed to be almost or quite sufficient 
without any specially graven symbol. 
For a time of considerable length the 
marble slab or monument contained 
no iuscribed image of anything in 
heaven above or on earth beneath. 
Was this omission merely accidental, 
or was it a deliberate intention? Here 
again we pause in vain for an answer, 
except as we take it from our own 
inferential conclusions. But change 
came again. We will briefly reflect 
upon it. 

With a few exceptions that do not 
promise to become general, the pre- 
vailing tendency of present sepulchral 
symbolism is to copy nature. The 
memorial slab, tablet, or pillar, erect- 
ed in the public cemetery, more likely 
bears the representation of a vine, a 
flower, a bud, a sheaf of wheat, or sim- 
ilar object of nature's beauty or fruit- 
fulness. Very seldom now does one 


Sepulchral Symbols. 

see an emblem of a composite idea, 
implying a strict allegorical thought. 
Simple nature now has predominant 
swav in the symbolism of the tomb. 
Why is this? Are we becoming nat- 
ural, in contradistinction from spirit- 
ual, in our necrological reflections? 
Indeed, it would seem as if we are 
illustrating the idea of the poet Bry- 
ant in his "Thanatopsis :" 

To him who, in the love of Nature, holds 
Communion with her v;si v 'e form?, she speaks 
A various language. For his gayer hours 
She has a voice of gladness, and a smiSe 
And eloquence of beauty ; and she glides 
Into his darker musings with a mild 
And gentle sympathy, that steals away 
Their sharpness ere he is aware. 

Since we must regard change as 
inevitable, we must also remember 
that it is governed by a law. In the 
progress of change, extremes follow 
each other in the end. From an ancient 
dogmatic absorption, we are pass- 
ing to an indefinite ideal reflection. 
Is this change better, or worse? It is 
perhaps both. No time is so wise as 
to need no change, and no time is 
wise enough to ignore the good of 
the past. If thought upon the sub- 
ject of life and death was once too 
intensely artificial, it may now be too 
idly spontaneous. Communion with 
nature is a healthy antidote for mor- 
bidly reflective apprehensions of 
death and the grave, but a simple re- 
sort to the woods and fields will not 
solve all the mighty problems that 
press their right for consideration 
upon the soul. If life is not necessa- 
rily the vale of tears it was once pop- 
ularly considered to be, neither is it 
an unqualified bed of roses. The true 
soul must still think upon, struggle 
with, and ultimately settle the ques- 
tions involved in life and death before 
it can find permanent peace. We 

may smile upon the brink of the 
grave, but we cannot smile it away. 

There is one phase of our subject 
that we must not overlook, especially 
as it is of eminent historic value. 
Assuming that the present time has 
profitable use for a more morally 
heroic sepulchral symbol, we are led 
to the historic and philosophic con- 
templation of an emblem known to 
the whole Christian world, and pre- 
eminently to an important portion of 
it. Not to enter into any special dis- 
cussion of the theological aspects of 
the theme, we cannot ignore the prom- 
inence of the cross as a sepulchral sym- 
bol in all Catholic cemeteries, as well 
as the honor which it holds over the 
graves of adherents of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in other burial- 
places. The cross itself is historical- 
ly older than Christianity, and, as a 
religious emblem, occupies in the 
Christian church the position of an 
adopted sign. The tenacity with 
which the older orders of Chris- 
tianity have clung to the sign of 
the cross illustrates an admirable 
feature of permanence in human 
faith. Other signs and symbols 
pass out of style, but the cross 
remains the same from generation to 
generation. Such a permanency can- 
not reside in the form of the cross, 
one of the simplest in the world, but 
from some absorbing idea associated 
with it. What is this idea? As we 
wander in any Catholic cemetery of 
considerable size, we now and then 
observe a pious legend that indicates 
that the sculptured cross implies 
some future expectation, some es- 
cape from death, or some reward for 
its pains. The essential conceptions 
of the Methodist clergymau and Bap- 

Sep u Jcfi ) 'a 1 Sym boh. 


tist deacon is thus reiterated. But is 
this all? We think not. The Roman 
Catholic and Episcopal churches must 
include members who have thought 
further than this. We must believe 
that there are Catholics, Episcopa- 
lians, and other Christians who have 
advanced as far as the Apostle Paul 
in the contemplation of the symbol- 
ism of the cross. In Galatiaus, 
G : 14, Paul says, " God forbid that I 
should glory save in the cross of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the 
world is crucified unto me, and I unto 
the world." In the next verse, he 
says this subject contemplates only 
44 a new creature." Hereby we ob- 
tain an idea that the cross is em- 
blematic of something greater than 
death, whether we regard death as 
something merely anticipated, or 
merely distanced, in experience. As 
the symbol of life in "a new creat- 
ure," the cross may assure us that 
4 - godliness is profitable unto all 
things, having promise of the life 
that now is and of that which is to 
come," which statement we are fur- 
ther told is tw a faithful saying, and 
worthy of all acceptation." We thus 
draw from the language of 1st Timo- 
thy, 4 : ft, 9. Can any intelligent 
person now fail to see that the cross 
is an emblem of a soulful accomplish- 
ment that finds reward everywhere? 
Therefore, on a tombstone, it may 
mean a thousand times more than is 
sometimes thought. We are not 
making an argument for the univer- 
sal adoption of the cross as a sepul- 
chral symbol, yet we invite an asso- 
ciated healthful moral reflection. Our 
admission already implies the possi- 

ble need of a more heroic moral sign 
in our public cemeteries. If people 
choose the cross, very well; if not, 
let it be a symbol more morally com- 
plete than the ghostly face of old 
Father Time, which only frightens 
us, or the pretty tracing of ivy or 
similar natural form, that allures us 
to nothing of which we have any 
composite idea. If there is no ab- 
stract form in nature or art that suits 
us, there are numbers of grand old 
texts of inexhaustible suggestiveness, 
and they can be decorated with all 
the accessory sculptural ornamenta- 
tion that true art will allow. 

In a word, society needs a fuller 
realization of the truth as it is ex- 
pressed in Festus : 

Life 's move than breath and the qinck round of 

'T is a great spirit and a busy heart. 
We live in deeds, not years; in thoughts, not 

In feelings, not in figures on a dial. 
We should count time by heart-throbs. He most 

Who thinks most, ftols the noblest, acts the best. 

With such a thought fully estab- 
lished in consciousness, we may con- 
template death as hopefully as 31 rs. 
liarbauld, when, in old age, she wrote 
the following : 

Life, we 're been so long together, 

Through pleasant and through cloudy weather, 

"lis hard to part when friends are dear; 

Perhaps r t will cost a sigh, a tear: 

Then steal away, give little warning, 

Chose thine own time. 

Say not Good-night, but in some brighter clime 

Lid me Good-morning. 

Then we may assume that there 
will be nothing graven upon our 
tombstones that will or can frighten 
or allure us from the central truth of 
all human existence. 


Faithful unto Death. 

By William 0. Clougtt, 

Author of "'The Deserted Farm-House, v "That OM House," "That New House," etc., etc. 

The story which I am about to nar- 
rate was revived io my memory dur- 
ing an annual pilgrimage to the hearth 
and home of my childhood. It made a 
deep and lasting impression upon my 
mind. In it I discovered lessons that 
ought not to be lost, but, upon the other 
hand, emphasized and made valuable 
to the generation that is crowding to 
the front. Hence it happened that 
I resolved to clothe it in language and 
give it to the public. 

In-doors everything and everybody 
were cheerful. A bountiful dinuer had 
been served ; the older members of the 
gathering were animated in conversa- 
tion in which family reminiscences were 
the theme ; merry children were in- 
dulging in a frolic, and realizing to the 
fullest degree the happiness they had 
anticipated when visiting at grand- 
mother's ; and a feeling of security* 
temporary exemption from cares, and 
thankfulness for such a reunion pre- 
vailed in all hearts. 

Out-doors everything was unattract- 
ive and forbidding. The trees were 
bare of foliage ; the fields were barren ; 
the wind piped and whistled a melan- 
cholly refrain about the doors and win- 
dows ; the air was stinging cold ; and it 
was an absolute certainty that a mile 
tramp over yonder bleak bill would be 
attended with bodily discomforts. 

Notwithstanding this contrast in my 
surroundings, and in pursuance of a 
resolve I had made before leaving 
home, I boldly set out on a visit to the 
graves of my kindred. I need not at- 
tempt to analyze or emphasize the emo- 

tion, colored by chastened sensibility, 
and made the more impressive by 
strange presentiments, that possessed 
my mind when standing near the mar- 
ble slabs that marked their last resting- 
places. Most men and women have 
been visitors in similar places at some 
period of their lives, and therefore have 
complete knowledge of a perturbation 
that is not easily or satisfactorily de- 
picted. The only circumstance of 
note — for it concerns my story — is, 
that when I was about to retire from 
the sacred enclosure, my eye fell 
upon the following inscription upon a 
white marble gravestone : 

Katherine Pollock* 

Faithful unto Death. 

I paused abruptly, and, standing there 
in the piercing autumn wind, I won- 
dered how many of the yearly visitors 
to this city of the dead — those who 
chanced to read this simple inscrip- 
tion — knew the story of the life for 
which it was a memorial. I won- 
dered who felt the inspiration that 
such an epitaph should animate in a 
sensitive nature ; wondered who of 
all the throng shed a tear, or gave 
even a passing thought, to her of whom 
such a worthy inscription could be 
made. And while I thus wondered, 
the past came vividly before ray eye 
and mind. Katherine Pollock was 
present like a midnight apparition, 
and a memoir of her life, its joys, 
sorrows, and benefactions, its strug- 
gles and its triumphs, was as plain to 

Faithful unto Death. 


me as the printed page. I turned 
sway saddened, but not to forget the 
lesson that had thus come to me. Let 
me relate it. 

The home of Katherine Pollock was 
in a nameless New England farming 
district. Her childhood and youth 
were full to overflowing with the light- 
hearted and merry joys that are the 
experience of the youngest and petted 
member of a family. Nothing in rea- 
son was denied, and yet her sur- 
roundings, education, and home influ- 
ences were such that she developed 
into the best type of serious and ad- 
mirable womanhood. Her friends, 
acquaintances, and admirers were 
many, for be it said of people in gen- 
eral that they are quick to recognize 
and give credit to an evident purpose 
to be useful in a world of suffering 
aud want. That she was Miss, in- 
stead of Madam, all the days of her 
life was not because of any prudish- 
ness which had found lodgment in 
her heart, or narrowness that had 
clouded her soul. It was rather be- 
cause of the fact that she was the 
youngest child of her parents ; that 
her brothers and sisters had married 
before she reached her teens ; aud that 
shortly after she graduated from the 
village academy she was compelled to 
face and realize an inquiry concern- 
ing whither lay her own path of duty. 
To this problem she gave serious 
consideration, and, view it from what 
stand-point she might, excuse herself 
upon every quibble that suggested it- 
self, the solution was always plain and 
the same: "The path you should 
walk in is before you as distinct as 
the light of day. Your life — so much 
of it as duty demands — should be ded- 
icated to the service of vout venerable 

father and mother. You should be 
their cheerful and obedient compan- 
ion ; the joy and sunshine of their 
home ; sight to eyes that are growing 
dim with age ; a worker for hands that 
.must soon cease from toil and hard- 
ships ; a strong staff and support 
for them while they are passing from 
their burdens, anxieties, and cares — 
through the golden Indian summer of 
life — aloug the margin of the dark val- 
ley that leads to the shining shore." 

This was the message that came to 
Katherine. when, on a Christmas Eve 
in the long ago, she knelt at the altar 
rail in the dear little chapel amoug 
the hills of her native place, and in 
meekuess of spirit pleaded not only to 
be shown the path she ought to take, 
but for resignation and strength to 
walk faithfully therein to the end. 
This was the experience of a supreme 
hour of her life ; an hour when light 
from far beyond an earthly vision illu- 
mined her soul, and a solemn sense 
of obligation guided her purpose. 
Then it was, in this sacred hour and 
place, that she unhesitatingly put 
lovers, dreams of maternal happiness, 
visions of a home of her own and all 
that it implies, behind her, and in un- 
feigned earnestness, dedicated herself 
to the service of others. That it was 
a high and noble resolve none shall 

It only remains to be recorded in this 
" connection that Katherine was faith- 
ful to her vows ; that in the four years 
that followed she denied herself the 
society that young people court, 
smothered every ambitious dream of 
rising above the duties of her sur- 
roundings, and in a great measure 
lived apart from the world. Day and 
ui^ht found her at her task. Indeed 


Faithful unto Death. 

she miuisterd to her aged parents as 
only a dutiful daughter can minister 
to those she loves, closed their eyes 
when the messeuger of death came, 
and mourned for them with kindred 

A few months later Katherine bade 
adieu to the old home, — the home 
arouud which so many fond memories 
clustered, where childhood's days had 
been crowned with love and tender- 
ness, and where in mature years she 
had found supreme happiness in the 
consciousness of duty faithfully per- 
formed, — and sought employment in 
the city. For the next three years her 
life was uneventful. Although she 
was a servant at such toil as falls to 
the lot of a saleswoman, she lived 
above the grovelling crowd, and un- 
consciously developed in strength and 
purity of character, until the men and 
women of her acquaintance recog- 
nized in her individuality the ideal 
womanhood. Nothing more need be 
said of those three years of her 

But there came another turning- 
point in Katherine's career. It came 
on a Christmas Eve, as other events 
had come ; came as the result of many 
weeks' reflection, and, coming, found 
her where she was ever to be found in 
that sacred hour, in a church and 
upon bended knees. And this was 
the message, coupled with a com- 
mand: "Sister! It is your country 
that calls, and you must obey. You 
are, therefore, here and now dedica- 
ted to humanity ; you renounce the 
pomp and vanity of the world ; you 
promise to be faithful unto death. 
Go, then, to the tented fields, to carnp 
and hospital ; bind up the wounds of 
your battle-brouzed countrymen; of- 

fer them the consolation that woman 
only can give ; be to them mother, sis- 
ter, counsellor, and frieud, — and such 
peace as the world cauuot give shall 
abide with you." 

Katherine obeyed the command with 
unflinching nerve, and during four 
such years as the history of no other 
country records she was counted 
among the tried and true whose service 
on fields where armies contended, in 
camp, and in hospital no mortal can 
estimate, and to praise which as it de- 
serves language is indeed tame. In 
fact, the privations, hardships, and 
sufferings of the noble and modest 
women who knew no foe : who put the 
same canteen to the lips of dying men 
in blue and gray ; who offered each 
the same consolation in their hours 
of suffering, wrote their last mes- 
sages to dear ones in distant and 
desolate homes, and closed their eyes 
in the sleep that knows no waking, — 
never can be told, and at this dis- 
tance from that sad epoch in our 
national history is not realized, un- 
derstood, or appreciated, save by the 
survivors of the conflict. 

At the close of the war, and follow- 
ing the disbanding of the armies,. 
Katherine Pollock returned to New 
England and to the occupation in 
which she had been engaged four 
years before. Ten years later, worn 
out with toil and broken in health, 
possessed of but little of this world's 
goods, but rich in experience, and 
content in the reflection that she had 
made an honest endeavor to perforin 
her whole duty in accordance with the 
teachings and impulses of her con- 
science, she sought the hillside cot- 
tage where she was born, put it in 
good repair, and settled down to 

Faithful unto Death. 


spend her declining years in peace 
and quiet. 

To Miss Pollock, in the excitement 
of her return!, the day on which she 
hade adieu to the old home seemed 
hut yesterday. Like many another 
wanderer from the old hearthstone, 
when contemplating the scenes and 
acquaintances of youth from the en- 
chantment of distance, things had not 
grown old. This misconception, how- 
ever, was soon dispelled. She dis- 
covered that everybody and every- 
thing in the neighborhood had under- 
gone a change. Children had grown 
out of her remembrance ; of her 
schoolmates, many of the young men 
were buried in the trenches among the 
unknown dead, many slept in yonder 
grave-yard, and above the mound that 
marked their last resting-places tlags 
were floating ; the few that remained 
were, like herself, old and bowed 
down with weight of years ; while the 
young women had married and crone 
to other homes, and were now the 
matrons past middle life. Besides 
these changes she discovered that the 
elderly people of her time had joined 
their kindred beyond the tomb, and 
that even 4t at home " she was among 
strangers ; that none knew the story 
of her life, and none evinced special 
friendship or sympathy for her, while 
not a few looked upon her with sus- 
picion. When she meditated on these 
things and took into account the sac- 
rifices she had made for a cause that 
should have been dear to their hearts, 
she felt humiliated, and became silent 
on all matters concerning her career. 
No one, therefore, save a few, knew 
the story of her life, and even then in 
but a vague way. 

lint Katherine uttered no complaint. 

Calm, dignified, and unassuming, she 
went about such duties as her hands 
found to do, and month after month 
went from house to house in the vil- 
lage — often without recompense or 
even thanks — nursing the sick, and 
offering the consolation that only the 
pure in spirit can offer in the dark 
hours when anxious friends watch 
at the bedside of the dying, or, with 
breaking hearts, stand at the portals 
of a new-made grave. She was a 
ministering angel to the poor and 
needy, a friend to every worthy 
cause, a wise and safe counsellor to 
the young, auda sympathizing visitor 
to those who were burdened with do- 
mestic cares and troubled about the 
future. Thus she made her influence 
felt, and by slow degrees won the 
affection of the people of the commu- 
nity, and impressed all who knew her 
that she was one woman in a thou- 
sand, and worthy of the highest re- 
spect. In a word, everybody acknowl- 
edged her superior qualities of head 
and heart, appreciated her worth, and 
spoke well of her. 

There came a time, hosvever — and 
it is here that the purposes of this 
storv have their beginning — when this 
dear soul was in serious trouble and 
distress of mind, when those who had 
looked upon her as an earthly saint 
saw no longer in her a woman worthy 
of their confidence, when neighbors 
were indifferent, when acquaintances 
passed without recognition, when the 
tongue of scandal was loosened, and 
the community talked little else be- 
sides the disgrace she had brought 
upon the good name of her honored 
parents. All this is but an oft-repeated 
story — oft-repeated, for human nature 
is so made up, and justice is so blind- 


Faithful unto Death. 

cd by what it cannot understand, that 
suspicion increases to grave propor- 
tions by what it feeds upon till the 
original charge, however slight it may 
have been, is lost sight of in the volu- 
minous false evidence that ingenious 
suggestions, thoughtless invention, 
and morbid imaginings have gathered 
about it. 

The circumstance that vexed the 
air of the neighbor!, od in which 
Katheriue Pollock resided is briefly 
stated : One night in August there 
came to her door a man past the age 
of middle life. He was a stranger in 
the place. Those who saw him said 
he was intoxicated, shabbily clothed, 
sick, and evidently a tramp. It was 
clear that he was a person without 
character, without friends, possibly a 
criminal from justice, and of a cer- 
tainty an unfit associate for a woman. 
Miss Pollock admitted him to her 
house ; and, while it was known for 
weeks after that he was still there, 
he was not seen by any soul in the 
neighborhood save the doctor, and 
that professional gentleman had ab- 
solutely nothing to say concerning 
him. Miss Pollock was seldom seen 
abroad, and then her walk was hur- 
ried ; she avoided conversation, and 
appeared strangely. Surely some- 
thing out of the ordinary course of 
events had happened. There was a 
mystery about it all ; and therefore, 
when we take into account the inquis- 
itiveness of the American people, we 
cannot so much wonder that the pub- 
lic was agitated — that people talked. 

This was all there was upon which 
to build a scandal, but it was quite 
enough. A good name had perished 
in a day. The recollections of duty 
nobly and faithfully performed, of the 

thousand and one acts' of kindness 
that involved labor and sacrifice, of 
devotion to the church and communi- 
ty, are no protection from cruel and 
unjust ceusure when once the tide 
sets in the opposite direction. No 
matter what may have beeu the vir- 
tues of the accused, no matter how 
circumspect a life may have been lived, 
no matter in what principles that life 
may have been anchored, remove the 
safeguards but for a moment, and 
evil — so stealthily does it stalk 
abroad — usurps goodness, and sad 
consequences follow. 

Miss Pollock was conscious of the 
situation. The suspicious glances of 
old acquaintances, the cold indiffer- 
ence of those who had been her warm- 
est friends, neglect, slights, words 
that had fallen on her ear when pass- 
ing groups of merry children paus- 
ed in their play and stared after 
her with wondering eyes, — these, and 
many other significant things empha- 
sized the changed attitude of the 
community towards her. She was in- 
deed sorely troubled. 

But why didn't she confide her 
trouble to those whose position in 
the village was such that, if they 
stated emphatically'that there was no 
cause for condemnation, even though 
they withheld a statement of facts, 
all this scandal would cease? Why 
did n't she? Ah ! there is the secret, 
and the secret could not be told. It 
must remain in her bosom, whatever 
the consequences might be. 

And so this lonely woman, standing 
true to what she believed to be duty, 
bore her trial, as she had borne all 
the trials of her life, meekly, confided 
in a higher power than humanity, and, 
in so doing, found herself nearer the 

Faithful unto Death. 


great fountain, the son roc of which 
is within the veil mortal eyes have not 
yet discovered. She was yet a woman, 
with woman's pride and woman's fine 
sense of public sentiment, and not- 
withstanding the higher resolve she 
had made, and her purpose to endure 
martyrdom if necessary, she had hours 
of weakness and despondency when 
her heart almost ceased to beat, and 
she went down into the valley of utter 
despair. Besides all this she felt that 
possibly her unfortunate position had 
a tendency to weaken public morals, 
especially in the young, and this was 
no inconsiderable part of her burden. 

Meanwhile the public pulse beat 
at random, and the public voice was 
raised in mutiny. Some said she was 
harboring an outlaw ; others imag- 
ined that some old lover had inveigled 
himself into her good graces ; a few 
claimed to remember that in the days 
of her youth her name had been asso- 
ciated with that of a young man and 
in some way compromised ; that she 
had been secretly married, and be- 
cause of some disagreement, or censure 
of friends and acquaintances, she had 
given her husband the slip and sought 
forgetfulness and atonement — the 
door to a new life — in the army, where 
she was well paid for her services, and 
later in deeds of mercy and charity. 

Had there been any truth in this 
imagined tale, which there was not, a 
generous-minded public, with pure in- 
tentions, would not have laid stress 
upon it. It would have called to 
miud the story — for some of the older 
people of the village knew it — of her 
devotion to her pareuts, of her sacri- 
fice and service to the men who fought 
battles, and her subsequent labor of 
love among the poor and unfortunate 

in their midst. It would have discov- 
ered that her career had established a 
character so grand in all its impulses 
and so true in all its aspirations that 
no happening should influence their 
judgment, and no unexpected and 
temporarily unexplained circumstance 
cause unfriendly discussion. It would 
have demanded proof of her infidelity 
to her established reputation for rec- 
titude, before making her a target for 
invectives and adverse criticism. In 
a word, her career, known as it must 
have been, should have counted for 
something more than superficial show ; 
it should have been her protection, a 
shield of defence which the voice of 
calumny, and the insidious imagin- 
ings of those who are prone to scan- 
dal, could not penetrate. 

Why was it not thus? Why? We 
fear that it was because the commu- 
nity in which she lived — like commu- 
nities everywhere on the face of the 
earth — had been wrongly educated in 
the social problem. The people have 
one code of morals for man, and quite 
another for woman. Unusual happen- 
ings in a man's life cause but a faint 
ripple upon the surface of society, 
count for nothing in his social stand- 
ing, and are quickly forgotten, while 
a happening of lesser magnitude in 
a woman's life is magnified into un- 
reasonable proportions, and means os- 
tracism never to be atoned. There is 
do equity or justice in this practice. 
To condemn a woman simply because 
she is a woman is as mean as it is crim_ 
inal ; and yet it is the observation of 
all discerning people that the voice of 
the unthinking, unsympathetic multi- 
tude is often pitched in a false key 
when woman's reputation is involved. 
Wish it were not so, persuade your- 


Fait Jif id unto Death. 

self to the contrary as much as you 
please, and yet I but state the truth. 

A few more weeks went by iu which 
there was no change in affairs at Miss 
Pollock's, or in public sentiment. 
The house was not closed to neigh- 
bors or those who should have sought 
admission, but no one called ; mean- 
while the stranger whose coming had 
loosed the tongue of scandal, ceased 
to sun himself on the back piazza, 
and to those who were disturbed by 
what they did not understand, gloom 
like night settled down on all the sur- 

The denouement, however, unex- 
plained and unsatisfactory, came at 
last. The undertaker, the Grand 
Army Post, and the clergyman were 
summoned, brief services were held, 
and the body of the unknown man — 
whose secret, if secret he had, was 
known only to men who kept it locked 
within their own breasts — was buried 
in the soldiers' lot in the village ceme- 

This, in spite of the repeated pro- 
tests of the clergyman and veterans, 
revived and magnified the scandal ten- 
fold, and added a new weight of sor- 
row and embarrassment to Miss Pol- 
lock's position. Her services were no 
longer in demand among sick fami- 
ies ; the young people forsook her; 
and even iu the homes of the poor 
and needy she was made to feel that 
she was not a welcome guest. 

Katherine's only consolation now — 
even the associations and sympathies 
of the church having failed — was in 
those religious principles and devotion- 
al meditations that had been her sup- 
port and abiding happiness since that 
hour in the long ago when the path of 
dutv was shown her, and, although she 

was ostracised, and the world had be- 
come cheerless and unattractive, the 
greatest happiness mortals may know 
illumined her vision and was a joy un- 
speakably grand ; harmonizing her 
thoughts, developing a forgiving spirit, 
and imparting sweeter communion 
than she had ever experienced even 
in the full flush of womanhood, and 
when immersed iu the responsibilities 
of her mission. Thus it was that the 
consciousness of having discharged 
her pledges, accepted at the altar of 
her faith, made her strong even iu 
weakness, and gave her a firm hold 
upon the promises that are the only 
healing balm of a wounded heart. 

The autumn days shortened, the 
brilliant hues of the forest faded, her 
loneliness increased, and sickness ad- 
monished her that the end was com- 
ing ; but her faith buoyed her up, and 
she was thus made equal to the task 
of caring for herself. In these days 
she had many precious moments. As 
her miud weakened, and she drifted 
nearer the margin of the great change, 
her solemn meditations reflected alle- 
gorical tableaux, on which in tearful 
ecstasy she dwelt with increasing ten- 
derness. Passing from visions in 
which past epochs iu her life were un- 
folded, she often came to the imagery 
of a reverie that presented the close 
of her career. It was an unnatural 
experience for a frail woman, and yet 
natural to her who had followed in 
the track of an army in its marches 
and battles. This, then, was the 
realism : 

A woman who had been mustered 
with the legions, whose youth and 
strength had been dedicated to God, 
humanity, and country, who was con- 
scious that she had fought a good 

Faithful unto Death. 


gtrht and won the victory, — she had 
come alone to the dark valley that 
mortals call death. Looking back on 
the journey, she beheld the parents of 
her love and care and the comrades 
who had perished at bloody Ther- 
mopylae, in field and hospital, and, 
dwelling on the vision, she saw a 
great multitude, not of this world, but 
whose shining faces made the dark- 
ness companionate . On the other 
hand was the gloomy valley. Into it 
she descended without hesitation and 
with unfaltering footsteps, when, her 
faith haviug triumphed over her last 
physical fear, a stream of refulgent 
li<iht stole over yonder threatening: 
.peak, beyond which, blazoned in bur- 
nished gold, were the cross and crown, 
and a beckoning host of the blue and 
the gray to whom she had carried the 
canteen when their wounded bodies 
were writhing in pain and their parch- 
ed lips desired only a cup of water. 
Experiences of this character more 
than compensated for the seeming 
loss of good name and the denial of 
earthly sympathy. 

But Miss Pollock's health continued 
to fail. Thanksgiving Day came, and 
although the homes in her neighbor- 
hood were made brighter and hap- 
pier by the presence of kindred and 
friends, it brought no merry voices, 
no warm greetings, no rejoicing to her 
hearth, no balm to her wounded heart. 
no cheer to revive ambition or renew 
desire for the things and associations 
of the world. It was rather a melan- 
cholly event to her, for it confused 
her weakened mind with fluctuating 
emotions concerning the past, and ex- 
cited her relaxed nerves with passion- 
ate longings for something undefined 
: "!'l andefinable. Thus it happened 

that she spent the passing hours of 
the day in a reunion with her loved 
ones — a reunion none the less real be- 
cause of their absence. In dreamy 
contemplation her modest rooms were 
agaiu the scene of the happiest of 
family gatherings. She felt the pres- 
ence of the dear old father and 
mother, who practised economy even 
to self-denial for the comfort of their 
children, and heard their gentle voices 
in words of merriment and words of 
wisdom ; brothers and sisters whom 
she had not heard from since the war 
mingled in happy greetings that 
caused forgetfulness of all the reali- 
ties that shadowed her like a dark 
cloud. And so all the long day loved 
ones from behind the shadowy veil 
reflected childhood's joys aud buoyed 
her above the infirmities of age. 
Thanksgiving Day, therefore, brought 
to Katherine — as to many another 
lonely and sorrowing pilgrim whose 
steps near the shining shore — simply 
another form of communion with the 
invisible, fitting her for a sublime 
transition to the visible. 

The weeks that followed were 
mostly spent in musings, Scripture 
reading, devotion, and companion- 
ship with the angel that seemingly 
hovers about those who are nearing 
the hour of their dissolution. Nothing 
like fear or distrust disturbed the 
serene hours, or reflected a doubt 
concerning the impartial justice that 
awaited her beyond the portals of the 
tomb. An unquestioning faith, an 
abiding trust, a calm and holy peace 
— such peace as the world can neither 
give nor take away — permeated the 
atmosphere of her humble home ; 
while it is given to but few mortals — 
when beincr clothed with immortality 


Faithful unto Death. 

— so completely to forgive and for- 
get the wrongs they have suffered 
from the inhabitants of earth. 

The first intimation I received that 
Katherine — whom I had known from 
the sunny years of childhood, and the 
story of whose devotion to kindred 
and countrymen was familiar to me — 
was forsaken by men and women, 
and was nearing the infinite shore, 
came to me in a letter from a kinswo- 
man. The particulars, meagre though 
they were, made a deep impression 
upon my mind. I became troubled, 
and so controlled by undefinable im- 
pulses, that, being mentally and 
physically incapable of attending to 
my business, I stated to my family 
my resolve to journey to her bedside. 
My decision found hearty approval, 
and, therefore, early candle-light on 
the afternoon of the latter part of 
December found me at the mountain 
village. Two hours later, in com- 
pany with two ladies of the parish, I 
eutered the modest dwelling of the no- 
ble woman in memory of whom I write. 

It was the hallowed hour of Christ- 
mas eve — the hour when the message 
of peace to the world is uppermost in 
the minds of thoughtful people. The 
light burned dim in t Lie sick-room. 
My companions, who had designedly 
entered the room in advance of me, 
stood near the couch of the dying 
woman and spoke only in whispered 
accents. To them the significance of 
the day and the hour had not been 
fully revealed, but to her on whose 
vision the light of earth was waning, 
and the glad sunrise of the life eter- 
nal was dawning iu effulgent bright- 
ness, it was significant of all the 
hopes, emotions, and incentives that 
pilot the way to the gate ajar. 

" What day is this?" Katherine 
inquired feebly. Upon being told 
that it was Christmas Eve, she re- 
plied, **■ Ah ! yes, ray birthday — the 
auniversary of my consecration. Lis- 
ten ! the chimes in yonder tower are 
repeating, ' All journeys end in wel- 
come to the weary.' " 

Presently, speaking softly, hesitat- 
ing for breath, and cautiously weigh- 
ing her words, like one who feels the 
importance of not being misunder- 
stood, she said, — 

11 In this hour, more than twenty- 
five years ago, a sacred duty was 
imposed upon my mind and heart. A 
voice that I could not disobey said to 
me, ' Katherine, your parents are old 
and feeble. They have struggled to- 
gether these many years for you and 
your brothers and sisters. They are 
thrice worthy of your affection and 
your care. You must not forsake 
them. You must give up your ambi- 
tious schemes, and be their hands, 
their eyes, their support.' I obeyed. 
It cost me a severe struggle, but I 
gave up all. I said to the young 
man who had asked me to be his 
wife, that all was over between us. 
I did my duty as I understood it. A 
few years later, my venerable parents 
passed on to their reward, and then I 
was alone in the world. Alone ! no, 
no, not alone, for in the same hour, 
in 18C1, when on my bended knees 
at the altar of my faith, that same 
voice sounded in my ear, and said to 
me, l Katherine, the path of duty is 
plainly before you. Take upon you 
a vow to serve humanity. Go to the 
fields where your sick and wounded 
countrymen need woman's nursing 
and woman's prayers.' I obeyed ; 
and, during four such years as God 

Faithful tivJo Death, 


grant may never again be written in 
the history of my country, followed 
the flag — followed it from the Long 
Bridge and through the Wilderness, 
in victory and defeat, to Appomattox ; 
and in camp and hospital, on the 
dangerous border where the battle 
raged the hardest, I performed such 
service as I could for those who had 
fallen in the fight." 

The dying worcan paused for a 
moment, and yet it was plainly evi- 
dent she had not said all she desired 
to ; that, notwithstanding her strength 
was failing and her sight was grow- 
iug dim, there was still a burden 
upon her mind to which she would 
give oral expression. It was with 
great difficulty that she continued the 

" The world can no longer mistrust 
ray motives or accuse me of vanity," 
she said slowly and solemnly, " and 
therefore I may speak with unre- 
stricted freedom. Let me say to 
you, then, that among the officers 
who commanded victorious battal- 
ions on stormy heights, and in the 
hours when the fate of the nation 
depended upon the courage of her 
sons, was the man who, a few years 
before, in the quiet of country life, 
asked me to be his wife. He was my 
friend ; he was my. companion during 
many despondent hours in those 
eventful years. He was a true man 
and a beau-ideal soldier. I was 
proud of his friendship, proud of his 
record, proud of the grand division 
of heroes whose steps never faltered 
*vhen he led the way." 

Following another painful pause, 
in which the fluttering spark of life 
seemed almost extinguished, she 
said, — 

" The war was over; the bronzed 
veterans of many fields of carnage 
had passed in review for the last 
time : the camp-fire no longer lighted 
the hills and vales of Virginia in 
weird splendor ; the flags were furled ; 
the drums had ceased to echo the 
long roll; and the survivors of the 
conflict were about to return to their 
homes, — when the colonel came to my 
quarters, and, without parade or ado, 
renewed his offer of marriage. 

" I was weary, broken in health, 
weighed down with gloomy forebod- 
ings, and so weaned by years of ser- 
vice in the field from domestic life and 
its desires, that I did not possess suffi- 
cient courage to accept his offer. I 
compelled myself to believe that to 
do so was to wrong a man who de- 
served a better fate than to wed an 
invalid ; that he could have his choice 
among the fairest in the land, for, in 
those days, few women would refuse 
a gallant soldier ; and consequently I 
again sacrificed my own happiness 
for another's. Hard as it was, I said 
'No.' He pleaded, — told me my 
answer, if persisted in, would wreck 
his hopes and happiness ; that ruin 
stared him in the face ; — but for all 
this I was firm and unyielding iu my 
determination. Before we parted, 
however, I promised — little dreaming 
of what the future had in store for 
us — that if ever the time came when 
he was in want or sickness, that if 
misfortune came upon him, and he 
needed a friend of youth, or a com- 
rade of his campaigns, to come to 
my door and I would share with him 
to the last cracker and give him a 
home to the end. 

4i Five mouths ago he came to my 
door. He was in rags and poverty ; 


Faithful unto Death, 

dissipation bad done its worst : the 
end was near. He exacted a pledge 
from me that the name he bore should 
not be exposed, and the place he had 
made in history thereby disgraced. 
All he desired was food, a little of 
woman's nursing and care, and a bed 
upon which to die in peace. I had 
promised him all these, and I faith- 
fully redeemed my pledge. I gave 
him the best I had ; ministered to his 
wants ; invoked for him the consola- 
tions of religion ; cheered his every 
hour; and when the final summons 
came, I closed his eyes in the long 
sleep that knows no waking on the 
shores of time. Less I would not 
have done for any needy veteran of 
the old command ; more I could not 
have done had he been my brother or 
my husband. But you will never 
know his name. It is dead, save as 
it appears, coupled with honor, on the 
pages that recount the heroic achieve- 
ments of those who fought the bat- 
tles of freedom. 

"All that remains to be said," and 
the words grew faint and faltering on 
her lips, u is, that for this I have 
been a condemned outcast in the 
community ; for this I have suffered ; 
for this my years have been cut short. 
But I am satisfied. I feel that I 
served humanity and my country ac- 
cording to my strength aud in the 
light J had ; that I owe the world 
nothing, and, having accomplished 
my last task, I may depart without 
fear. I forgive all who have wronged 
me in word or thought. Comrades," 
and her voice was for the moment 
strong and musical, " of the dear old 
army of the Potomac, brothers of the 
army of Northern Virginia, your faces 
light the way ! " 

In the half hour that followed, no 
words were spoken, and no sound — 
save the harmonious chorus of a 
party of passing village youth, who 
were evidently returning to their 
homes from a service of even-song — 
broke the oppressive stillness. No 
murmuring discord, no distracting 
influences ; an upturned face, white 
as alabaster, on which the light of 
eternal life was reflected, was teach- 
ing its lesson. To me — and I have 
no doubt my companions shared my 
experience — the moments were sub- 
lime in their impressiveness, causing 
my thoughts to drift on the margin 
of invisible realms, and to partake, 
in some degree, of the inspiration 
that comes to mortals in the trans- 
ition to immortality. 

" She is going,'- whispered the 
matron who held her hand. " To the 
companionship of her soldiers," added 
the dear old mother — mother of sol- 
diers living and dead — as she bent 
over the couch of the dying woman in 
an unpremeditated offering of sympa- 
thy to the end. " Faithful unto death. 
Mustered with the brave and true of 
grand armies," responded my lips ; 
and, overcome by an uucontrollable 
emotion, I buried my face in my hand- 
kerchief. Then, as I contemplated 
the things I had seen and heard, there 
burst on my mental vision a tableau, 
the splendor of which excelled in 
beauty all the grandeurs of earth. 
Beyond the narrow confines of that- 
chamber it was morning ; morning 
beyond the dark valley of death, be- 
yond the hills, in Paradise ; and on 
the tropical plain, musical with birds 
and fragrant with flowers, an aged 
father and mother were approaching, 
while near the couch on which lav all 

The Bulozv Plantation. 23 

that was mortal of Katherine Pollock seription — " Faithful unto Death " — 

were shadowy forms io blue and on that marble slab in that cemetery 

gray, surrounding a departing spirit, in the hills. It teaches several valu- 

The scene slowly faded beyond the able lessons. I hope you may dis- 

hills, and here my story ends. cover them, and, if the necessity is 

This, readers and friends, is the yours, make the application, 
story that is told in that simple in- 

Chapter X. 

Late in the afternoon the tired 
party awoke, after a long and re- 
freshing sleep. One has to get 
thoroughly weary to fully appreciate 
the beauties and advantages of slum- 
ber. The ladies had lost that look 
of care and fatigue which had marred 
their lovely features, and now ap- 
peared in full beauty. The gentle- 
men, disguised in the hideous garb 
of Indians, seemed to grow uglier 
with their rest. 

11 If we had seen you by daylight, 
Cousin Clarence, I think we should 
have preferred the tender mercies of 
Osceola to intrusting ourselves to 
you," said Helen. 

"It proves that appearances are 
sometimes deceitful, cousin," replied 
Homer. " Many in the world could 
not value me, save as an Indian, 
until I should resume the garb of 

"I think your dress is very pict- 
uresque," said Isabella. " Were your 
face not so marred by those stains, 
you would be quite an object of 

" Alas, that I am not so now ! " 

" I mean in the sense of a painting 
or a statue," replied Isabella. "Your 

muscles of the arm show great 
strength ! I do admire mauly power 
because I do not have it. We found 
it very convenient in the swamp last 
night, did we not, Helen?" 

As the conversation began, the 
hunter entered the cabin and began 
setting out on a rude bench a simple 
meal, and now invited them to par- 

" Has anything happeued during 
our long sleep, Mr. Shepard?" asked 

"Not much: a party of Indians 
came up this way a few hours ago, 
evidently looking for some one, as 
they were peering into every thicket. 
I saw them in season, and as they 
came this way I sent my bear off to 
hunt for wild honey. It is a trick he 
has for our mutual advantage. I 
give him a piece of wax from the 
comb without honey, and he takes it 
that I am out of that commodity and 
starts out to find a new stock. He 
finds the tree, and I follow him and 
get a supply for both. Well, the 
bear did the business : they were too 
intent on their search to war with old 
Bruin ; but he diverted them from 
this hummock. The}' reasoned, prob- 


The Billow Plantation. 

ably, that white folks and black bears 
would not be biding in the same 

"Are we safe from further intrud- 
ers ? " asked Isabella. 

" I hope so. The Indians are be- 
yond here now, guarding every out- 
let to this peninsula." 

" Why did 3-011 direct us in this 
course, Mr. Shepard, instead of 
sending us direct to New Smyrna?" 
asked Tristan. 

"This was most free from danger. 
I knew you would be pursued in a 
few hours, even before you could 
strike into the Halifax river, and be 
a target for shots from either side 
all the way down to New Smyrna. 
Doubling back on your course puz- 
zled the Indians." 

" Tell us your adventures after 
leaving us on the creek," said Helen. 

"They are easily told, Miss Bulow. 
I went back in time to see the last 
fierce attack of the Indians on the 
sugar-house. It was a glorious sight. 
My revenge was somewhat satisfied 
by the perfect slaughter of the red 
demons. The Yankee trick of using 
scalding water made me almost be- 
tray myself, for I could no.t help 
laughing with joy. Their fury may 
be said now to be at a boiling pitch. 
The walls and roof of the castle were 
alive with Indians, but soon the gal- 
lant defenders cleared it by an unex- 
pected charge. I was not idle. My 
last brand was a long one,— 

As the Indians retired I sent an 
arrow into the roof which I hope 
will be noticed and understood. I 
think your brother, Mr. Hernandez, 
will read it aright if he sees it. 
After this I fell in with a party of 

Indians who seemed bound for the 
council to be held where the old 
chiefs and young ones were assem- 
bled under an old oak." 

" We remember the place, don't 
we, Isabella?" 

"They were there in force, all 
save Osceola. While awaiting his 
return, they bemoaned the fate of 
so many of their warriors who had 
already fallen. They talked in 
hushed whispers of their dreaded 
foe, "The Black Demon," and cursed 
the Yankee captain, to whom they 
charged most of their trouble in the 
assault. Presently Osceola returned 
with his two half-breeds, and, lead- 
ing them before King Philip, told 
them to repeat their story. They 
did so with good effect. They said 
that "The Black Demon" had come 
down into the hummock in a blaze 
of light, with two demons with him. 
They could not describe the chief 
Devil, but his attendants — you gen- 
tlemen — they said, had horns on 
their heads, and huge tusks on each 
side of their faces. They further 
added that the demons, having bound 
them as they were found, seized the 
captives and flew away. King Philip 
said this was another trick of the 
Yankees. Osceola corroborated the 
half-breeds' story by telling of the 
dreaded brand over their heads. At 
last they made up their minds that 
their captives had been led off by 
white men, and immediately large 
parties were sent off in every direc- 
tion to scour the country and bring 
in the fugitives, dead or alive. One 
party went up the King's Road ; 
auother, down the same towards 
New Smyrna. Others were to fol- 
low the Halifax to the outlet ; 

The JBuIo-y Plantation, 

another party was to take the beach, 
and there separate, part going up 
and part going down. They were 
to ,r o as far as the fastest horse. 
could carry one in every direction 
before turning, and then, retracing 
their steps, to search every hiding- 

"You do not give us a very good 
picture of the prospect of escape," 
said Homer. 

u It was further agreed that not a 
gun should be fired until the fugi- 
tives should be discovered. It began 
to look pretty blue then, but I 
thought of my bear, and was glad I 
had directed you in this direction." 

" How are vou going to get us out 

d r? e> 

of this dilemma, my good friend?" 
said Tristan. " We are very depend- 
ent on your judgment." 

4 * I have a plan which we will try 
as soon as it is dark. I figured it 
out last night, but dared not attempt 
it then." 

" Will you explain?" 

14 Certainly, for you will be ex- 
posed to the danger we must incur, 
so should have a voice in the matter. 
Were it not for the ladies I would 
guide you to the old fort at Matan- 
zas Inlet on foot, but, having them 
to consider, I have concluded to try 
another plan." 

44 But why need we change your 
plans?" asked Isabella. "We can 
go where you lead ! " 

44 With the water to your waist, 
Miss Hernandez? " 

"Not very well, sir," said Isabella. 
11 1 think you changed your plans 
very reasonably." 

44 When I left you this morning," 
continued Shepard, 44 I took the boat 
into the main creek, and up the 

creek to where the effect of the salt 
water is lost — where the fresh marsh 
begins. The brakes and reeds are 
very high, and completely hide the 
boat until you are over it. For 
greater safety I covered the rail with 
soft mud from the bottom. It looks 
as if it had been sunken for an age. 
Now I propose to take you across 
the lake in this very boat, and then 
we must carry or drag the boat 
across the haul-over, and take a 
short ocean trip. The ladies can 
take the oars, while we must carry 
the boat. Can we do it, Mr. Her- 

44 1 think so, Mr. Shepard; for 
four of my boat's crew have carried 
it some little distance." 

44 Then, of course, it can be done ! 
There is another source of danger : 
the wild ducks are in great numbers 
on the lake during the night ; they 
must not be disturbed. I will scull 
the boat across, while you lie mo- 
tionless in the bottom." 

During the remainder of the day 
the party remained quietly in the 
cabin ; but they had not long to 
remain, as most of the day had been 
lost in sleep. Just at dark they 
retraced their steps towards the land- 
ing in the run. At dark thev stood 
beneath the overhanging trees where 
they had disembarked but a few 
hours before, and the hunter, after 
a long absence, returned silently 
with the boat. The party took their 
places, Captain Homer taking with 
him his uniform, which Helen agreed 
to carry for him during the portage. 
After they were settled in place, the 
boat began slowly to forge ahead, as 
could be seen by the foliage over- 
head. Although the motive power 


The Bulow Plantation, 

was not visible, the hunter was slow- 
ly propelling the boat from astern. 
Soou they came out into the creek, 
thence into the lake ; the birds swim- 
ming silently awav on either side, in 
no wise alarmed, so gentle and 
steady was their motion. At length 
they felt the boat touch the hard 
sand of the outer ridge, and the 
hunter motioned the two gentlemen 
to follow him, while the ladies re- 
mained in the boat. Stealthily they 
advanced to the crest of the ridge. 
Five Indians were distinctly seen 
immediately in the path, defined 
against the distant horizon. They 
were gathered in a circle, muttering 
in a low tone, and the listeners 
thought they could detect the name 
" Black Demon." Drawing back a 
pace, the hunter, by signs and mo- 
tions, directed Homer to aim at the 
right-hand savage, Tristan at the 
left-hand one, and then to charge 
with tomahawk and knife. Advanc- 
ing again, and none too quickly, for 
the party was about to separate, the 
hunter fired at the central figure, 
the captain's and Tristan's shot 
almost simultaneously echoing out, 
and followed by the second shot 
from the hunter's unerring rifle. 
The tomahawk flew with its certain 
aim from the hunter's hands before 
the fifth savage realized from whence 
came the attack. 

11 Not a moment now is to be lost. 
Back to the boat. Capsize her bow 
on an oar. You two take that, while 
1 will manage the stern." 

Almost with the words the order 
was executed, and then commenced 
the heavy work. Up the steep grade 
in the rear they labored, nor paused 
on the summit, for the wild whoops 

of the avenging savages came rolling 
up and down the coast. The ladies, 
each with an armful of oars, cheered 
them on, and dashed by their side 
into the iucoming surf. The boat 
was righted on the edge of the surf, 
and then launched out into the deeper 
waters through the inner line of 

The ladies were first lifted into the 
boat, and one by one the fugitives 
climbed in and took their places, and 
the boat began to feel the influence 
of the oars when the first band of 
savages came within gun-shot. Their 
very unsteadiness seemed to be a 
protection, for the balls, although 
whistling all about them, did not 
appear to wound any one, and soon 
the boat was guided by the indefat- 
igable hunter over a smooth place 
in the line of the outer breakers, and 
was riding in safety on the long 
ocean swells, out of reach of the 
longest rifle of the Indians. 

wi Are we out of danger?" said 
Homer at length. 

" I think so, captain," returned 

"Then you had better take this 
oar, I reckon." And the captain 
quietly settled down in the bottom 
of the boat. 

" I think he is wounded," said 
Shepard. t; Help me move him to 
the centre, and I will see what I can 
do for him, while you row a little 
further out." 

Things beinor thus arranged and 


the wounded man examined, it was 
found that the bullet had made an 
ugly wound in his right arm, badly 
splintering one of the bones of the 
fore-arm. The exertion of urging 
the boat bevond the reach of the 

The Billow Plantation 


bullets had drawn enormously on his 
iron nerve, but even that had to 
succumb to the excruciating pain, 
and he fainted away. 

The hunter seemed to be as expe- 
rienced in alleviating pain as in caus- 
ing it, and soon after the captain was 
revived, his arm was dressed as well 
as circumstances would permit, and 
he was laid on the grating in the 
stern, with his arm resting on the 
stern seat. 

The old hunter and Tristan then 
resumed the oars, and, keeping the 
North star a little over the starboard 
bow, laid their course parallel with 
the trend of the beach. The long, 
steady strokes took them rapidly 
toward their destination, and at the 
end of three hours Matauzas Inlet 
was abeam. Here a stiff north-east 
breeze struck them with a short sea, 
which, meeting the long rollers from 
the Atlantic directly on the beach, 
made a chop, very uncomfortable for 
the wounded man. 

11 I think we shall have to put into 
Matanzas Inlet," said Shepard. "The 
night looks boisterous, and we may 
do worse." 

" We certainly do not seem to make 
much progress," answered Tristan. 
11 But I did hope to be able to take 
Captain Homer to town to-night." 

"I will warrant, Mr. Hernandez, 
to set his arm as well as any army 
6urgeon, if we cannot obtain one." 

" I think we shall have to accept 
your services this time again, for I 
6ee it is impossible to continue our 
journey by the outside route." 

The boat was now headed for the 
bar, and, fortunately, crossed it with- 
out swamping. 

The bar of the inlets along the 

Southern coast varies in distance 
from the shore from a half mile to 
eight, ten, or twelve miles, according 
to the force of the current discharged 
from the inlet. The bar from Matau- 
zas is about one mile outside the 
southern poiut of Auastasia island. 
Within the bar the water is compara- 
tively quiet. 

Bringing the boat to a stand-still 
in this body of water within the bar, 
but some distance from the shore, 
Shepard began to explain their situa- 

" We cannot go through the Inlet, 
because there will be twenty Indians 
awaiting us. We must beach the 
boat on Anastasia island, as far from 
the Inlet as the north breaker will 
allow. I think the Indians will not 
be on this north side, as they cannot 
bring their ammunition over dry with- 
out a boat." 

So, silently, they skirted inside the 
north breaker, and landed with no 
difficulty at the point designated. 
Leaving the boat drawn up on the 
beach, the party started across the 
sandy island and arrived abreast the 
old fort. 

The sentinel could be heard pacing 
back and forth, but the party were 
too near the Indians to dare to hail. 
Tristan volunteered to swim over to 
the fort, and try to borrow the boat 
without alarming the garrison. Soft- 
ly as he eutered the water and pad- 
dled across, the sentiuel heard him, 
and gave the challenge, — " Who goes 
there? " 

Tristan, just reaching the shore, 
answered softly, — "Captain Homer 
and party, pursued by Indians. Do 
not give the alarm, or vou will ex- 
pose your friends. Allow me to take 


The Bulow Plantation. 

your boat, and I will bring the cap- 
tain over; he is wounded." 

41 Yees can do that, sure, if all the 
articles of war previnted, for the 
captain is a noice man." 

4w Let your corporal know, so ihe 
captain can have a fit reception." 

4i Yes, sor, I will, sor ! " 

Unmooring the boat, Tristan hur- 
riedly paddled back to his friends. 
Homer had been forced by weakness 
from his long walk and wound to 
lie upon the ground. Being assisted 

ing potion soon lulled him off to 
sleep. The ladies were next attend- 
ed to. They had been admiring the 
simple comfort of the quarters, when 
Helen said, — "You must be very com- 
fortable here alone, but we are going 
to upset you a good deal, I fear." 

"Wait a moment, ladies. I have 
foreseen just such an occasion since 
Captain Homer's visit last Monday." 

"What day is this?" 

"This is Saturday, 4 a. m. Why?" 

"It struck me it was some time late 

into the boat, the party all joined in the spring. We have lived very fast 

him, and were quickly rowed across, this week, have we not. Isabella?" 
The garrison were all up and stirring The steward now came in, with 

at the strange news that Pat gave to the beds prepared for another occa- 

the corporal, and even the comman- sion, and spread them with sheets 

dant, Lieut. Barnes, the steward had and pillows taken from Mr. Barnes's 

ventured to call to witness such an capacious mess-chest ; and shortly 

unusual event. The party were wel- after brought in a tent fly, which was 

corned most heartily. Strong men secured to the ceiling overhead in 

assisted the wounded officer to the such a manner as to curtain off a 

lieutenant's quarters, followed by 
Tristan and the ladies. 

The hermit hunter, Andrew Shep- 
ard, was known and liked by every 
man of the force in the fort, and he 
had some difficulty in tearing him- 
self away from the soldiers and non- 

room 12 feet square in one corner of 
the quarters. 

4 * Here you have all the privacy 
my quarters will admit of," said 
Barnes, as he handed the ladies 
toward their apartment. 

44 Oh! Helen, this is heavenly. 

commissioned officers, and only did And sheets, too ! And a real bed ! " 

so on promising to return and give * 4 Yes, 't is all that heart could 

an account of the whole trouble, wish, and more beside. Good-night, 

Lieut. Barnes had Homer laid on his gentlemen ! You need not call us in 

own bed, and, bringing up the med- the morning. We have not had a 

icine chest, offered to set the broken fair night's rest for a week ! " 

arm. But Homer, weak and sick Lieut. Barnes provided for Shep- 

frorn loss of blood, said, — 44 I can't ard, Tristan, and himself for the 

stand experimenting. Let Shepard night, and deferred questioning the 

do it. He says he knows how, and new arrivals until morning. The 

what he says he knows, he knows ! " guards were doubled, and all was 

Shepard was soon at work, first quiet for the night. The Indians 

dressing the wound and then splin- were evidently aware of the arrival 

tericg the arm. At length he was of the party at the old fort, but hesi- 

declared readv for rest, and a sooth- tated to again attack a stone house. 

[To be cor^inued.] 

Tilto n Gc?i ca logy , 

2 9 


There were three men of the name He was a farmer and blacksmith, 
of Tilton in Massachusetts in the also an ensign in the militia, an office 

middle of the seventeenth century, of honor in those early timi 


It is thought that they were brothers, the New Hampshire State and Pro- 
and came to this country from Tilton vincial Papers 6 it is learned that he 
Hill, 1 England. They were, — John was elected to the Provincial assem- 
Tilton, who was in Lynn in 1642; bly in 1693 and 1695. In 1694 he 
Peter Tilton, 2 who was afterwards was employed as a messenger. In 
representative of Hadley, Mass., for 1696 his house was fortified and gar- 
ten years, from 1665, and deacon of risoned, as the King William's War 
the church; and William Tilton, of was then in progress; and the fol- 
Lynn, in 1645, who died in 1653. lowing year he was summoned before 
After the death of William Tiltou, the council, and his claim allowed for 
his widow, Susauna Tilton, married £9 14s 3d for some public service. 
Roger Shaw, of Hampton, and set- In 1698 he sigued the petition asking 

tied in that town. 

Children of William and Susanna Tilton. 

Daniel, 8 born in 1645; settled in Hamp- 

Jacob. 3 settled in Newbury. 

Peter, 8 settled in Lynn. 


Samuel, 4 married Hannah Moulton. 

Abraham. 4 

John Farmer states that from the 
three brothers — Daniel, Jacob, and 
Peter Tilton — have descended the 
Tiltous of the United States. 

Daniel Tilton, son of William and ment could be perfected, and a new 
Susauna Tilton, was born in 1645. act was passed in 1710. Dec. 9, 
Authorities differ as to the place of 1711, forty-seven persons were dis- 
his birth. It is uncertain now v\heth- missed from the old church in Hamp- 
er he was born in Lynn, or in Eng- ton, tk in order to their entering into 
land before his parents migrated, church state in the south part of the 
He "■ came to Hampton about or not town."' December 13, a day of fast- 
long after 1665, for Dec. 23, 1669, ing and prayer was observed, and a 
he there married Mehitabie Sanboru. 

to be annexed to Massachusetts. He- 
was again sent to the assembly in 
1703, and was elected speaker. His 
last term in the assembly was in 1711. 
In 1709 he petitioned for the in- 
corporation of the parish of Hamp- 
ton Falls, and the petition was grant- 
ed provided the newly created parish 
should settle a minister who should 
be acceptable to Rev. John Cotton, 7 
the pastor of the mother church at 
Hampton. But Mr. Cotton died, 
March 10, 1710, before the arrange- 

church organized consisting of fifty- 

1 History of Nottingham, p. 476. 

1 History of Sanbornton, p. 795. 

» History of Raymond, pp. 290, 291. 

* History of Gilmanton. 

« History of Raymond, pp.299, 291. 

» Vols. 2 and 3. 

7 Lawrence's >". U. Churches. 


Til ton Gen ealosrv • 

six persons. Rev. Messrs. Odlin of 
Exeter, Gushing of Salisbury, and 
Gookin of Hampton assisted on the 
occasion. A church edifice had been 
erected before this event. " The 
Rev. Mr. dishing preacht and gath- 
ered the church." " Theophilus Cot- 
ton was ordained Pastour of the 
church of Hamptonfalls, the 2d Jan. 
1712, the Rev d . Mr. Rodgers of Ports- 
mouth giving him the charge, And 
the Rev d . Mr. Gushing of Salisbury 
giving him the Right Hand of Fellow- 

This was the reason why John 
Farmer stated that the parish of 
Hampton Falls was incorporated in 
1712. Daniel Tilton was a resident 
of that part of the old town of Hamp- 
ton south and west of i; Tailor's Riv- 
er," and as one of the petitioners for 
the charter probably attended both 
services, as he was only 67 years of 
age at the time, and was a member 
of the assembly the same year. Dan- 
iel Tilton died Feb. 10, 1714-'15. 


(From manuscript History of Hampton, by Jo^ph 

I. William Tilton was of Lynn. 
His wife was Susanna. He died 
about 1653 or 1654, and his widow 
afterward m. 2 Roger Shaw, of Hamp- 


Samuel (n), m. Hannah Moulton. 
Daniel (in), m. Mehitable Sanborn; d. 
Feb. 10, 171| (171 £), aged 70 y. 

II. Samuel Tilton, son of William 
of Lynn ; in., Dec. 17, 1GC2, Hannah, 
dau. of Moulton. 


1. Hannah, b. Sept. 15, 1663. 

2. William, b. Nov. 11, 1G6S. 

3. John, b. Oct. 2:), 1670. 

III. Daniel Tilton, blacksmith, son 
of William of Lynn; m., Dec. 23, 
1669, Mehitabel, dau. of ■ San- 
born, having come to Hampton to 
work at his trade, two years at least 
before his marriage. 


1. Abigail, b. Oct. 28, 1670; m. Christ- 
opher Page; d. Oct. 4, 1759, ae. 88 y. 11 
m., nearly. 

2. Mary, b. March 9, 1G73; died young. 

3. Samuel (iv), b. Feb. 14, 1674-75 
(14th: 12 mo: 1674); m. Meribah Shaw 
(wid. of Josiali). 

4. Joseph (v), b. March 9, 1677; m. 
1, Margaret Sherburne; m. 2, Elizabeth 

5. Mercy (Mary), b. May 25, 1679 ; m. 
Samuel Elkins. 

6. Daniel, b. Oct. 23, 1680. 

7. David (vi), b. Oct. 30, 1682; m. 
Deborah Batchelder ; d. May 26, 1729, ae. 
46 y. 6 m. 28 d. 

8. Mehitabel, b. Oct. 2, 1687 ; m., May 
14, 1708, Joseph Lawrence. 

9. Hannah, b. April 27, 16S9 ; m. Na- 
thaniel Healey. 

10. Jethro (vn) : ; m. Mary 

11. Josiah. 

IV. Samuel Tilton, son of Daniel 
(3) ; m., Jan. 7, 170?, Meribah 
Shaw. She probably m. 2 Benj. San- 
born, Nov. 7, 1721. [He probably 
settled in Kingston. He was enrolled 
in 1708, and was in Hampton Fails 
in 1709 and 1710]. 


1. Samuel, b. Nov. 1, 1703; in. Abigail 

. Abigail, b. May 20, 1706 ; m. Eben- 
ezer Prescott. 

3. Meribah, b. Dec. 23, 1707 ; m. John 
Fogg; d. Nov. 23, 1795, ae. 87 y. 10 m. 

4. Josiah, b. April 1, 1709; m. Sarah 

Tilt on Genealogy. 


V. Joseph Tilton, captain, son of 
Daniel (iii); m. 1, Dec. 26, 1698, 
Margaret, dau. of Samuel Sherburne, 
who d. Julv 1, 1717, aged 30 ; m. 2, 
Dec. 5, 1717, Elizabeth, widow of 
Caleb Shaw and dau. of Timothy 
Hilliard, who d. April 19, 1724: m. 
3, June 17, 1725, Elizabeth, widow 
of Benjamin Hilliard and dau. of 
Joseph Chase. He was of Hamp- 
ton Falls in 1709 sltx? 1710, and com- 
missioned captain in 1717. He was 
living in Hampton Falls in 1732.] 


1. Sherburne (ix), . Nov. 19, 1699 ; 
m. Anne Hilliard. 

2. John (x), b. June 14, 1702 ; m. Han- 
nah Robie, dau. of Samuel. 

3. Mercy (Mary on church record?), b. 
March 3, 170|; m. (?) Nathan Batch- 

4. Sarah, b. Jan. 25, 170£; m. Elisha 

5. Jonathan (xi). b. June 9, 1708; in. 
Margaret Shaw ; d. Dec. 9, 1797, ae. 89 y. 
5 m. 20 d. 

6. Joseph (xn), b. Sept. 26, 1710; m. 
Elizabeth Weare. 

7. Daniel, b. Oct. 4, 1718; d. Dec. 16, 

8. Timothy, b. Oct. 4, 1718. 

9. Margaret, b. March 21 (31), 1720. 
10. Joanna, b. July 22, 1722. 

VI. David Tilton, son of Daniel 
(in) ; m., Jan. 8, 170^, Deborah, 
dau. of Nathaniel Batchelder. (She 
m. 2, June 14, 1733, Dea. Jo. Fel- 
lows, of Ipswich. He was a soldier 
in 1708, and a resident of Hampton 
Falls in 1709, 1710, 1717.) 


1. Xathan (xnr), b. Aug. 14. 1709 (8?) ; 
m. Hannah Green; d. Oct. 21, 1793, ae. 

2. Elizabeth b. April 4, 1710; m. Rich- 
ard Xason. 

3. Deborab, b. March 1, 1712; m. Jon- 
athan Swett, July 19, 1733. 

4. Hannah, b. June 3, 1714; m. Benja- 
min Sanborn, Dec. 27, 1733. 

5. Margaret, b. July 23, 1717; m. Jon- 
athan Green. 

6. Rachel, b. Aug. 16, 1719; d. March 
4, 172$ . 

7. Huldah, b. Nov. 27, 1722. 

8. Rachel, b. Jan. 22, 172|. 

9. David, b. March 14, 172$. 

10. Abigail, b. (posthumous) May 31,1729. 

VII. Jethro Tilton, son of Daniel 
(in) ; m. Nov. 4, 1712, Mary (b. 
March 28, 1691) ; d. 1771, ae. 82. 


1. Dorothy, b. Nov. 25, 1713; m. 1, 
James Prescott ; m. 2, Oct. 25, 1736, Benj. 

2. John, b. Feb. 17, 1717. 

3. Mary, b. March 28, 1719. 

4. Anna, b. May 14, 1721. 

5. Daniel, b. May 14, 1723; d. Jan. 7, 

6. Benjamin (xv), b. July 14, 1725; m. 
Mary Green. 

7. Lydia, b. June 10, 1727. 
8.. Elizabeth, b. June 9, 1729. 

VIII. Samuel Tilton, sou of Sam- 
uel (iv) ; m. Jan. 31, 1731, Abigail 



1. Meribah, b. 1732; d. young. 

2. Jethro Batchelder, b. 1736. 

3. Meribah, b. 1739. 

4. Sarah, b. 1741. 

5. Reuben, b. 1743. 

6. Abigail, b. 1746. 

7. Lydia, b. 1748. 

8. Elizabeth, b. . 

9. Ebenezer, b. 1752. 
10. Daniel, b. 1754. 

IX. Sherburne Tilton, son of Capt. 
Joseph (v) : m. April 14. 1726, Anne, 
dau. of Benjamin Hilliard. 


Tilt on Genealogy. 


1. Samuel, b. June 11, 1727; d. Oct. 
6, 1727. 

2. Anna, b. Jan. 23, 172f. 

3. Sherburne, b. 1732 ; d! Dec. 18, 1733. 

4. Sherburne, b. July 20, 1734. 

X. John Tilton, son of Capt. Jo- 
seph (v) ; m. Feb. 19, 1724, Hannah, 
dau. of Samuel Robie. 

Ch ildren . 

1. Margaret, b. Feb. 17, 172£. 

2. Mary, b. April 6, 1726. 

3. Abigail, b. Oct. 1, 1728. 

4. Hannah, b. July 9, 1730. 

5. John, b. Feb. 9, 1732. 

6. Elizabeth, b. Nov. 20, 1734. 

7. John, b. 1730 (L735?). 

8. Jeremiah. 

9. David. 

10. Nathaniel. 

11. Joseph. 

XI. Jonathan Tilton, son of Capt. 
Joseph (v) ; rn. Aug. 22, 1728, Mar- 
garet Shaw, dau. of Caleb Shaw. 


1. Daniel, b. 1729. 

2. Jacob, b. 1730; d. young. 

3. Jonathan, b. 1734. 

4. Jacob, b. 1737. 

5. Jonathan, b. 1739. 

6. Caleb (xvin), b. Jan. 12, 1742; m. 
Mary Prescott. 

7. Joseph (xxvi), b. Sept. 25, 1744. 
Studied medicine with Dr. Amrai R. Cut- 
ter, of Portsmouth; m. Catharine, dau. of 
John Sbackford, of Portsmouth, Sept. 10, 
17C7. She was born in Portsmouth, Oct. 
12, 1745; d. Jan. 19, 1812. He d. Dec. 
5, 1837. Settled in Exeter in 1767, and 
was a surgeon in the Revolutionary army. 

8. Josiah, b. 1747. 

9. Peter, b. 1754. 

XII. Joseph Tilton, son of Capt. 
Joseph (v) ; ra. Dec. 13, 1733. Eliza- 
beth, dau. of Nathaniel Weare. 


1. Susanna, b. April 2, 173G. 

2. Elijah, b. July 24, 1738; d. young. 

3. Betsy, b. June 18, 1741. 

4. Nathan Weare, b. Aug. 13, 1745. 

5. Elijah, b. March 16, 1749. 

6. Mary, b. Aug. 2, 1751 ; m. Nov. 28, 
1769, William Coffin. 

XIII. Nathan Tilton, son of Da- 
vid (vi) ; m. Nov. 23, 1732, Hannah, 
dau. of Benjamin Green. 


1. Nathan, b. Feb. 4, 1734. 

2. Benjamin, b. Jan. 2, 1736. 

3. David, b. Dec. 19, 173S. 

4. Phinehas, b. Dec. 27, 1741; lived in 

5. Nathaniel, b. Nov. 7, 1744. 

6. Stephen, b. Jan. 22, 1748 ; m. Han- 
nah Green. 

7. Ebenezer, b. April 23, 1757. 

XY. Benjamin Tilton, son of Je- 
thro (vn) ; m. Nov. 14, 1749, Mary, 
dau. of Benj. Green. She was born 
March 7, 1728 ; d. at Epping, Oct. 
25, 1809. 


1. Michael, b. Sept. 27, 1750; m. Lucy 

2. John, b. Feb. 2, 1751. 

3. Molly, b. Dec. 31, 1753. 

4. Elizabeth, b. Jan. 14, 1756. 

5. Jemima, b. Feb. 14, 1758. 

6. Rhoda, b. Feb. 24, 17G0 ; d. young. 

7. Benjamin, b. June 22, 1762. 

8. Rhoda, b. Nov. 24, 1764; m. Jona- 
than Cram. 

9. Eunice, b. Nov. 24, 1764; m. Jere- 
miah Lane. 

10. Enoch, b. Sept. 17, 1767; m. Molly 

XVI. Ebenezer Tilton, physician, 
son of Nathan (Samuel?) ; m. Mary, 
and settled in Hampton. His wife 
died Oct. 6, 1798, aged 48. 

Til to n Gen ca logy 



1. Ebenezer, b. April 20, 1773. 

2. Susanna, b. May 3, 1775 ; m. Aug. 
10, 1801, John Robinson, of Epsom. 

S. Anna, b. June 27, 1777. 

4. John, b. Jan. 27, 17S1. 

5. Robert, b. 1786. 

XVII. Reuben Tilton, sou of (Sain- 
nel?) ; m. in 1767, Mary Pavier. 


1. Josiah, b. 1767. 

2. Mary, b. 1760. 

XVJII. Caleb Tilton, son of Jona- 
than ; ra. May 16, 1765, Mary, dan. 
of Samuel and Sarah (Dalton) Pres- Prescott. 
eott, who was bom July 26, 1746, 
and lived in Hampton Falls. 


1. Anna, b. 1743 ; d. young. 

2. Mary, b. 1741. 

3. Anna, b. 1746. 

4. Sarah, b. 1747. 

5. Dolly, b. 1751. 

6. Lucretia. b. 1753. 

7. Lydia, b. 1755. 

8. John, b. 1759. 

9. Daniel, b. 1761. 
10. Isaiah, b. 1763. 

XXII. Michael Tilton, son of Ben- 
jamin (xv) ; m. Dec. 30, 1777, Lucy 



1. Molly, b. Sept. 20, 1778; m. Josiah 



2. Elizabeth, b. Nov. 9, .1782; 
ben Batchelder. 

3. Benjamin Marston. b. May 11, 1763; 
m. Mary Marston. 



1. Sarah, b. Feb. 25, 1766. 

2. Molly, b. Au^. 9, 1760; 
Enoch Tilton; d. July 11', 1814. 

3. Anne, b. Sept. 4, 1771. 

4. Joseph, b. July 11, 1783. 

XIX. Samuel Tilton ; m. 
or 1767, Joanna Batchelder. 


1. Mary, b. 1768; mother of Capt. Caleb 
Towle, who was born March 29, 1790. 

2. Samuel, b. 1769; d. young. 

3. John, b. 1770 (xxvn?). 

4. Ebenezer, b. 1772 or 1773. 

5. Joanua, b. 1775. 

0. David, b. 1777. 
7. Samuel, b. 1779. 
• v . Joseph, b. 1781. 

XX. Ebenezer Tilton 
(or Sarah). 


1. Mary, b. 1800. 

bod Robie. 

XXV. Enoch Tilton, son of Beu- 
jamin (xv) ; m. Jan. 30. 1789, Mol- 
ly, dau. of Caleb Tilton (xviii). 


1. James, b. May 19, 1790. 

2. Sally, b. March 15, 1793. 

3. Caleb, b. March 19, 1795. 

4. Molly, b. Aug. 8, 1797. 

5. Jemima, b. Nov. 17. 1799. 

6. Nancy, b. Dec. 7, 1801. 

7. Enoch, b. Feb. 28, 1805. 

8. Josiah, b. Aug. 4, 1819. 

XXVI. Children of Dr. Joseph 
and Catharine (Sbackford) Tilton. 

1. Catharine, b. Sept. 18, 1768 ; m., Xov. 
17, 1893, Xathaniel Parker. 

2. Dorothy, h. April 20, 1770 ; m. Nov. 
20, 1791, J. F. Sleeper. 

3. John Shackford, b. Oct. 5, 1772 ; lost 
at sea in October, 1810. 

4. Joseph, b. April 15, 1776; d. Sept. 

13, 1777. 

v 5. Charlotte, b. June 1, 1779; m. Na- 

XXI. John Tilton, son of Jethro ( ?) ; thaniel ?age> 

m. in 1742, Sarah, dau. of Col. Icha- 6 . Caroline, b. May 30, 1781; m. Rob- 
ert Cross, of Portland. 

m. Marv 


Dover Gubernatorial Candidates in iSj2, 

• XXVII. John Til ton, son of Sam- 
uei'Tilton, of Hampton Falls; ra, 
June 30, 1791, Patty (dau. of Win- 
throp Odlin), who died Sept. 7, 18*23. 


1. John Folsom, b. Dec. 8, 1792. 

2. Ebenezer, b. Dec. 29, 1795. 

3. Samuel, b. Nov. 28, 1797. 

4. Winthrop Odlin, b. March 7. 1800. 

5. Amy Folsom, b. May o, 1802. 

6. William, b. July 26, 1801. 

7. Elizabeth, b. Aug. 18, 1806.-- 

8. Joseph, b. July 22, 1809. 

9. Sarah Ann, b. Aug. 1, 1813; d. in 

XXVIII. Joseph Tilton, b. in East 
Kingston, 1774, settled in Exeter as 
a lawyer in 1809 ; member of legisla 
ture, 1814 to 1823 ; was a power in 


Nancv, dau. of Col. 

Samuel Folsom. He died March 28, 
1856. aged 82. 

XXIX. John Tilton, b. 1736(1732?), 
son of John Tilton (x), of Kensing- 
ton ; m. Hannah Clifford, May 19, 
1761; resided in Gilmanton ; died 
Jan. 25. 1818, aged 82. She died 
March 28, 1829, aged 80. 


1. Samuel. 

2. Elizabeth. 

3. Nathaniel. 

4. Judith. 

5. Hannah. 

6. Abigail. 

7. Mary. 

8. John. 

9. Richard. 

10. David. 

11. Sarah. 

12. Dollv. 

By Hermox TV". Stevens. 

It is the second Tuesday of March, 
the year 1852. The skies are over- 
cast, the wind being in the south- 
east, and rain falling. At his oflice 
door, in a little wooden building nest- 
ed between two brick factor}' struct- 
ures, and opposite the Marstou block, 
stands Dr. Noah Martin, in his bottle- 
green suit. 

A ruddy and well preserved gen- 
tleman of fifty-one, with a presence 
above average height, legs quite 
short, and very portly, having a hand- 
some, pleasant countenance, looking 
hospitality and kindliness towards 
friends, and a quiet but not easily 
solvable reserve towards the rest of 
the world. He has thin hair, which 
may have been tawny in youth ; looks 

directly foreright, as passers-by would 
imagine, but observing all that ap- 
pears on either side of him without 
turning his short neck ; moves with 
a measured step, invariably carrying 
a large ivory-headed cane ; his level 
eyes, always on the ladies, are calm, 
and full of the dexterities acquired 
by sagacious experience with human- 
ity in weakness : his silver voice and 
persuasive rhetoric are never dis- 
turbed ; every little act, such as stop- 
ping to shake hands, is executed 
with as much exactness as if postur- 
ing before a convention. He is a 
Democrat of democrats, and no Whig 
trusts the frank look in his eyes, nor 
the noble bearing in his figure. All 
in all. he is one of the most remark- 


Dover Gubernatorial Candidates in I$j2. 35 

able exhibitions of professional dig- 
nity, gentlemanly refinement, and 
complete self-complacency to be found 
in his native state. He is considered 
one of the best physicians and sur- 
geons in New England. 

Since sunrise, when he read 33° on 
his thermometer, the doctor has been 
nervous. It is now 9 a. m., and he 
looks earnestly up and down Central 
street. There is little to obstruct the 
sight either north or south, though 
his view commands everything from 
Oliver Wyatt's store, opposite the 
American House, to A. C. Smith's 
carpeting and crockery warerooms in 
the Corporation block. There are no 
dealers on the Square, though a 
crowd is gathering Dear the town 
hall. The doctor's eyes light on S. 
S. Clark and J. D. Guppey, who are 
coming from the selectmen's office, 
where they have been to get their 
pay for auditing the town accounts ; 
and then he peers mistrustfully over 
towards the redoubtable B. Frank 
Guppey's office. In the meanwhile, 
Col. John Stackpole, Moses Read, 
Charles M. Warren, John Goweu, 
Alvah Champion, H. W". N. Grover, 
and William B. Lyman, regularly ap- 
pointed police officers, go by, not 
without a pleasant " Good morning !" 
l>ut the worthy doctor is hatless, and 
apparently none of the people in 
sight greatly interest him, ^o with a 
sudden start he steps backward and 
closes the door, shutting out the 
gusts that come whirling from the 
Landing and New Dublin. Certainly 
he expected somebody ; and at the 
very moment of withdrawing another 
person appeared, nearly half way be- 
tween •• Shapleigh's " and the store 
of Julia E. Bickford. 

Tall, stately but for a cant of the 
magnificent head, dress wholly of 
black, hands long and slender, face 
large, and gentle and kindly when 
the eyes rest on children. He has no 
literary pretensions, but the specta- 
cled Dartmouth man, who has been 
graduated from Andover Theological 
Seminary, now shaking him by the 
hand, will not talk long without find- 
ing that he fs a scholar, and a ripe 
and good one. Perhaps the doctor 
was looking for this man. If so, he 
was satisfied to let Thomas E. Saw- 
yer, the Whig candidate for governor, 
pass by. It is not certain that an in- 
terview would have been productive 
of good feeling, for party lines are 
sharply drawn, and political intoler- 
ance is now more than ever a terrible 
enemy to candor and magnanimity. 

The doctor is at length inside the 
the little office. Little indeed, for so 
far as dimensions go it is but half a 
shade more extensive than a stage 
coach. Yet, despite the dirt of Dem- 
ocratic boots borne in from every 
county, there is nothing like disorder, 
everywhere spotless perfection, furni- 
ture without scratch or abrasure, 
books resting on leather cushioned 
edges to preserve the bindings — 
everything in harmony. The doctor 
does not profess to eutertain Moham- 
medan views regarding strong waters, 
though far from being convivial in 
his habits, — so it does not surprise 
Mark F. Nason, a young and eager 
Democrat, anxious for something to 
do, when he finds a sort of indistinct, 
slightly piquant, perfume hovering in 
the room; and the big-bellied flagon, 
tagged " Lyon's Pure Ohio," elicits 
uo surprise, though he does examine 
with some wonder a dainty card lying 


Jfcij. Samuel Young 

near by, containing the address of a 
well known heraldic chaser, crest and 
coat-of-arms furnisher. 

The mature man and undeveloped 
youth talk together. The difference 
between them is great. With a legal 
training the elder might be the lead- 
ing New Hampshire Democrat. The 
younger has an open face, simple 
manners, and a certain roughness 
which does not exeh-le good nature. 
The one is calm and calculating, 
the other eager and impetuous. A 
child would unhesitatingly make 
choice of the younger for a confidant. 
Week by week the elder has read the 
Whig attacks on his reputation, and 
the vehement criticisms on his party's 
platforms. Night by night he has 
talked the ticket over with Charles E. 
Bartlett of Great Falls, John R. Red- 
ding of Portsmouth, Dr. Kittredge of 
Newmarket, and W. J. Butterfield 
of Concord; and has joined in no 
end of canvassing reports with Dr. 
Joseph H. Smith, Dr. P. A. Stack- 
pole, Pat. Burns, Dr. Cowan, and 
George Mc Daniel. This is all over, 

and the result in the state is not un- 
certain, but he would fain secure a 
plurality over Sawyer in Dover. So 
Nason listens, and goes out to find 
Bill Peirce, John and Andrew Tuttle, 
Jake Crockett, Sam Plummer, Charles 
Dunn, and the Guppeys. 

An hour later Mr. Sawyer calls the 
meeting to order. The Democrats 
complain that he ought not to receive 
and count" his own votes, and the 
Whigs retort that a year ago Dr. 
Kittredge not only received and 
counted his own votes, but actually 
declared himself elected to congress. 
Both sides work manfully and per- 
sistently. When night comes, the 
whole ticket has been elected at the 
first ballot — a thing which has not 
before occurred since 1841. The 
largest Whig vote ever polled in Dov- 
er makes the grim moderator smile. 
And now the doctor goes home a lit- 
tle sad, though to-morrow he will 
learn that the Free-soil Democrats of 
1S51 have this year gone back to 
their old party, making his election 


Delegate to the Convention of 17 SS. for Bath (Concord 1 ), Lyman, Landaff, Littleton, 
and Dalton — the Ammonoosuc Class. 

By Samuel Emery. 

The fifteeu sons and daughters of were among the earliest and the stur- 
Major John Young, 2 of Haverhill, diest settlers of the valley of the 
Mass., who had been an olticer well Ammonoosue. The eldest was Sam- 
known in the French-Indian War, uel, who held a conspicuous position 

1 Concord alias Gunthwaite. is not named as a part of the class, but its population was larger than any 
town in the valley except Bath, and one delegate was elected from it. We infer, therefore, the omis- 
sion in the list of towns constituting the class is a clerical error of somebody in transcription. 

*The children of Major John and Hannah (Getchell) Young, of Haverhill, Mass., were Samuel. John, 
Jesse; Susannah. Nathaniel, Joshua, Caleb, I>uvid, Susanna, Iriphena, Sarah, Ruth, Joseph, Benjamin, 
and L'olly. 

Maj\ Samuel Young 

in civil and military affairs in North- 
ern New Hampshire. From the very 
outset he stood manfully for the 
cause of independence. The Revo- 
lutionary rolls make the following 
mention of him : 

He was made sergeant of a compa- 
ny of sixty men, raised by vote of 
the Provincial Congress of date May 
2C>, 1775, for the public defence, in 
the north-westerly part of the state. 
He was mustered into this service 
July 29, 1775. 

Iu 1776-'78, he appears by the offi- 
cial rolls to have been a captain in 
Col. Timothy Bedel's regiment. His 
brother Jesse is named by the same 
authority as a lieutenant in Captain 
William Tarlton's company. 

Besides the two already named, 
five other brothers in this family 
served in the war for independence. 

There is an interesting petitiou 
from Samuel Young, dated June 12, 
1707, in the state archives. It is 
printed in Hammond's Town Papers, 
Vol. 2, page 413. Among other in- 
teresting statements in the paper he 
says he purchased 26 guus for the use 
of men in his company, wiio were not 
supplied, for the Canadian campaign 
of 177G. lie paid from eight to 
twelve dollars apiece for them. He 
asked iu this petition to be reimburs- 
ed, and at the June session the 
state made an arrangement of the 
matter with him. 

In the military service it is said he 
was a man of conspicuous ability. 
He had courage, nerve, and endur- 
ance. On the return of oue of the 
Canadian expeditions, when the men, 
overcome by hunger and fatigue, 
would lie down to die, Capt. Young, 
by his own example of fortitude, by 

his words of encouragement, and by 
force when other resources failed, 
actually drove them on and saved the 
lives of many. 

Subsequent to the war he was com- 
missioned a major in the militia — 
whence the. title which he bore iu his 
later years. 

In 17S6 Capt. Young was deputed 
to proceed to Portsmouth, and, in 
concert with his brother, Capt. John 
Young, then representative of the 
class, to procure redress and relief, 
from the Assembly, from the town's 
burdens of excessive and unjust tax- 
ation. An extract from their petition 
will vividly portray the condition of 
this frontier community in this Revo- 
lutionary period. 

" When the noise of war was heard 
in this part of the state, almost every 
man in town turned out in defence 
of the country, and marched to Cana- 
da under the command of Gen 1 Mont- 
gomery for the term of six months, — 
that a number of them enlisted in the 
service for the year 1776 — at the close 
of which several persons enlisted for 
three years and during the war — 
some of whom died in service, and 
left their families in very poor cir- 
cumstances — * * * that we living 
in the exterior part of the state, ex- 
posed to the savage enemy, who were 
daily scouting among us, having the 
promise of bounties for prisoners' 
scalps, 4c, were many times called 
out on alarms, leaving women and 
children to hide in the woods, to suf- 
fer the fear of being slain by the ene- 
my — that we built a fort in said town 
(which cost at least one hundred 
pounds) to shelter ourselves in, at 
our own expense — that had it not 
been for poverty (which in many in- 


Maj\ Samuel 2'oung. 

stances is man's only protection) we 
should have left the town, and very 
probably the state, long before the 
close of the war." Hammond's Town 
Papers. Vol. 2, page 406. 

He was constantly in intimate and 
responsible relations with Schuyler and 
other distinguished patriot leaders. 

Samuel Young was bom in Haver- 
hill, Mass., July 19, 1747. He died 
in 1805, just past the prime of life. 
From the time he came to Lisbon till 
his death probably no man had more 
influence among his townsmen, or a 
more prominent part in the manage- 
ment of affairs, than Major Samuel 
Young. He is named in the local rec- 
ords in. all kinds of official position. 

John Young was a leader in what 
was known as the Vermont movement, 
as a result of which Concord or Gun- 
thwaite, as the present town of Lis- 
bon was from 1764 to 1787 variously 
known, according as the rival sets of 
proprietors, claiming under the an- 
tagonistic grants of Benning Went- 
worth and John Wentworth, were in 
te m porary a see nd e n cy . 

The town did not acknowledge the 
state authority of New Hampshire 
during the Revolutionary period, and 
was one of the historic %i sixteen 
towns " of the Vermont union. 

It does not appear that Samuel 
Young was any partisan of Vermont. 
Perhaps we have the right to infer, 
from au allusion to the ; * Vermont 
faction," in a petition dated June 12, 
1787 (reproduced in Hammond's 
Town Papers, Vol. 2, page 407), in 
which he joined as a subscriber, that 
he was an opponent of that faction. 

The respective claimants under the 
rival grants of Concord and Gun- 
thwaite gave rise to other troublesome 

divisions among the townspeople. 
Probably the two controversies here 
mentioned occasioned the principal 
local issues and politics. 

In both of these contests, which 
had large importance in their time, 
Samuel Young had the good sense to 
be on the successful side. He was 
one of the best educated men in the 
settlement, and he brought consider- 
able capital into it. With his native 
abilities he was thus enabled at once 
to assume a commanding position in 
that section of the state. He was a 
man of generous nature. In public 
office he always acted unselfishly for 
the public interest, and neighborly 
helpfulness and encouragement mark- 
ed all his relations and dealings with 
his fellows in private affairs. 

One who knew him said, — "No 
one knows what would have become 
of the first settlers of his town had it 
not been for him. He employed them 
in clearing land, and paid them in pro- 
visions. The virgin soil along the 
intervals of the Ammonoosuc was 
very productive, and labor brought 
good returns. In the year 1801 he 
furnished employment for all the peo- 
ple in his vicinity in the way of clear- 
ing 100 acres of land. The succeeding 
year he raised 2,000 bushels of wheat, 
which supplied the people in all the 
surrounding country with bread stuff. 
He not infrequently raised from 500 
to 800 bushels of corn, and, in time 
of scarcity, when grain commanded 
extravagant prices, before taking his 
surplus to market, he reserved a suffi- 
cient quantity for the needs of his 
neighbors, selling it to them at the 
prices which obtained in ordinary 
years. It was his custom annually 
to invite all his poor neighbors to 

Caft. Isaac Patterson. 


Thanksgiving dinner, taking great 
care to entertain them agreeably, and 
to provide them with something sub- 
stantia! to take home." 

He was correct in his business meth- 
ods. His handwriting was very plain, 
legible, and business-like, specimens 
of it being still preserved, and he was 
a ready and effective public speaker. 

He was twice married. His first 
wife, whom he espoused in 1764, bore 
him three children ; and the second, 
Abigail Thompson, of Londonderry, 
with whom he was married in 1784:, 
bore him seven. 

Their son Ira became prominent 
as a lawyer in Grafton and Coos 
counties, and in military affairs. In 
1835 he commanded the 24th regi- 
ment, which was designated to quell 
the Indian Stream insurrection, and 
he was subsequently brigadier-general 
Gth brigade. 

Two of Gen. Ira Young's sons — 
H. D. F. Young and Richard O. 
Young — served in the War of the Re- 
bellion, the latter losing his life, and 
the former a captain in the second 
regiment. Moses Young, auother 
son of Samuel Young, was a colonel 
in the state militia. 

Major Samuel Young was the rep- 
resentative of the Ammouoosuc Class 
in the legislature of 17SS, aud in that 
of 1790. 

In 1792, a new classification having 
been made, he was representative of 
the Concord Class in the legislature of 
1794, 179G, 1797, and 1799. His broad 
mind, his large and varied experience 
in affairs, and his tried patriotism well 
qualified him for the momentous du- 
ties of the Convention of 1788, which 
perfected the union of the American 
states by the adoption of the federal 

Delegate to the Convention of 1788 for Franconia and Lincoln. 

The circumstances attending the 
representation of this constituency 
are peculiar. The delegate was a 
resident of Piermont. He did not 
appear in the Convention until the 
adjourned session in June. The rec- 
ords of Frauconia for that period con- 
tain no reference to the Convention 
or representation in it. Those of 
Lincoln only extend back to 1792. If 
there are earlier ones, they have been 
lost or scattered. 

Possibly the friends of the Consti- 
tution, looking in this direction for 
reinforcements, employed some of 
the vigilant methods of modern poli- 

tics to strengthen the Grafton county 
delegation, which was already very 
much stronger for ratification than any 
other, and, in fact, was nearly unan- 
imous. If we except the Conway 
district, which was more closely al- 
lied with the politics of the south- 
eastern section of the state, there re- 
mained but one dissenter in the coun- 
ty — Capt. Hutchins, of the Haverhill 
district : and Capt. Patterson, actual- 
ly a resident of the same class, came 
to the Convention in time to offset his 
neighbor's vote. 

Capt. Isaac Patterson was a farm- 
er, settled in Piermont before the 

4 o 

Modern Italian Poets. 

Revolution. He occupied for many 
years the river farm, at present own- 
ed by John Worthen. His sons, 
John and Joseph, also remained at 
that place, and, later, the quaint and 
venerable Grafton county lawyer. 
Isaac Patterson, returned there, at a 
great age, to end his davs at the 

OS 7 

home of Mrs. Rhoda Blaine, another 
descendant of the captain, who was 
the owner and occupant down to 1881 . 
Hammond's Revolutionary Rolls 
(Vol. HI, p. 539) makes mention of 
the roll of Lieut. Isaac Patterson for 
1781, in the account of bounties, etc., 
paid by the town of Piermont. This 
clearly indicates that he was in active 
service as an officer in the time of the 
Revolution. Other Revolutionary rolls 
which are not preserved on the ros- 

ters of the militia might have shown 
his advancement. In the public rec- 
ords he was afterwards designated 
as captain. 

He held various town offices in 
Piermont, the most important being 
that of representative, in which ca- 
pacity he served in 1807 and 1808 
Before the November session of the 
latter year he resigned, and a suc- 
cessor was chosen by a special elec- 
tion. The cause of his withdrawal 
from the office does not appear. 

He died Oct. 25, 1S11, at the age 
of sixty-one years. 

His record in the Convention is not 
conspicuous, and consists only of his 
travel to and from Piermont, his brief 
service at the June session, and his 
vote for ratification. 

By Adelaide Cilley Waldrox. 

Most sensitive and appreciative 
minds are found often in districts 
remote from the larger cities, that 
hunger and thirst for the published 
thoughts of able students, and care 
for them, when obtained, as for the 
beloved of their youth. But it is 
sometimes the case that circumstances 
prevent free examination of many 
issues, and a presentment of one and 
another is the only available means of 
any acquaintance with them. To give 
a little knowledge of a certain period 
of Italian literature, as studied and 
revealed by one who, famous as a nov- 
elist, is able to carry his keen sight, 
sense of humor, and a kindred poetic 
intuition into the heart of verse, is 
the object of this paper. 

In the introduction to the volume 
is mention of the development in sci- 
entific and realistic matters made by 
Italy since 1870, in common with 
other countries, the author believing 
that the romantic school came to a 
close at the end of a long period of 
patriotic aspiration and endeavor. 

When a nation arrives at an era of 
political tranquillity, of greater or less 
degree, investigations of nature are 
apt to become a prominent feature 
where stirring rhyme was wont to 
ring, or poetic prose to inflame the 
public heart ; and that this is the case 
with Italy goes to prove that of one 
blood are all the peoples of the earth. 
From 1770 to 1870 there was a feel- 
ing among patriots, that, to quote 

Modern Italian Poets. 

4 1 

Gaerrazzi, there was something to do, 
if not with the sword, then with the 
pen. Emotion is contagious, or it 
may be epidemic. The wide-spread 
ferment of politics sent to the surface 
its natural froth, but beneath it lay 
the sound wine, pure and strong of 
body, to become mellow and full of 
use with the growth of time, free 
from the softness and trivialities of 
its earlier days, although these had 
their own little part to do in the work- 
ing out of the later appearance of 
Italian character. 

" The lon^in^; for freedom is the 

© © 

instinct of self-preservation in litera- 
ture ; and. consciously or unconscious- 
ly, the Italian poets of the last hun- 
dred years constantly inspired the 
Italian people with ideas of liberty 
aud independence." Alfieri, from out 
of Piedmont, beloncrino; bv birth to a 

© © 

nobility still the proudest in Europe, 
the poet whom his countrymen place 
next after the four great early poets, 
Dauta, Petrarch, Ariosto, and Tasso, 
" was in literature," says Howells, 
"what the revolution was in politics," 
and full of tragic eloquence against 
tyrants. Others are named, showing 
that almost entirely the literary life 
of militant Italy sprang, like Alfieri, 
from the north. But is not this apt 
to be the case in all countries? Even 
our speech changes with the climate 
and our altitude from the sea ; and 
while great ardor colors the product 
of the south, it is believed that for 
steadfastness and persistence we must 
look to the northern latitudes and the 
eastern declines of mountain ranges. 
Tiie singer of the south may be happy 
in melody, but he of the north craves 
the ruggedness of fulness of har- 

The author believes Alfieri at his 
best in tragedies based on the heroic 
fables, and likes most the Orestes, 
as giving great vigor of action with 
wide range of feeling. He character- 
izes his genius as vehement, if some- 
what arid, and is struck with what he 
calls the narrowness of his tragedies, 
which have height and depth, but 
not breadth. This, he thinks, is tol- 
erable only because the plays are so 
brief. But this is to be classic and 
Greek : the Roman line of beauty is 
wide of curve, and voluptuous, while 
that of Greece is as Alfierian poetry, 
narrow, high, and severe in the slight 

The latter part of the introduction 
is alive with the delicate humor of 
Howells, and, in fact, the most affin- 
ity apparent in the various essays is 
shown, or, rather, revealed, in those 
dealing with humanity after the fash- 
ion of the author of " Silas Lapham," 
" Our Wedding Journey," and " The 
Editor's Study." The chapter on 
" The Arcadian Shepherds" is entire- 
ly charming in its subtle wit and airy 
faucy, which yet do not lessen the 
sturdy common-sense that Howells 
never lets escape his hold. 

During the long peace after the 
"Wars of the Succession, Italy was 
awake in the head, but given over to 
"fantastic immoralities." Galvani and 
Volta are, it is likely, more familiar 
names to people in general than are 
those connected solely with litera- 
ture ; but it is said that this demoral- 
ization of heart began with a reaction 
against the correctness of Lutheran 
religion, when the Jesuits rose to chief 
power, and the young received edu- 
cation only from priests. Emiliam- 
Giudici, however, savs that "the 


Modern Italian Poets. 

moral degradation of what the Freuch 
call the great world was the inveter- 
ate habit of centuries." This remark 
is made when the critic named is 
about to consider a poem by Parini, 
which is a s-atire (painting to the life) 
on Lombard nobility, to which class 
the poet was not born, lie was evi- 
dently the most instinctive observer 
that can be imagiued ; but " he who 
had laughed to scorn the insolence 
and folly of the nobl-3 could not en- 
joy the insolence and folly of the 
plebeians." There might have been 
added to that quotation the truth that 
when one is capable of so exquisite 
scorn as was that of Parini, he could 
but find the insolence of a mob, al- 
ways more brutal than that of another 
class, entirely revolting and unendur- 

The French Revolution, while it 
had its horrors, gave also its compen- 
sations ; tk it bade Italians believe 
themselves men ; it forced them to 
think of Italy as a nation." And at 
last '* men and women opened their 
eyes upon an era of work — the most 
industrious age the world has ever 
seen." The best known poets of this 
time are Monti and Foscolo. Of the 
former, Howells says, — ;i It is an in- 
teresting comment on this phase of 
civilization, its effervescent, unstable, 
fictitious, and partial nature, that he 
was its most conspicuous poet." He 
seems to have been a time-server from 
necessity, when with other times he 
might have been a true poet. In a 
translation there are three lines de- 
scribing the arrival of the spirit in 
the presence of God, as follows : 

"There his flipht ceases; there the heart, become 
Aim of tiw gaze divine, ia stilled, 
And all tli- urgeuce of desire is lost." 

Foscolo was a Greek, coming early 
to Venice, and was a secretary of the 
provincial government, beloved by his 
people, who were so fond of hearing 
his voice, that when they heard one 
day another reading in his place they 
were turbulent, till the president called 
out, tk People, be quiet ! Foscolo is 
hoarse." He wrote a famous lyric, 
" I Sepolcri," a poem of burials, or, 
rather, of funeral customs, and a few 
allusions to the fate of heroes, with 
passages on the spiritual significance 
of posthumous honors. He wrote 
also criticisms and romance. 

After a time literary patriotism for- 
bade the Italians to hope to be good 
citizens without beinor o-ood men. 
This was believed to be romance in 
its highest office by Manzoni, Grossi, 
and D'Azeglio. The explanation of 
this development is able and interest- 
ing. In 1815 there appeared the Sa- 
cred Hymns of the young Manzoni, 
who refused to bear his inherited title 
of count. He is better known in 
America as the author of " I Promes- 
si Sposi." A fine translation is given 
of a famous chorus in his tragedy, 
" Carmagnola," in which, as Howells 
says, is the whole political history of 
Italy ; and as verse, it has the swing 
of a serious army in its solemn, sono- 
rous rhythm. 

Pellico was a truly persecuted poet, 
from whose works the essayist con- 
fesses to have read but little. The 
story of his prison life makes his 
most touching work. From Grossi is 
quoted a remarkably sweet song, 
" The Fair Prisoner to the Swallow," 
on whose motive much music has been 

The Venetian Carrer died in 1850. 
His ballads are regarded as the best 

Modern Italian Poets 


of his poems, and a powerful and 
peculiar specimen is given, named 
•• The Duchess." 

Bercbet wrote emphatic political 
aud patriotic poetry, and the passion- 
ate verse translated is called " Re- 

Jn "Alcalde da Brescia," by Xic- 
colini, is poured out that distrust felt 
toward the temporal power of the 
pope by thousands of Italians ; and 
excellent versions are given freely in 
the chapter devoted to this author. 

The story of Leopardi is of itself 
a romance and tragedy. His Greek 
studies made him famous, and his 
poetry is the essence of melancholy. 
His genius is comparable in its tem- 
perament, if one may so speak, to 
that of Emily Bronte. 

In Giusti, Howells surely finds a 
congenial spirit, and, saving that he 
is the greatest Italian satirist of this 
century, and in some respects the 
greatest Italian poet, his own gifts 
are of so great affinity with these that 
we expect to find in the essay upon 
him all that intimate comprehension 
possessed only by a kindred mind. 
But the likeness is wholly intellectual, 
not moral. 

I cannot deny myself the pleasure 
of quoting from Howells this sentence 
in the essay on Giusti: -'It [the 
Italian's satire] is humor in its best 
sense ; and, after religion, there is 
nothing in the world can make men 
so conscious, thoughtful, and mod- 

The poems of Dall 'Ongaro, while 
intensely patriotic, are not confined 
in appropriateness to a special time t 
but have that element of universality 
which fits them to a nation, with never- 

theless a belonging to every one of its 

In Prati is another proof of the 
geueral truth that locality has its part 
in the forming of character. He was 
born near to Germany, aud has a 
Teutonic element in his poetic tem- 
perament, while his portrait might be 
mistaken for that of a German musi- 

Our author regards Aleardi as hav- 
ing in high degree those qualities de- 
manded by present English taste — 
quickness of feeling and brilliancy of 
expression. Pie was forbidden to use 
the pencil, so took up the pen, and 
believes himself, for this reason, to 
be too much of a naturalist, and too' 
much given to detail. 

From Carcano, Fusinato, and Mer- 
cantini is quoted representative 
verse in excellent translations. "The 
Gleaner of Sapri," from the latter, 
is a remarkably strong and steady 

Of the essayist's work, it is unnec- 
essary to say that it is faithfully and 
delicately done — everything from the 
hand of Howells is that : opinions 
as to the merit of different poets 
will be as many as the people reading 
their works : but I do not look on this 
volume as a collection of criticisms so 
much as a presentment of the poets 
named, their surroundings, aims, and 
successes or failures, and as making 
us acquainted with the work of the 
century mentioned, and with Italy 
herself through her devoted and loyal 
sons. Every lover of liberty and of 
literature will enjoy the whole book. 

It is a tribute to true national 
freedom, and Americans particularly 
should appreciate its contents. 

44 " Through Faith Believing" 

By Virginia C. Hollis. 

"Oh ! sanctify it, Father, to her good, 

As low she beuds beneath Thy chastening rod." 
(Thus prayed the aged minister of God, 

As by the little altar-rail he stood.) 
"Thy hand hast dealt the blow, O Lord, but still, 
Though this, her only darling, Thou dost take, 
We know the bruised reed Thou dost not break, 

But bringest good from out each seeming ill. 

We pray Thee bear this mourning mother up 
By faith, and in Thy everlasting arms 
Show her her child, free from all earthly harms, 

Though she be forced to drink from Sorrow's cup. 

Oh ! make her feel a Shepherd kind Thou art, 
Who takest little lambkins to Thy breast 
But that the sheep may follow to their rest 

In pastures green, near to Thy loving heart. 

And evermore the little ones shall wait, 

And watch the coming of the mothers dear, 
Who yet a little longer tarry here, 

Ere they are called to pass the Golden Gate." 

Near by, within a casket, lay the child, 
Fair as the rosebuds in her little hand 
(Herself a rosebud which should yet expand 
To fullest blossom), pure and un defiled. 
The mother gazed upon the little form : 
Within her heart, '" It is not just," she cried, 
"To take my precious baby from my side, 
Leaving no nestling there my heart to warm. 
In other homes, where many children are, ' 
The happy bands remain unbroken still, 
While mine is riven by the Master's will ; 
My little one is borne from me afar." 

But e'en as these rebellious thoughts found place 
Within her bosom, grace found entrance too : 
Grace "from above enabled her to view 

The pictures which the minister did trace. 

By faith she saw her little one at rest 

In Jesus' arms, and beckoning her to come. 
"I wait Thy time, Lord, to call me home," 

She said ; k * I feel Thou knowest what is best." 

Lawyers of Belknap County Bar 



By E. A. Hibbard. 

John M. Berry, at Alton a few 
years, about 1850. 

John A. Kilburn, at Alton a few 
years, about 1857. 

Jefferson M. Moody, at Alton from 
about 1856 for about five years. 

John W. Currier, at Alton now 
and for more than twenty years past. 

Albert E. Hodgdon, at Barnstead 
in 1845 or 1846 a short time. 

Charles R. Rogers", at Barustead 
about 1848 a short time. 

Noah O. Barnes, at Barnstead a 
few years, abo'ut fifty years ago. 

Moses Norris, Jr., at Barnstead a 
short time before he removed to 

H. B. Leavitt practised at Barn- 
stead about 1853 and 1854. 

Charles S. George, at Barnstead 
now and for a long time (though 
perhaps only a statute lawyer, so 

M. B. Goodwin, at Meredith Bridge 
a few years, about 1850. 

C. W. Clarke, at Meredith Bridge 
about 6 months in 1853 (successor to 
Taos. J. Whipple). 

Wm. P. Bartlett, at Laconia a year 
or two from about 1856, in partner- 
ship with Geo. W. Stevens. 

Charles 11. Butters, at Meredith 
Bridge a short time, about 1853, in 
partnership with George W. Stevens, 
1 think. 

Hiram A. Spear, at Meredith 
Bridge a year or two, about 1852, 

and then again at same place (which 
had become Laconia) about three 
years from 1855. 

Wm. L. Avery, at Laconia several 
years, commencing about 1859. 

Daniel C. "Woodman, at Laconia 
several years, at about the same time 
as Avery and in partnership with him. 

Woodbury L. Melcher, at Laconia 
since about 1862, but not lately in 
practice. • 

Daniel S. Dinsmoor, at Laconia 
from about 1864 till his death in 
1883, but went into banking in 1866, 
and gave up practice. He had been 
a partner of Wm. X. Blair. 

S. S. Jewett, at Laconia now and 
for five or six years past. 

John W. Ashman, at Laconia 
since about 1880, but gave up prac- 
tice a year or two ago, and went into 

Benjamin C. Dean, at Lake Village 
a few years, about 1871. 
. Edwin P. Thompson, at Gilmanton 
Iron Works a shoit time about ten 
years ago, theu at Belmont till 1884 
or 1885, and since clerk of Belknap 
county supreme court. 

Wm. T. Norris, at Sanbomton 
Bridge, 1 think, a year or more, per- 
haps, fifteen years ago, in partner- 
shit) with C. C. Rogers. 

E. S. Moulton was at Meredith 
(not at Laconia), and Ira F. Folsom 
at Lake Village (not at Meredith 

4 6 

77/ e J I r est Chamber 

By Henrietta E. Page. 

I had a rather peculiar experience 
upon my last visit to Europe, in 
the early summer of '85, which may 
prove interesting to some. The way 
in which I came to make the trip, 
which was my third, was this : 

One day I sat dreamily wondering 
what I should do and where I should 
go for a vacation that year, as I 
seemed to be deserted by all my 
near and dear ones. My daughter 
was upon her wedding tour, aud 
would not be back until late in Sep- 
tember. My husband and son had 
joined a party of tourists whose des- 
tination was the Adirondacks, and. 
as the company comprised only the 
masculine portion of humanity, of 
course I could not go with them. 

I was feeling a little blue and 
ont of sorts, and thinking that men 
were decidedly selfish, when the door 
opened, and my brother John came 
in and sat down. There was rather 
a careworn look on his handsome 
face, for he is handsome if he is 
my brother. I soon found out his 
trouble, and set his mind at rest, 
besides settling the vexed vacation 

His daughter was in poor health, 
and had been ordered a sea voyage. 
His wife was confined to her room 
with rheumatism, and business was 
in such a condition that he could not 
leave without serious injury to it. 
Could I chaperone Edna? Could I! 
Yes, indeed, I could, and would glad- 
ly. Here was an end to all my ponder- 
ing aud wondering aud blues. My 
destination was settled, and all my 
bills were to be paid. 

In two weeks we were on the briny 
deep. The voyage was delightful, 
and we arrived safely in London one 
bright, sunny day. (They do have 
bright, sunny days in Loudon occa- 
sionally, in spite of the fog stories.) 

We were hardly settled in our 
lodgings, which were very cosy ones, 
consisting of three pretty rooms, 
which I had occupied on my two 
previous visits, when I received a 
pressing invitation from Lady Brent- 
wood, who is distantly connected, to 
make her a long visit at her beautiful 
country seat in Kent — Brentwood 

I had heard a great deal about the 
beauty of the place, — its park, its old 
trees, its deer, its fine views, and 
water facilities, — but had never as yet 
been fortunate enough to see it. 

She wi'ote that at present they 
were quite free from company, and 
I should have the pick of the rooms, 
and we could have a few quiet days 
together if I could come right away. 
Unfortunately I could not. Edna 
was feeling fatigued from the voyage. 
and we had brought few dresses with 
us. thinking to get a supply in Lon- 
don or Paris ; and so we could not go 
for a week, at least. It was two 
weeks before we set our feet on the 
train which was to take us thither. 

The guard gave us a first-class to 
ourselves, and promised to keep a 
sharp look-out that we should not be 
disturbed. I slipped a half-crown into 
his hand to sharpen his memory. 

Edna had seemed to improve in the 
milder 1 climate, but was still quite 
feeble, and did not like to be dis- 

The West Chamber, 


turbed by the idle chatter of stran- 

Now if there is one thing I hate, 
in travelling, more than another, it is 
going through tunnels ; so, to set my 
mind at rest, I asked the guard if we 
should be obliged to pass through 
any on our route to Brentwood sta- 
tion. He replied, — '-" Yes, one short 
one and one quite long, and, as they 
are making repairs upon the long 
one, we shall be obliged to go slowly 
through it." 

Had I set my mind at rest? Well, 
no! Edna was intent upon a book, 
but as I am too careful of my eve- 
sight to read while journeying, I 
leaned against the window and 
watched the living scenery for a 
while, and when tired of that, I 
closed my eyes, and dreamed, awake. 

A sudden exclamation from Edna 
made me open them again. We had 
shot into the shorter tunnel, but were 
out again before we more than felt 
the darkness. In a short time a 
sharp whistle, together with the slow- 
ing up of the train, told us we were 
approaching the second and longer 
tunnel, and in two seconds we were 
in impenetrable darkness. 

I shut my eyes tightly, and cow- 
ered closer to Edna. I fancied I felt 
something brush my knee. I could 
have sworn I felt a waft of cooler air 
upon my cheek; but that could not 
be, for both windows were shut, as it 
was rather a damp day, and my niece 
was sensitive to the fo<r. 

A closer pressure on my arm from 
Edna told me we were in the day- 
light once more, and I opened my 
eyes to find a strange man seated 
opposite us — a dark-looking man 
with his hat slouched over his eves, 

which glared from uuder its brim like 
those of a wild beast. He was 
wholly dressed iu dark gray, and had 
a travelling shawl of the same color 
spread over his knees. 

I was angry, I can assure you. 
My half-crown had been thrown 
away. My confidence in guards was 

I am not lacking in all kinds of 
courage because I am afraid of tun- 
nels, so I said, — u Sir, are you 
aware that this is a private carriage, 
and that you are intruding?" 

I might as well have spoken to the 
dead. He made no movement. His 
eyes were fixed on Edna's, aud there 
they remained. 

I looked at the child, and she was 
as pale as death, and her eyes were 
fixed on his. 

I touched her, I spoke to her, but 
move or answer she could not. I 
turned to the man. "You are ex- 
tremely rude, sir ! Do you not see 
you are annoying the young lady?" 

Not a muscle moved, and the eyes 
stared on, not winking an eyelash, 
that I could see. What should I do? 
He had, evidently, great mesmeric 
power, for my poor little girl could 
uot take her eyes from his! 

1 had with we a carriage parasol 
which I bent over on its handle, and 
held over Edna's face. That seemed 
to break the spell, and she fell back 
limp and white, witli closed eyes. A 
sarcastic smile on the stranger's face 
told me he was outwitted. 

I was delighted to find the train 
was slackening up, and at the same 
time, a great shouting attracted my 
attention. I leaned over Edna, and 
looked from the window. A lot of 
children were chasing a pig, and 

4 8 

The West Chamber. 

making a good deal of noise while 
doing so. One little fellow caught 
bis pigship by the tail before he 
reached the rails, and, stubbing his 
toe at the same moment, pig and boy 
rolled in the dust, for the urchin held 
on like grim death. I laughed aloud, 
and tried to make Edna look, but she 
was still white and faint. 

Then I bethought me of the stran- 
ger. I looked. He was gone ! The 
train was still moving, but in a few 
seconds it stopped, and the guard 
came and unlocked the door. I was 

" You told me I should have this 
compartmeut alone." 

"I did, madam, and so you have 

" You are mistaken. There has 
been a man here since we entered the 
long tunnel." 

*• But, madam, you must have been 
dreaming. The door was locked." 

"1 suppose there are no such 
things as private keys?" I asked, 

"There are, but not to this car- 
riage as I am aware of." 

"Well, the man was here, keys or 
no keys, and almost frightened my 
Diece to death. See how pale she is." 

'•I am truly sorry." he said, look- 
ing at Edna's sweet, white face. 
iw Shall I call a carriage for you, 
madam? " 

t; I am expecting one from Brent- 
wood, thank you," and at that mo- 
ment Lady B.'s footman came for- 
ward, touching his hat, and we were 
soon whirling toward the manor. The 
sun was now shining. 

The scenery was enchanting, the 
air delicious, and a faint color stole 
into Edna's pale cheeks. 

ki Who could that impertinent creat- 
ure have been, child, think you ?" 

11 Oh, auntie, I do n't know. His- 
eyes were something dreadful. I felt 
like a bird being charmed by a snake. 
I hope I shall never see him again." 

kt I sincerely hope you never may. 
I do n't know what to think. The 
guard seemed honest, and contrite 
too. Well, we won't think of it any 
more. We are going to have a nice 
time in a nice place, and I want you 
to get fat and rosy, so folks will 
think I am taking home an English 

She smiled faintly, and said she 
hoped so too. Certainly the hope 
was far from fulfilment uow. 

We were cordially received by 
Lady Brentwood herself, who inform- 
ed us that we had just time for a 
short siesta and a change of dress 
before dinner, it being then five 
o'clock. The house was full, she said, 
and she could not do as well for me 
as she could have done two weeks ago. 
She had kept a nice room for us for 
a week, but then, Lady Ashley com- 
ing, and beiug of a nervous nature, 
she had to give that room to her. 

I wondered what being nervous had 
to do with the matter any way. 

•• Take Mrs. Grey's satchel and 
shawls to the west chamber, Marie." 
her ladyship said to the maid, " and 
see that her trunks are carried there 

" The west chamber, your lady- 
ship?" questioned the girl, in a tone 
of fear. 

"■Certainly, Marie, it is the only 
comfortable one left. There are two 
smaller ones, but they will be close 
and crowded. Still, if you prefer 

The West Chamber, 


" Oh, no. The west room by all 

The girl left us quite agitated. 
When she was gone I turned to 
Lady Brentwood, and laughingly re- 
marked, — 

"A family ghost, Louise? Have 
you, with all the other attractions of 
this remarkable house, a haunted 
room? and, knowing the strength of 
my nerves, are you going to set me 
the task of solving the mystery? " 

Edna looked pale and tired. I 
wondered if the silly notion would 
unnerve her. 

" I do not believe in ghosts, Mari- 
on. There has been some talk about 
that west chamber, but I have placed 
no confidence in the reports. It is 
one of the most comfortable in the 
bouse. Two of the windows give, 
upon the park, a splendid view. One 
of them, and that is the greatest 
drawback, overlooks the stables : and 
one is apt to hear rough language 
once in a while, or to catch glimpses 
of the maids flirting with the grooms, 
but it is easy enough to keep the 
window closed and the curtains 

ki What form does the ghost as- 
sume?" I asked, not to be diverted 
from the theme. 

" My dear Marion, I do not know, 
never having seen or heard anything 
myself ; but I have heard several 
conflicting stories. I do not wish to 
unsettle your mind by telling any of 
the absurd tales that have been told 
to me. I do not wish to bias your 
judgment. I will let you form your 
own opinion upon the subject. Your 
niece can occupy the smaller room 
which opens into it. and I think you 
will be very comfortable. Oblige me 

by not questioning the maids. If 
anything disturbs you, I will change 
apartments with you. That is the 
best I can do." 

After that I would have slept with 
half a dozen ghosts in my room be- 
fore I would have made complaint. 

Escorted by Lady Brentwood her- 
self, I ascended to my room. It was 
delightful. Two large ba} T windows 
overlooked the park. In one of them 
was a eosey lounge, and by drawing 
the draperies one could shut oneself 
from the rest of the room. A light- 
stand, loaded with books, stood by 
the lounge, and I promised myself 
many hours of pleasure on that lounge 
and with those books. A stand of 
blooming flowers stood in the other. 
The bed was a marvel of comfort and 
elegance. A beautiful matting was 
on the floor, and here and there were 
laid choice rugs. 

A large wardrobe and a dressing- 
case and a number of easy chairs 
constituted the remainder of the fur- 
niture. There was a bath and dress- 
ing-room attached, and a pretty little 
room Edna might call her own, though 
I assured her she might sleep with 
me if she preferred. 

I made her lie down for half an 
hour, and then, after a bath and a 
fresh toilet, she looked much re- 
freshed and extremely pretty. 

She is a blonde of the most brilliant 
type. Her hair is like burnished 
gold, and her eyes, a lovely liquid 
brown, soft as a brooding dove's, and 
her skin is something marvellous. 
But there — I am partial. She was 
was more fragile looking two years 
ago than she is now, but lovely never- 

She wore a cream crepe, with criin- 


The West Chamber, 

son roses, and her neck and arms 
gleamed like marble. The excite- 
merit of meeting so many people sent 
a delicate pink to her cheeks and a 
sparkle to her eve. such as I had not 
seen since I became her chaperone. 

Lady Brentwood introduced us to 
several people, but the introductions 
were cut short by the announcement 
of dinner. I was taken in by a cabi- 
net minister, and Edna by a baronet ; 
and we, by chance, were seated side 
by side. Hardly were we seated, 
when happening to raise my eyes, 
they encountered those of the gentle- 
man who had so unceremoniously en- 
tered our railway carriage on our way 
hither. He evidently recognized us, 
for his eyes left mine to seek Edna's. 
I felt worried, and glanced at her, 
but was gratified to see her return his 
look with a haughty stare, and con- 
tinue the conversation with her es- 

Afterward, in the drawing-room, 
we were introduced to him by Lord 
Brentwood. He was a lord, too, — 
eldest son of the Duke of Somerville. 
tk Not quite right there," Edna's 
baronet informed her, tapping his 
own forehead lightly, '* but perfectly 
harmless." I had my doubts about 

it then, and afterwards Well, I 

will not anticipate. 

For weeks he was Edna's shadow, 
and many were the jokes at her ex- 
pense. She did not like him, but 
she pitied him. She escaped his at- 
tentions whenever she could, and 
when she could not she was barely 
kind to him. I can conscientiously 
exonerate her from any accusation of 
flirting with him. Indeed, she put 
him off several times, but uselessly, 
for one dav he asked her to be his 

wife. Of course she refused him, and 
he was wild for a time ; then he lie- 
came moody, and followed her where- 
ever she went, until she was afraid to 
leave my side, unless in other com- 

But she was seldom alone. Mr. 
Marchmont (wiio is her husband now) 
took excellent care that no one should 
molest her. 

About the haunted room? Well, I 
had not been troubled at all. I slept 
well, heard nothing worse than the 
hostler's whistles, and saw nothing 
more than a few harmless flirtations, 

until- Ah ! you begin to look eager. 

One day, about three weeks from 
the day of our arrival, I left Edna in 
Hubert Marchmont's care, and went 
up to my room to have a quiet time 
reading. I snuggled down upon the 
comfortable lounge, and, taking a 
magazine from the table, began to 
read where I left off when the lunch- 
eon bell rang. I became quite inter- 
ested, though I felt drowsy, and read 
for perhaps half an hour, when, rais- 
ing my eyes, I saw Edna was lying 
upon my bed, with her back to me, 
dressed in her cream crepe (I won- 
dered why she had changed her dress, 
for she wore blue at luncheon), and 
with crimson roses at her throat. 

Was it a rose petal that was slowly 
dropping over her neck from under her 
burnished hair? No, Great Heavens ! 
it was blood ! When had she come 
in? How had she been hurt? Faster 
came the crimson stream, over her 
dress, down the side of the spotless 
bed drapings to the floor. It was a 
small flood, now. It crept over the 
beautiful matting, nearer and nearer 
to the couch on which I sat, mute and 
horror-stricken. I could not move. 

77/ c West Chamber. 


I could not scream. On came the 
crimson flood. Just ns it was about 
to touch the edge of my white wrap- 
per I grasped it with my cold fingers, 
and drew it up. A shriek burst from 
my frozen lips, and — I awoke. 

It was a dream — a horrid one to 
be sure, but still, thank God ! a 
dream. Three different times that 
dream fell upon me, and three times 
I awoke to thank ^od it was only a 

I said nothing to Lady Brentwood ; 
in fact, I did not tell any one. 

One day Edna dressed for dinner 
earlier than usual, aud put on her 
cream crepe and crimson roses. I 
could not helj) a chill running down 
my spine. Just as she stepped into 
my room a knock came at the door. 
A lovely flush flew into her cheeks as 
I called for whoever it was to enter. 
The door opened, and who should 
come in but Hubert March rnout. 

He excused himself for intruding, 

but Well, it was the li old, old 

story," and what could I say? I 
liked him ; she loved him. I gave 
them my blessing, and referred him 
to her father. 

They were just leaving the room 
for a stroll before dinner, when Hu- 
bert stopped, aud putting his hand 
in his coat pocket, drew out a small 
revolver. Edna drew back with a 
faint cry, and I felt a little startled, 
when he said, — 

"A little toy I took from that lu- 
natic Somerville five minutes ago. It 
was pointed at my head. Wait a 
minute until I take it to my room 
and put it under lock and key." 

I cannot imagine to this day what 
prompted my next remark, for I am 
mortally afraid of firearms. 

" Put it on this table until you re- 
turn. Your room is on the other side 
of the house, is it not? " 

" Thank you. Yes, it is. I will 
leave it with pleasure, if you are not 
afraid to have it so near you." 

In less than an horn- Edna returned 
alone, rather downcast. 

4 ' What brings you back so soon, 
love? It is almost an hour to din- 

41 Lord Brentwood sent for Hubert, 
and then that tiresome Lord Somer- 
ville came up and began to rave, so 
I thought 1 would come to you. 
Auntie, he is the plague of my life. 
I am actually afraid of him. I really 
fear he will injure Hubert. I hope 
he will tell his lordship of the attempt 
he made on his life this afternoon." 

While she was talking she threw 
herself on my bed, in the very posi- 
tion I had seen her in in my dreams. 
I felt nervous. I really expected to 
see the blood stream over her neck. 

"Turn over this way, Edna," I 

"I am very comfortable this way, 
auntie. The light would hurt my eyes." 

44 You will spoil your dress, dear; 
and it would be a pity, it is such a 
pretty one, and so becoming," I 
wheedled, but uselessly. 

44 No, I shall not, dear; and I am 
so tired." 

In five minutes she was fast asleep, 
and I resumed my reading. From 
the door I could not be seen, the 
draperies concealing me, and I could 
not see the door without leaning for- 
ward. Edna had left it ajar, which 
accounted for my not hearing it open. 

When I next looked up, my blood 
froze in my veins, for standing be- 
side the bed, glaring down at my 


The West Chamber 

darling, was the dark devil who had 
so annoyed us, and who had invaded 
our railway carriage. 

Great heavens ! what should I do? 
I dared not scream, as I felt that 
would be the signal for my darling's 

I looked around wildly, and my 
eves fell upon the revolver. Dared 
I use it? 1 had seen my husband and 
my son use them often. Could I? I 
grasped it stealthily, fumbled with it 
for an instant, then, as lie stooped 
over the sleeping girl. I aimed at his 
right arm, and fired, and — can you 
believe it? — hit it. And all! Great 
Heavens ! a gleaming razor fell from 
his grasp to the floor. 

He rushed, raving, from the room, 
after one wild look at me, right into 
the clutches of a posse of servants 
led bv Hubert and Lord Brentwood, 
who had not sent for him. 
* Hubert had told Lord Brentwood 
of the attempt on his life. They 
started to find Somerville, and were 
met bv a servant, who told them he 
had seen the harmless (?) lunatic 
aoing, raving, in the direction of the 
west chamber, with an open razor in 
his hand. Hastily calling two other 
servants, they were just in time to 
take him into custody at my door. 

Well, if ever a middle-aged lady 
was kissed and cuddled, lauded and 
made much of. that middle-aged lads- 
was mvself. Hubert on one side, 
Edna on the other, knelt and kissed 
my hands, and patted my cheeks. 
And 1? Well. I laughed and cried, 
and mode an idiot of myself. 

When Lady Brentwood came up, 
as she did immediately, I told her of 
my three dreams. She turned pale, 
and looked serious. 

" That is what has made this a 
haunted chamber. It is called the 
' Dream chamber.' No one has slept 
in that room a month without being 
warned in some way or other, so they 
say. Had you not been forewarned, 
Edna would have now been a corpse." 

I slept there another month, but 
no more untoward dreams affrighted . 

Edna grew fairer and fresher every 
day, and when, after two months' 
stay in Paris, she, Hubert, and I set 
sail for America, she was as rosy and 
gav as any English girl we had left 
behind us. 

Our travelling companion is under 
treatment in a private lunatic asylum, 
and, I am happy to say, is steadily 
improving. It was not considered at 
all strange that he should have a key. 
to our compartment, as he was always 
up to some mad caper or other, they 
told me ; and the greatest wonder 
was that he had not broken his neck 
long ago. He had evidently caught 
a glimpse of Edna, and determined 
to see more : hence our trouble and 
fright. He had been dipping into 
spiritualism and clairvoyancy quite 
deeply, and had injured his nervous 
system to such an extent that disap- 
pointment in love had seriously im- 
paired his mind : hence his attempt 
upon the lives of Hubert, whom he 
considered his rival, and Edna, whom 
he really loved, and whom he raved 
over long after we left, Lady Brent- 
wood wrote. 

Well, Hubert and Edna have been 
married considerably over a year, 
and they are very, very happy. 

Their little girl? Oh, she is named 
Marion, and is the handsome image 
of a handsome mother. 

The Can 1st co Mystery 


By W. A. Fergttsson. 

I am not superstitious ; I am not 
metaphysical ; I am not even specu- 
lative. I have no theory to prove, 
nor do I attempt or pretend to ex- 
plain what is strange in the narration 
of events which have been told to me 
time and time agai" in the old home- 
steads of the locality where the occur- 
rences transpired. I shall not do more 
than to give a bare transcript of the 
tale as told to me, but will leave each 
reader to speculate, philosophize, or 
sneer over it as best pleases him- 

It is only a hundred years since 
the advance guard of civilization — 
•the woodsmen and pioneers — began 
to move upon western New York, 
and form settlements in the forests 
and along the wild and fertile valleys 
of streams, hitherto navigated only 
by the bark canoe of the Indian. In 
1788 all of the state of New York 
west of Utica was embraced in one 
town organization — Whitestown — and 
was, for the most part, a wilderness, 
among whose deep glens, pine-clad 
hills, and lovely valleys yet resound- 
ed the echoes of the war-whoops of 
Brant and his savage Iroquois. 

The Canisteo valley was among 
the earliest settled portions of this 
region. Early in 1788 Solomon Ben- 
nett, Captain John Jamison, Uriah 
Stephens, and Rich'ard Crosby came 
as explorers for a settlement from 
the Wyoming valley in Pennsylvania, 
and discovered its beauties. The 
valley, about half a mile wide, was 
bordered by steep, pine-covered hill- 
Bides, that inclosed large tracts of 

magnificent timber, and hundreds of 
acres covered with grass " so high 
that a horse aud his rider could pass 
through it undiscovered." In 1789 
the valley was occupied by settlers 
for the Penusy Iranians. 

Contemporaneously with this, many 
other settlements were made in west- 
ern New York. A new metropolis, 
intended to control the vast agricul- 
tural wealth of the great Northwest, 
whose golden harvests, floated to Buf- 
falo, must go down the canal soon to 
be built by this new city to Baltimore, 
for shipment to England, was estab- 
lished only twenty miles away by 
an aristocratic English company, and 
was named Bath, from a patron — 
Lady Bath. Here race-courses and 
theatres sprang up like magical crea- 
tions, and grand races and theatrical 
representations were given with royal 
accessories, and the high court life 
of London mingled, in the streets yet 
full of stumps, with Indians, negroes, 
wild frontiersmen, Quakers, and Ma- 
ryland planters. Here speculation 
in laud ran wild. Robert Morris, 
the great financier of the Revolution, 
Oliver Phelps, Nathaniel Gorham, 
and others made large purchases 
from the state of Massachusetts, 
which held title to a great area. 
Surveyors were active from Lake 
Ontario to the Pennsylvania Hue, 
and Bath was one of their central 

The settlers on the Canisteo were 
of a different mold. Of gigantic 
size, and equal in development of 
muscle to the old gladiators of Rome, 


The Canisteo Mystery, 

they competed with . the savages in 
their games and hunts, and with 
success. Their fame in hunting, 
wrestling, running, and feats of 
strength extended to the Susque- 
hanna and the Chesapeake. Among 
the honest frontiersmen were min- 
gled wild, turbulent characters, who 
had fled from civilization to secure 
exemption from deserved punish- 
ment. It was, doub;iess, from the 
presence of these, that now and then 
rumors of darker deeds than friendly 
bouts with Indians would go out 
from the valley, and mysterious dis- 
appearances of individuals would be 
spoken of in the " down-county " 
settlements with ominous shakes of 
the head. 

(Years after this time, when civ- 
ilization had farther penetrated the 
wilderness, and courts of law were 
not so remote, travellers with large 
sums of money justly dreaded to pass 
through some of the gloomier por- 
tions of the Canisteo valley ; and 
almost down to the „ present time, 
when railroad after railroad has 
brought the full tide of nineteenth 
century progress into the valley, 
certain persons would turn pale and 
tremble whenever they heard the 
question, " Where is AVetherbee? " ) 

But, however attractive the task, 
I did not start out to write a history 
of this beautiful section. To place 
my story in its proper setting, how- 
ever, the origin, character, and sur- 
roundings of the Canisteo people had 
to be given, and I will now hasten to 
narrate my tale of other days. 

In 1702 a large log mansion, of the 
primitive construction of new coun- 
tries (with vast stone chimneys at 
the ends which terminated in huge 

fire-places, where on winter nights 
would blaze and crackle immense 
fires of gigantic logs), was erected on 
a beautiful elevation nea'r the mouth 
of "Colouel Bill's'-' creek, a small 
tributary of the Canisteo. The house 
was a little way off the valley road, 
but the travel up the creek passed 
close by it. This house had a pe- 
culiar individuality. During the day 
it sat gloomily, like a warder, or 
fortress rather, guarding the entrance 
to a cave of treasures. In the night 
its large and numerous windows 
threw out light and cheer in every 
direction into the darkness. Many 
belated ones were thus brought to 
enjoy the free-handed hospitality of 
the mansion, which for many a mile 
was known as " the best stoppin'- 
place in the valley." 

Henry Lee, the owner, was a Vir- 
ginian, who had migrated hither 
from pure love of the wild sports 
and freedom of the new country, 
and had brought his wife and three 
daughters to bloom as wild flowers 
in the shadows of the deep pine for- 
ests. Except this one family, all of 
the dwellers in the several miles of 
settlement along the valley were con- 
nected by marriages and inter-mar- 
riages, reaching through several gen- 
erations of life in their old Pennsyl- 
vania home ; and it mattered little 
whether you spoke of a Baker, a 
Crosby, a Hallett, or a Stephens, 
the one of whom you spoke had 
relatives in all the other families. 
Not so with the Lees. No one in 
all the valley was akin to them, and 
the arrogance of the true Virginian 
pride held them aloof from all entan- 
glements in this direction, although 
many of the young men felt their 

The Canisleo Mvsie 



hearts beat quicker when the eves 
of the maidens rested on them, and 
would gladly have installed them 
impresses of really valuable home- 
steads. Mr. Lee was in the prime 
of life, muscular and vigorous as a 
Hercules, and as proud of display- 
ing his strength and skill as he was 
strong and skilful. It was said, also, 
that he was wealthy ; that long stock- 
ings of good woolleu yarn filled with 
broad yellow sovereigns were some- 
times shown by him, when, after 
strong potations of the old Scotch 
whiskey he had brought from Balti- 
more, his heart was commuuicative 
to some one he deemed a friend. 

The Indians either held him in 
reverence as a valued friend and 
counsellor, or hated him from his su- 
periority to them in muscular sports 
or in trackiug deer and bear. He 
mingled with the settlers, taking 
none into his confidence, and none 
presumed upon the reserve he per- 
sistently maintained, but esteemed 
him for his prowess, his hospitality, 
and his worth. 

Mrs. Lee was a little, plodding 
worker, content to be the shadow of 
her husbaud and to reflect his wishes 
in all things. 

The eldest daughter was a large 
brunette of charming presence, and 
a dashing" and winning magnetism. 
Though dwelling in the forest, she 
had the graces and refinements of 
her earlier Virginian life ; and it was 
no wonder, when the young English 
surveyor, Abbott Pearson, came from 
Bath on business for the great Eng- 
lish land company, that the remem- 
brance of the blue-eyed, fair-haired 
English maidens faded away entirely 
under the potent influence of this 

daughter of the wilderness. Nor 
was it wonderful that his courtly 
manners and frank and cultured 
speech should cause a new sensa- 
tion to steal over her, — a feeling so 
sweet and so dreamy as to be in 
itself full recompense for a lifetime 
of adversity. The pair soon became 
accepted lovers, and Pearson lin- 
gered for weeks in the sunshine of 
her presence. 

The emerald tiutings of spring 
were succeeded by the parched 
brownness of mid-summer, and, still 
wrapped in their happiness, these 
two would explore the many roman- 
tic places of interest which Nature 
had scattered here with prodigal 
hand, and, under sunlight, starlight, 
and the silvery softness of the moon, 
paint glowing pictures of a long fut- 
ure redolent with happiness. The 
young sisters, light and cheerful girls, 
laughed at their sister's change, and 
prououueed love to be " a horrid 

In this bright dream of love there 
were intervals when Pearson's duties 
as surveyor called him away for long 
periods of time, but ever, his labors 
over, his return to the valley was 
prompt, and his reception gracious. 
The comment of the settlement was 
almost unanimous in praise of the 
union ; but one dark, sinister-looking 
fellow, who had somehow wandered 
here from an unknown place beyond 
Albany, was heard to mutter, and 
more than once, that they would 
never be married. 

Time passed. One year comes and 
goes ; another comes, gathers in the 
fulness of the summer's wealth, and 
goes : and vet another season calls 
for activity after a long and snowy 


The Can is I co Mystery • 

winter. Pearson took bis leave of 
the one so dear to him, and of her cir- 
cle of friends, and started to explore 
the strange lands of the Genesee, 
country. He would not visit the 
valley again until his labors were 
completed, and he ready to bear his 
betrothed as a bride to his English 

Autumn drew near. The long grass 
of the natural meadows had been 
made into hay and safely housed to 
feed the droves of cattle during the 
months of winter. The dry leaves 
of the ripened corn rustled in the 
wind. With its heat and drouth, and 
long summer days full of sounds of 
peace and songs of birds, the heated 
seasou had again come to a close, 
and all things went on as usual in 
the quiet valley. All was tranquil 
and happy. Little change could be 
noted ; only a few more patches of 
clearing among the giant pines told 
where new settlers had chosen homes. 

September 24, 1700. For two or 
three days the wind has blown up the 
river, predicting storm. * The smoke 
has dropped, and clings in low lines 
of blue to the foot-slopes of the hills. 
For two or three days the stillness 
has been oppressive, no sound break- 
ing the menotony but an occasional 
low of cattle, the croak of the tree- 
toad, or the note of the whip-poor- 
will. Away up the valley a dark 
haze is developing into cloud-masses 
which roll into white puffs or pack in 
black strata, and crowd down into 
the narrow spaces between the hills, 
changing the daylight to a dull yel- 
low color as the now heavy cloud- 
column comes steadily on from the 
north-west. At sunset, with a blind- 
ing flash and reverberating peal, the 

equinoctial storm bursts forth in 
fury, and all is darkness, terror, and 
confusion. The steep water-courses 
on the hill-sides soon fill, and pour 
mad streams into the larger branches 
and creeks, and before long the Can- 
isteo feels the accession, and a flood 
of wild waters succeeds to the for- 
mer gentle river. No one ventures 
out. The tardy hunter seeks shel- 
ter in some deep nook or convenient 
cranny in the rocks. It is a night of 
fear, of dread, and of premonitions 
of evil — a night that will loug dwell 
in the memory with a strange feeling 
of awe, of wonder, and of horror. 

Morning came at last. The storm 
still beat in fury, and swollen tor- 
rents roared louder and louder as 
each hour added weight to the burden 
of waters they were carrying to the 
sea. But the darkness was gone, 
and humanity — restless ever — could 
no longer be confined to narrow, 

Abbott Pearson, on his return from 
his duty of exploration, was hastening 
to the Lee mansion, where was wait- 
ing for him the tender and true em- 
bodiment of his ideal love and wife. 
The dimuess of the trail and the vio- 
lence of the storm had kept him from 
reaching the valley, and lie was com- 
pelled to pass the first night of the 
storm in a settler's cabin, -six miles 
from his destination. 

The gray light of the morning had 
scarcely penetrated the rain-drops, 
however, before he was ready to fin- 
ish his journey. With light heart 
and rapid footsteps he passed along, 
giving little heed to the pelting of 
the storm. His way was often ob- 
structed by fallen trees, deep gul- 
lies, and swollen streams, and it was 

The Can is tea Mystery 


not until near mid-day that be ap- 
proached a familiar eminence from 
which lie had often viewed the Lee 
homestead, lying a mile away on the 
opposite side of the river. 

As .the rain-curtain rises at inter- 
vals, he faintly discerns the outline 
of the hills beyond, b>U not the house. 
What strange thing is this ? Anxious- 
ly he presses on to the bank of the 
river, now stretchiug out in enormous 
width over the low meadows, and a 
succession of rapids with extreme 
velocity of motion. No house is to 
be seen ! The mighty edifice with 
its timbers of heavy oak has com- 
pletely disappeared ! 

With conflicting emotions of won- 
der and anguish he hastens up the 
river to seek some passage over. He 
is forced to wait long. Trees with 
massive roots and monstrous logs are 
whirling on the agitated surface, and 
no crossing is possible. Hour after 
hour he paces up and down the bank. 
Hour after hour the roaring waters 
deny him progress. 

It was three days before the waters 
subsided, and to his excited mind 
it might have been three years. At 
last the attempt is made with a raft, 
which is successfully landed. With 
rapid footsteps Pearson distanced his 
companions and approached his des- 
tination. Two silent heaps of stone 
marked the location of the fire-places, 
but the house and its inmates had 
vanished. Nothing but the shattered 
chimneys and the broad foundation- 
stones was left to indicate that here 
had been a home of happy people ; 
and they had no voice to answer the 
wild wishes to know what had be- 
come of the loved dwellers in that 
home. All was lost in impenetrable 

mystery ; and the same dark, uncer- 
tain mystery that surrounded their 
fate on that gloomy morning still 
enshrouds it, heavy, palpable, never 
to be lifted or cleared away, and only 
intensified by the passage of years. 

Whether lightning struck and fire 
consumed the building, the flood con- 
cluding the tragedy, can not be told. 
Some spoke of robbery ; that the 
broad gold pieces were incentives 
enough to cause some villains to defy 
the storm in doing evil deeds. Oth- 
ers spoke of the threats uttered 
against the lovers' happiness, and 
laid the crimes of murder and arson 
at the door of the dark, evil-eyed 
man who had made the threats. 
These were conjectures merely ; noth- 
ing could be proven. 

Abbott Pearson searched for months 
in every direction and in every way 
to ascertain if the family had not 
been saved, but his search was in 
vain. Never, from the time when 
the storm burst in its wild fury upon 
the valley, were they ever seen, and 
never came one word to tell of 
their doom. Father, mother, the be- 
trothed maiden, and her sisters, all 
had gone, — swept away like a puff 
of smoke in a morning breeze. 

With his young life crushed and with 
a premature look of old age, Pearson 
at last responded to the call of duty 
from his English home, and crossed 
the Atlantic ; but the ambitious 
dreams of early manhood were never 
again to be experienced, and, after a 
few years of listless existence in 
that land of quiet, he entered the 
Asiatic service, and fell while fight- 
ing recklessly in a desperate hand-to- 
hand encounter with an overpowering 
number of Malays. 


The Canisteo Mystery. 

This is the stury. There are many 

as exciting and far more strange, 
but the sad romance has been kept 
in the memory of the people by other 
occurrences, which, at regular inter- 
vals, bring a fresh discussion of the 

The attractive site of the mansion 
was soon taken for a home by an- 
other settler, and the fertile acres of 
the Lee estate were too valuable to 
be long unoccupied. The whirl of 
life moves along, and the memory of 
the former occupants gradually fades 
away- Ten years have passed. It 
is now 1809. The heavy pines have 
grown fewer, and more dwellings are 
scattered along the rich interval. 
The night of September 24 was mild 
and calm. As the midnight hour ap- 
proached an alarm of tire was given, 
and evidenced by the bright reflec- 
tion on the sky ; and now the second 
mansion on this site was destroyed. 
No lives were lost, as the discovery 
was made early enough to save the 

But now the strange element of 
our story makes its appearance. On 
September 26, 1809, so say the rec- 
ords, George Hornell and Samuel 
Hallett made affidavit before Uriah 
Stephens, " that, on the morning of 
September 25, 1809, as they were 
coming through the woods on the 
hill across the creek from the place, 
and at about the hour of sunrise, 
they both, — and each for himself 
makes oath, — saw the Henry Lee 
mansion standing as it used to stand 
on the place whereon it was built." 

Ten years again pass. The same 
location is occupied by another dwell- 
ing. Again the night of September 
24 is one to be remembered. Not 

now the wild, furious flood nor the 
equally wild and furious flames is the 
agent of destruction. A whirlwind 
comes at sunset, sweeping down 
"Colonel Sill's" creek, and carrying 
forest, rocks, and buildings before 
it. The heavy frame of the Stephens 
house is as a straw in its cyclonic 
fury, and the large edifice is crushed 
into fragments, which are scattered 
far and wide. No one was in the 
building ; but, strange ! in the pitchy 
darkuess of the following night, a 
large building with many windows, 
illuminated as the home of Henry 
Lee had been, was seen on the very 
spot where it had once stood, and 
from which the whirlwind had just 
swept another building. Not one 
witness alone, but the whole Stephens 
family saw this appearance, as did 
the sympathizing neighbors who had 
hastened thither. 

From this time on, it is said, this 
house has appeared regularly on the 
24th day of September of each tenth 
year. Sometimes by night, some- 
times by day, has that eidolon been 
seen by credible witnesses. One thing 
is certain : whenever a house has oc- 
cupied this site upon the anniversary 
of the day of the first destruction on 
which the ghost of the old mansion 
is due to appear, some apparent acci- 
dent has removed it; sometimes, as 
we have told, by freshet, fire, and 
whirlwind, and once again a freshet, 
enormous in its volume, was the 
destroyer. The last destruction was 
in 1879, when Thomas Hallett's 
house was burned. In addition to 
these occurrences, it is also said that 
every family living here has been 
afflicted with a noticeable mortality. 
Not one is now left of the famils 7 of 

CoL Joseph Hut chins. 


the last owner. Within a very few 
years, husband, wife, and two sons 
have died. 

Thus you can see how it is that 
every tenth year brings again into 
public gossip the old love-plight of 
the fair-haired Saxon and the warm- 
blooded Virginian beauty, and the 
mysterious tragedy of that stormy 
September night of a century ago. 

As I said when I commenced to 
write, I have no theory to advance. 
Whether these appearances come 
through the operation of some oc- 
cult power to tell of a horrid crime, 
now long hidden, or whether the 
series of accidents were but peculiar 
coincidences of time and place, 

which have wrought upon imagina- 
tions we may well suppose to be keen- 
ly sensitive, it is not for me to say. 
I tell the tale I heard from those who 
will not abate one jot or tittle of 
their belief that the old mansion with 
its household does thus periodically 
visit the earth for a brief period as 
accusing witnesses to testify of a 
horrid crime. 

If any would care to investigate 
this mystery, I refer them to any of 
the old settlers of the Canisteo val- 
ley. They will be less dispassionate, 
and will place it in far more vivid 
colors than I have seen fit to use, and 
also strenuously exert themselves to 
aid in discovering any solution. 


Delegate to the Convention of 1788 for the Class constituted of Haverhill, 1 Warren, 
Piermont, and Coventry (now Benton). 

By J. Q. BlTTlNGER. 

Joseph Hutchins was one of the regard to the matter has failed to dls- 
earlier settlers of Haverhill, when close just what the relationship was. 
population was first pouring into the As a delegate to the convention of 
Cohos country, and seems to have 1791, he is given in the record the 
had quite a hand in shaping public title of colonel ; and from the care 
affairs in those days. His former that was generally observed at that 
home is not kuown, and, so far as period in those matters, it is a reason- 
the records show or anything can be able inference that his military rank 
learned of him, he comes upon the is correctly stated, 
stage with the suddenness of an Arab The reorganization of the militia 
sheik; and. folding his tent, he as which followed the war gave occasion 
suddenly disappears. He quite likely for more men of military rank (gen- 
belonged to the Hutchins family that erals and colonels possibly excepted) 
came into Bath at an early day, and than are now so distinguished. Much 
who were so prominent in the his- of the manuscript record of the mili- 
tory of that town ; but all iuquiry in tia in the adjutant-general's office, 

1 Notk. An >-xamination of the records of all the towns in the Haverhill class discloses nothing con- 
cerning the election of a delegate to this convention. The Piermont records, however, have this singular 

" March 26, 17S-?, voted Capt. fcaac Patterson as agent to attend the convention at Concord to act for 
or against ti,.' r>d- ral Constitution." 

In the corvention Capt. Patterson appears as the delegate for Francoma and Lincoln. 


Col. Joseph Hutchh 

covering the period between the war 
and the year IS 09. is missing. Of the 
books taken to Washington many 
years ago, two manuscript volumes of 
rolls also are gone, and probably will 
never be recovered. 

When, therefore, the early records 
give a citizen a military title to dis- 
tinguish him from the doctors and 
deacons, posterity cannot safely dis- 
pute its validity. 

Col.. Hutchins was prominent in 
both civil and military affairs. I find 
that he was chairman of the board of 
selectmen in 17G9, and again in 1789 
and in 1791 iie was a member of the 
board, the latter year again its chair- 
man. In 1788— '9 he was a repre- 
sentative to the general court, and iu 
1791 his name appears in the town 
records as being chosen with Gen. 
Moses Dow to the same position. As 
the town had only one representative 
at that time, it is not quite clear what 
this record means ; but reference to 
the house journal for that year indi- 
cates that only Gen. Dow served for 
a time early in the year, but at the 
later sessions Col. Hutchins alone 
appeared. The choice of two repre- 
sentatives for Haverhill that year is 
probably accounted for by the trans- 
fer of Gen. Dow to the senate, of 
which he was a member for 1791-'2. 

Capt. Hutchins. was a member of 
the committee to ik see that the results 
of the Continental Congress were ob- 
served in Haverhill." Haverhill dur- 
ing the Revolutionary struggle had a 
strong minority who were opposed 
to the patriot cause, and numbered 
amongst its adherents such promiuent 
and influential men as Col. Porter, 
Squire Crocker, Col. Taplin. and oth- 
ers. The object of the above com- 

mittee, of which Capt. Hutchins was 
a member, was to keep this minority 
from impeding the struggle for na- 
tional liberty. Capt. Hutchins was 
also a member of the Committee of 
Safety in 177o-'6. 

The committee of fifteen towns on 
the frontier had a meeting at Capt. 
Hutchins's house, April 3, 1778. He 
was one of the officials then proposed 
for the district of Haverhill. Thus 
he seems to have been identified with 
the party that favored a union with 

In 1780 he was in command of a 
company of rangers that served on 
the frontier between Cohos and Can- 
ada. He was also iu the patriot 
army when Gen. Burgoyne surren- 
dered, and led an independent com- 
pany on that occasion, composed of 
enlistments from Haverhill and from 

In 17SS he was a delegate to the 
convention that adopted the Fed- 
eral Constitution, and alone of all 
the Grafton county delegates voted 
against its adoption. Much conject- 
ure has been rife in regard to this 
vote, but no light as yet has been 
shed upon it so as to clear the matter 
up. Whether from conviction or 
from political bias he was opposed to 
the Federal Constitution, or whether 
he fell under the powerful influence 
of the leaders in the convention who 
led off against the constitution, is not 

The reason that moved him to 
cast the single vote from Grafton 
county against the adoption of the 
Federal Constitution has never been 
made clear. I am not aware, how- 
ever, that Col. Hutchins's vote has 
ever been impugned, or that he was 

Col. Joseph Hut chins. 


o-ovcrncd otherwise than bv the clear- 
est conviction of patriotic duty. 

In this connection, attention may 
be called to a significant historical 

The Haverhill class had no repre- 
sentative in the convention at its first 
session. The delegation from Graf- 
ton county was then presumably ex- 
pected to vote unanimously for the 
ratification of the proposed Federal 
Constitution. Col. Hutchins first ap- 
peared at the second session. At the 
same time, also, came Capt. Patter- 
sou of Piermont, as the delegate for 
Franconia and Lincolu. He voted 
for ratification. His Haverhill neigh- 
bor's vote was neutralized, and the 
majority for the constitution was the 
same as if neither had been sent 
to this final session. There may have 
been a fine hand which moved the 
wires in the interim between the ses- 
sions. Under ordinary conditions, we 
should suppose that Franconia and 
Lincoln would send one of their own 
resident citizens on such a mission, 
if, indeed, they were actually entitled 
by sufficient population and due or- 
ganization. Samuel Livermore and 
Elisha Payne evidently were not the 
men to return to the decisive vote un- 
der the disadvantage of a hostile gain 
in their own stronghold. 

Col. Hutchins, also, in 1791, was a 
member of the convention to revise 
the Constitution of New Hampshire ; 
and this appointment, coming so near 
the one to the convention for the 
adoption of the Federal Constitution, 
would seem to indicate that his nega- 
tive vote in the earlier convention did 
not impair the confidence of his fel- 
low townsmen. Dr. P.outon, in his 
account (State Papers) of the con- 

vention that ratified the Federal Con- 
stitution, gives brief sketches of a 
number of the more influential and 
noted members of that body. He 
makes no mention of Col. Hutchins — ■ 
a circumstance which would indicate 
that either he knew nothing about the 
history of Col. Hutchins, or that he 
was a new man to the public. But 
the fact of his appointment at that 
day to so marked a trust, when only 
men of character, as a rule, were eli- 
gible to such positions, singles Col. 
Hutchins out as a man of more than 
ordinary standiug and influence. 

The last mention of Col. Hutchins 
found in the public records is in 
1798, when he joined with Col. 
Charles Johnson, Simeon Goodwin, 
and Joshua Howard in a petition to 
the general court for relief from per- 
sonal liabilities incurred in 177G in 
the public defence, when, with Eph- 
raim Wesson and James Bayley, both 
of whom had afterwards removed 
from the state, they were the Com- 
mittee of Safety for Haverhill. They 
describe the exposed condition of the 
town, the flight of many of the inhab- 
itants, their own sacrifice of property 
and provisions to maintain the guards 
aud scouts, to equip their soldiery, 
and to build four large forts. The 
document is dated November 22, and 
is an interesting and valuable chapter 
of the Revolutionary history of the 
north-western New Hampshire fron- 
tier. (Hammond's Town Papers, vol. 
2, p. 187.) 

Of Col. Hutchins's family nothing 
has been learned, nor has anything 
come down the stream of time of a 
traditional nature that throws light 
upon his history, or in any way illus- 
trates his character. 


A Vanished City. 

By Ethel S. Mason. 

In a lowly tavern, 
From thick and clumsy glasses 
Purple wine flows free to each one as he passes. 
In a chalice rarely fine, 
Of a clearness like to crystal, 
Is more wine. 

And on a high pedestal 
This cup waits, as on a throne — 
Whosoever will may claim aud have it for his own : 

All see its beauty shine ; 
Yet, trembling, choose the tavern cup 

Of purple wine. 


Somewhere in the thirties St. Jo- 
seph, Fla., was a thriving city of sev- 
eral thousand people. There was also 
a railroad running from Iola, on the 
Apahichicola river, to St. Joseph. 
To-day there is not a vestige of the 
city remaining, nor of the railroad. 
William Samuels, an old colored man, 
who lives near Bainbridge, told us 
the other day that many years ago 
he lived in St. Joseph, and travelled 
thence by the railroad from Iola ; 
also stating that it was the first and 
the last time in his life he ever rode 
on the cars, lie was astonished when 
we told him that both city and rail- 
road had been in the grave for over 
forty years. — Bainbridge Democrat. 

In the winter of 1871— '2 the writer 
started, with a guide, to walk from 
St. Andrew's Bay, Florida, to Apa- 
lachicola, a distance of seventy-five 
miles. Starting late one afternoon, 
the party took a few hours' rest on 

the outer beach ; and early the next 
forenoon entered the silent and de- 
serted streets of the old city of St. 
Joseph. For many years the place 
had been given over to the wilder- 
ness. Not a single house was stand- 
ing, and only piles of brick indicated 
their positions. The streets were as 
well defined, however, as when, a 
quarter of a century before, St. Jo- 
seph was one of the thriving cities of 
the Gulf coast. Its position is indi- 
cated on all the older maps ; and it 
has one of the finest harbors in the 
world. Large trees were growing 
on what was once the bed of the rail- 
road. There is a tradition at Apa- 
lachicola that many years ago the 
plague of yellow-fever visited the 
place and killed off about half the in- 
habitants : the rest went away never 
to return. 

A dz • ertise m cut. 



Concord, IN". H., 

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'Devoted to Literature, 'Biography, History, and State Progress. 

VOL. II. (New Series.) 
Vol. XII. 

APRIL, r bb 9- 



The highlands of northern New 
Hampshire are known throughout the 
world. Their lofty summits and deep 
valleys are justly celebrated. Every 
succeeding year brings to them a 
constantly increasing throng of tour- 
ists, who appreciate their grandeur. 
The race of men inhabiting the fer- 
tile valleys of that hill-country, ac- 
customed from early youth to the dis- 
play of majestic mountaius and some 
of nature's grandest scenery, are 
affected by their surroundings. They 
grow to be large men, physically and 
mentally. Too few generations have 
been nurtured amid such environ- 
ments to produce a distinctive type, 
but the old Puritan stock of Connec- 
ticut and Massachusetts, finding 
there a congenial abiding-place, has 
had a theatre for its best develop- 
ment. Already have Coos and Graf- 
ton counties given to the state and to 
the nation men of great ability and 
of sterling worth, whose names are 
inseparably connected with the his- 
tory of the country. 

One of the finest towns in New Eng- 
land, with one of the prettiest villages 
in the New World, is Colebrook, a 
town in Upper Coos, nestling among 

the hills and mountains, with its low- 
est intervales elevated many hundred 
feet above the sea, dotted with ponds, 
and traversed by many a trout brook. 

In Colebrook, October 15, 1839, 
was born Chester Bradley Jordan, 
youngest son of Johnson and Minerva 
(Buel) Jordan. 

The Jordan family is probably of 
French origin. One of the name is 
known to have been with William the 
Conqueror. Others, by the name of 
Jourdaine, probably of Huguenot 
stock, migrated at an early day to 
New England, and became loyal 

Benjamin Jordan, son of Edmund 
Jordan, was born in the old town of 
Rehoboth, Mass., served four years 
in the Continental army during the 
Revolution, and was one of the dar- 
ing little band that affected the his- 
toric capture of General Prescott. 

Johnson Jordan, son of Benjamin 
Jordan, was born in Plainfield, April 
8, 171)8, settled in Colebrook in 1818, 
married, in 1822, Minerva Buel, and 
died August 1G, 1873. He was a 
strong man physically, of fair judg- 
ment and sense, who passed many 
years of his life in the hard and 


Hon. Chester B. Jordan. 

unprofitable labors of a pioneer and 
clearer of lands. 

Minerva Duel, born in Hebron, 
Conn., July 19, 1801, was the daugh- 
ter of Capt. Benjamin Duel, who was 
born Aug. 20, 1767, and settled in 
Colebrook in 1803. 

Benjamin Buel was a scholarly 
man, of excellent character and re- 
fined tastes, an elegant penman, and 
for many winters a highly prized 
teacher in Colebrook. He died March 
24, 1829. His wife, Violetta Sessions, 
a native of Connecticut, was a lady 
of considerable culture. She died in 
1855, at the age of seventy-seven 

Johnson and Minerva (Buel) Jor- 
dan were the parents of ten children, 
six of whom attained the age of ma- 
turity. The mother was a noble 
Christian woman, unflinching in duty, 
sensitive, modest, lovable, tender, 
considerate, and keenly alive to the 
wants of others ; loyal to her convic- 
tions, she was for many years a val- 
ued member of the Congregational 
church, and her teachings, influence, 
and character had a strong and ben- 
eficial effect upon her children. She 
died in Colebrook, March 13. 1853. 

From the History of Coos County 
the following sketch is mainly taken : 

The early years of Chester B. Jor- 
dan were passed in hard labor, with 
long days of toil, scant advantages 
of education, and but little to encour- 
age him. Nothing but bare essen- 
tials, not the slightest approach to 
luxury, found a place in the frugal 
household. Strict economy was com- 
pulsory in the home life, and the 
scarcity of money caused home-made 
clothing to be the wearing apparel 
for many vears. The cheerless tasks 

were faithfully done, and the priva- 
tions uncomplainingly endured ; but 
the lad hungered for knowledge. 

There were no books at home ex- 
cept the Bible and well thumbed 
school-books, and the small Sunday- 
school library was eagerly devoured. 
There is one compensation in a life 
environed by such circumstances, in 
that there is early developed a keen- 
ness of thought and capacity of self- 
reliance beyond its years ; and so we 
find that Chester at an early age 
gathered and sold berries to pa} 7 for 
a subscription to the Independent 
Democrat, and, later on, to the New 
York Tribune, and began to be con- 
versant with the affairs of the world 
and the politics of the country at an 
age when many lads were only think- 
ing of their toys. He was interested 
at nine years of age in the campaign 
which placed Gen. Taylor in the 
presidential chair, and much more in 
that of 1852, when he purchased the 
campaign life of Gen. Scott and com- 
mitted it nearly to memory, and 
thought himself equipped to demon- 
strate to the Democratic boys of his 
circle the wisdom of electing Gen. 
Scott instead of Gen. Pierce. He 
remained with his father until 18G0, 
when his increased desire for educa- 
tion caused him to enter Colebrook 
academy for the first half of the term. 
From this time he attended Colebrook 
and Meriden academies uutil he was 
graduated at the latter institution in 
18GG. He became a popular teacher 
of public and select schools, was 
principal of Colebrook academy sev- 
eral terms, and taught in all eighteen 
terms. He was town superintendent 
of Colebrook in 186-3— '7, and select- 
man for 18G7. 

Hon. Chester B. Jordan. 

He heartily espoused the Republi- 
can cause, and was chosen to preside 
at all the meetings of that party held 
in Colebrook in the spirited campaign 
which resulted in the reelection of 
Lincoln. He made many friends, did 
thoroughly and without bluster all 
duties coming to his hand, and in 
1868 was appointed clerk of the Cobs 
county court, and removed to Lancas- 
ter, which has since been his resi- 
dence- He discharged the duties of 
this office with efficiency, and his re- 
tention was asked by nearly every 
attorney in the county, but he was too 
strongly Republican to be retained 
under a Democratic administration, 
and was removed, Oct. 23, 187-i. He 
had decided literary tastes and abili- 
ty, could clearly and forcibly express 
his opinions in writing, and in 1870 
had purchased the Coos Republican, 
and became its editor. Under his 
administration it was a candid but 
determined supporter of Grant, and 
ranked high among the newspapers 
of the state. For many years Mr. 
Jordan contributed articles to the 
Boston Journal, Concord Monitor, the 
Statesman, and campaign papers, and 
also to the Lancaster Gazette, in the 
presidential campaign of 1884. His 
political articles are marked by their 
clear comprehensiveness of affairs, 
their straightforward, matter-of-fact 
way of presentation, their candor, and 
their logical and conclusive reason- 
ing. In a quiet and unpretentious 
manner they reach the understand- 
ings of all in a way which tells. By 
voice and by his gifted pen he has 
ever advocated liberal appropriations 
for all educational, charitable, and 
patriotic objects. 

Mr. Jordan began the study of law- 

while clerk, continued it in the office 
of Judge William S. Ladd, and af- 
terwards in that of Ray, Drew & 
Heywood, and was admitted to prac- 
tice in the state courts in November, 
1875. He remained with Ray, Drew 
& Heywood until May 26, 1876, when 
Mr. Heywood retired, and the firm 
became Ray, Drew & Jordan. This 
firm was succeeded January 16, 1882, 
by Drew, Jordan & Carpenter, and 
later by Drew & Jordan. (In May, 
1881, Mr. Jordan was admitted to 
practice in the circuit court of the 
United States.) 

As a lawyer Mr. Jordau has chiefly 
given attention to the drafting of 
legal papers (in which he excels) and 
other office business. Connected as 
he has been with two such noted ad- 
vocates as Hou. Ossian Ray and Hon. 
Irving W. Drew, and being somewhat 
modest as to his abilities, he has not 
ventured often into this field, but 
when he has done so he has acquitted 
himself ably, and, in the opinion of 
some of his legal brethren, if he were 
compelled to present all his cases to 
the courts and juries, he would soon 
equal, if not surpass, any advocate 
in northern New Hampshire. 

From his sixteenth year Mr. Jor- 
dan has been a hard worker in poli- 
tics- In Colebrook, he was among 
the chief workers in carrying that 
close town. He was a good organ- 
izer, a close canvasser, and men 
would follow his lead. For several 
years he was pitted against Hon. 
Hazen Bedel (the strongest man of 
the Democracy, and one of the best 
men in the county) for the moderator 
vote, which was considered the test 
of the day. and was never defeated, 
although the plurality was sometimes- 


Hon. Chester B. Jordan 

but one. In Lancaster, he was put 
up in the same manner against the 
popular Col. Heury O. Kent, and is 
the only candidate nominated by the 
Republicans who has ever beaten the 
colonel for moderator. 

In 1880, in a hot, close fight, Mr. 
Jordan had one majority for first 
representative in a vote of nearly 
700, making a gain of over 100 votes 
for his party. He was chosen speak- 
er of the house of representatives by 
a very complimentary vote ; and, al- 
though new to the duties of this diffi- 
cult office, he proved himself a most 
admirable presiding officer, prompt, 
impartial, easy, and rapid in trans- 
acting the work of the position, and 
his efficiency and courtesy won him 
many and valuable friends. The 
Manchester Union, the leading Demo- 
cratic paper of the state, thus voiced 
the general sentiment at the close of 
the session: " For Speaker Jordan 
there is but one encomium, and that 
fell from the lips of all, ; Well done, 
good and faithful servant.' " 

Mr. Jordan was chairman of the 
Republican State Convention, held in 
Concord in September, 1882. There 
was a bitter contest concerning the 
nomination for governor raging be- 
tween the friends of Hon. Moody 
Currier and the friends of Hon. Sam- 
uel W. Hale. Factional feeling ran 
high, but under the tact and guid- 
ance of the presiding officer, harmony 
was secured, and the work of the con- 
vention successfully accomplished. 

Mr. Jordan has much influence in 
public affairs, and prominent men 
have owed their elevation to impor- 
tant positions to his counsel and as- 

In 1880 he was unaniinouslv nom- 

inated for state senator in the Coos 
district, and made a strong fight, in 
spite of the overwhelming odds against 
him, running 300 votes ahead of his 
ticket. In 1876 he was appointed 
one of a committee of three to inves- 
tigate the affairs of the State Normal 
School, and wrote the report to the 
legislature, which was ordered print- 
ed in a pamphlet form. In 1881 
Dartmouth college gave him the de- 
gree of A. B. ; in 1882 he was chosen 
honorary member of the Third Regi- 
ment, N. H. National Guard ; in 
1SS3, chosen honorary member_of the 
Webster Historical Society of Bos- 
ton ; in 1884, chosen honorary mem- 
ber of the Seventh N. H. Veterans' 
Association. He has long been a 
member of Evening Star Lodge of 
Masons at Colebrook, and of the 
Chapter at Lancaster, and was a di- 
rector in the Lancaster Natioual 
Bank during the first two years of 
its existence. 

Gov. Harriman, in 1867, tendered 
Mr. Jordan a position on his staff, 
which force of circumstances com- 
pelled him to decline. But in 1872 
he accepted a similar offer from Gov. 
Straw, and served on his staff. 

Mr. Jordan married, July 19, 1879, 
Ida R. Nutter, daughter of Oliver 
aud Roxannah C. (Weutworth) Nut- 
ter. She is descended from old New 
Hampshire families of repute, and is 
a lady whom it is always a pleasure 
to meet. They have had three chil- 
dren, — Roxannah Minerva, born Jan- 
uary 19, 1882; Hugo, born May 2e h 
1884, died May 2, 1886 ; and Glad- 
stone, born May 1, 1888. 

Mr. Jordan's abilities have received 
recognition in business and social, 
as well as in public and professional. 

The Scotch-Irish. 

6 9 

life. He is a wise and safe counsellor 
in business matters, has conceded 
executive ability, and is the guardian 
of many private trusts. He has a 
keen appreciation of humor, tells a 
good story well, can give a quick and 
telling repartee with point and wit 
devoid of any sting, and is popular 
because he deserves to be. His 
judgments of men and measures are 
singularly clear and impartial. His 
conclusions are formed from a broad 

comprehension of all the facts. His 
sense of justice is strong, and his 
intellectual qualities are admirably 
balanced. With all this, lie has the 
warmest of hearts, the quickest of 
sympathies, great kindness of man- 
ner, and utmost geniality of spirit. 

Aside from his law library Mr. Jor- 
dan has a choice library of general 
literature, with which lie is thoroughly 
familiar. It is specially rich in local 
New Hampshire history. 


'•The Scotch-Irish, so called in New England 
history, wore of Saxon lineage, with their blood 
unmixed, in the seventeenth century, with the 
half barbaric Scotch Highlander-;, or their rude 
cousins, the Irish Celts." — McClintock's History of 
Xeur Hampshire, page 138. 

mitted to so few changes as our 
Scotch-Irish ancestors. 


This sentence of the author was " The Saxons (Lat. Saxones ; Ger. 

first used in his unpublished History Sachsan), a tribe of the Teutonic 

of Pembroke, page 107, and was stock, are Grst mentioned by Ptolemy 

originally written in the fall of 1882, as occupying the southern part of 

several years before the argument of the Cimbrian peninsula between the 

Hon. John C. Linehan appeared in Eibe, Eider, and Trave, the district 
the Granite Monthly. 

The fallacy of Mr. Linehan's argu- 
ment is in the supposition that the 

Scotch-Irish of New England are of 
Celtic descent. He assumes that 
Hon. Leonard A. Morrison is correct 

now known as Holstein. The name 
is most commonly derived from 
* Sabs,' a short knife, though some 
authorities explain it as meaning 
1 settled,' in contrast to the Suevi or 
1 wandering' people." At the end of 

iii his statement that the settlers of the third century there was a "Saxon 

Londonderry were the descendants confederation." " The Saxons were 

of the Scottish Highlanders. one of the most warlike and adven- 

It is difficult to trace the descent turous of the Teutonic peoples, and 

of individual families from those 
early and troublous times, when all 
England was a battle-field, through 
the Dark Ages, down to the dawn of 
modern and authentic history ; but 

they not only steadily extended the 
borders of their home, but made col- 
onizing and piratical excursions by 
sea far and wide." Their settle- 
ments along the coast of France ex- 

a whole people, by their language, tended to the mouth of the Loire, 

laws, customs, and characteristics, and, though these were soon absorbed 

may be followed with comparative by the Franks, their expeditions to 

ease in their various migrations, es- England finally resulted in the found- 

peciallv when thev have been sub- ation of lasting kingdoms. About 


The Scotch- 1 risk. 

the beginniug of the fifth century, 
part of the Flemish coast became 
known as Lit us Saxonium. from the 
settlements of this people. The 
Saxons who remained in Germany 
(Alt-Sachsan or Old Saxons) gradu- 
ally pushed their borders farther and 
farther, until they approached the 
Rhine, aud touched the Elbe, the 
North sea, and the Harz Mountains. 
"They were divided into many inde- 
pendent communities," each having 
an ealdorman of its own ; and they 
only combined in time of war, or 
other emergency, to choose a com- 
mon leader. 1 They were finally con- 
quered, and forced to accept Chris- 
tianity by Charlemagne. Modern 
Germany, aside from Saxony, is 
largely peopled by the descendants 
of the ancient Saxons. The German 
language is the most closelv allied. 
in structure and roots, to the modern 

The first migration of Saxons into 
England was led by Hengist and 
Horsa, two brothers, about the year 
450. They brought over 1,000 men, 
who landed in the Isle of Thanet, 
44 and immediately marched to the 
defence of the Britons against the 
northern invaders. The Scots and 
Picts were unable to re.>ist the valor 
of these auxiliaries ; and the Britons, 
applauding their own wisdom in call- 
ing over the Saxons, hoped thence- 
forth to enjoy peace and security 
under the powerful protection of that 
powerful people." ' 2 

Rome had withdrawn her legions 
from Briton, aud left the people, un- 
used to the arts of war and enervated 
by luxury and peace, to the encroach- 
ments of the warlike and barbarous 

1 r>r:t. Ency., Vol 

Scots and Picts, who inhabited the 
highlands of Scotland or Caledonia. 
The Roman empire had been ex- 
tended by Agricola to a wall connect- 
ing the Clyde with the Firth of Forth. 
The wall of Hadrian extended from 
near Carlisle to the Tyne, near New- 
castle, thus embracing the lowlands 
of Scotland. These physical barriers, 
without the trained soldiers of Rome 
to defend them, were easily passed 
by the rude warriors of the north, 
who rushed to the pillage of a peace- 
able and defenceless people. Hence 
the Saxons were called upon to defend 
the Britons. These auxiliaries soon 
saw the weakness of those whom they 
were called upon to defend, and be- 
ing joined by a host of their country- 
men, resolved to occupy and govern 
the land in their own interest. This 
was not accomplished, however, until 
after a violent contest, a war of ex- 
termination, had been carried on for 
a century aud a half. During this 
time the whole southern part of Eng- 
laud, except Wales and Cornwall, 
had totally changed inhabitants, lan- 
guage, customs, and political institu- 

Thus was established the Heptar- 
chy, or Seven Saxon Kingdoms. 2 
t; The Saxons, soon after the landing 
of Hengist. had been planted in 
Northumberland, but as they met 
with an obstinate resistance, and 
made but small progress in subduing 
the inhabitants, their affairs were in 
so unsettled a condition that none of 
their princes for a long time assumed 
the appellation of king. At last, in 
517, Ida, a Saxon prince of great 
valor, who claimed a descent from 
Woden, brought over a reinforce- 

XXI. i Hume. 

The Scotch- Irish. 


ment from Germany, and enabled the 
Northumbrians to carry on their eon- 
quests over the Britons. He entirely 
subdued the country now called North- 
umberland, the bishopric of Durham, 
as well as some of the south-east 
counties of Scotland ; and he assumed 
the crown under the title of king of 
Bernicia. Nearly about the same 
time, ./Ella, another Saxon prince, 
having conquered Lancashire and the 
greater part of Yorkshire, received the 
appellation of King of Deiri. These 
two kingdoms were united in the per- 
son of P^thelfrid [Adelfrid], grand- 
son of Ida, who married Acca, the 
daughter of JElla, and, expelling her 
brother Edwin, established one of the 
most powerful of the Saxon king- 
doms, by the title of Northumber- 
land. How far his dominions ex- 
tended into the country now called 
Scotland is uncertain ; but it canuot 
be doubted that all the lowlands, es- 
pecially the east coast of that coun- 
try, were peopled in a great measure 
from Germany ; though the expedi- 
tions ma/e by the several Saxon 
adventurers have escaped the records 
of history. The language spoken in 
those countries, which is purely 
Saxon, is a stronger proof of this 
event than can be opposed by the 
imperfect, or rather fabulous, annals 
which are obtruded on us by the 
Scottish historians." l 

Adelfrid '* spread the terror of the 
Saxon arms to the neighboring peo- 
ple, and by his victories over the 
Scots and Picts, as well as Welsh, 
extended on all sides the bounds of 
his dominions. Having laid siege 
to Chester, the Britons marched out 
with all their forces to engage him, 
1 Hume, Vol. I., p. 20. 

and they were attended by a body of 
twelve hundred and fifty monks from 
the monastery of Bangor, who stood 
at a small distauce from the field of 
battle, in order to encourage the 
combatants by their presence and 
exhortations. Adelfrid, inquiring the 
purpose of the unusual, 
was told that these priests had come 
to pray against him. l Then are they 
as much our enemies/ said he, w as 
those who intend to fight against us/ 
and he immediately sent a detach- 
ment, who fell upon them, and did 
such executiou that ouly fifty escaped 
with their lives. The Britons, aston- 
ished at this event, received a total 
defeat ; Chester was obliged to sur- 
render ; and Adelfrid, pursuing his 
victory, made himself master of 
Bangor, and entirely demolished the 
monastery (603), a building so ex- 
tensive that there was a mile's dis- 
tance from one gate of it to another ; 
and it contained two thousand one 
hundred monks, who are said to have 
been there maintained by their own 
labor." 2 

The Seven Saxon Kingdoms were 
united in 827 under Egbert, but were 
slow to adopt Christianity. The 
English and Scotch of Saxon descent 
were never good Roman Catholics. 
Both rulers and people, nobles and 
priests, were never fairly submissive 
to the authority of Rome. 

" Before its fall, Northumberland 
produced three great men, the found- 
ers of English literature," — Csedmon, 
the first English poet, Bede, the first 
English historian, and Alcuin, whose 
school might have become the first 
English university. It is to this early 
dawn of talent (685-756) " among 

- Hume, Vol. I, p. 32. 


The Scotch-Irish, 

the Angles of Northumberland that 
England owes its name of the land 
of the Angles and its language that 
of English. Tin; northern dialect 
spoken by the Angles was the speech 
of Lothian [Scotland], north as well 
as south (in Northumberland) of the 
Tweed, and was preserved in the 
broad Scotch of the lowlands, while 
modern English was formed from the 
southern dialect of Alfred, Chaucer, 
and Wycliffe. This early Teutonic 
civilization of the lowland district of 
Scotland, in spite of the Danish wars, 
the Celtic conquest, and border feuds, 
never died out, and it became at a 
later time the centre from which the 
Anglo Saxon character permeated 
the whole of Scotland, without sup- 
pressing, as in England, the Celtic." 1 

Certain of the old Saxons refused 
to be converted by Charlemagne, and 
"fled northward into Jutland in 
order to escape the fury of his perse- 
cutions. Meeting there with a people 
of similar manners, they were readily 
received among them, and they soon 
stimulated the natives to concur in 
enterprises which both promised re- 
venge on the haughty conqueror and 
afforded subsistence to those nu- 
merous inhabitants with which the 
northern countries were now overbur- 
dened. They invaded the provinces 
of Erance," and were ''then known 
under the general name of Normans, 
which they received from their north- 
ern situation," and '* became the 
terror of all the maritime and even 
of the inland counties." 2 

Saxon England, now converted to 
Christianity, received incursions from 
these barbarous Normans and Danes, 

but remained generally under Saxon 
rule and influence until it was over- 
run and subdued by William the Con- 
queror (10G6). Many Saxon families 
retired to Scotland, where " they 
were well received by King Malcolm." 
"Partly with a view of strengthening 
his kingdom by the accession of so 
many strangers, partly in hopes of 
employing them against the growing 
power of William, he gave great 
countenance to all the English exiles. 
Many of them settled there, and laid 
the foundation of families which 
afterwards made a figure in that 
country."' 2 

In 1070, an insurrection among 
the Northumbrians being suppressed, 
William laid the country waste, and 
many refugees sought shelter in 
Scotland. 2 

A later insurrection among his own 
Norman followers (1075) having been 
overcome, " many of the fugitive 
Normans are supposed to have fled 
into Scotland, where they were pro- 
tected, as well as fugitive English, 
by Malcolm, whence come the many 
Ficnch and Norman families which 
are found at present in that coun- 
try." 2 

Scotland, from the Norman con- 
quest until the reformation in the 
middle of the sixteenth century, met 
with no great change. The Celtic 
Highlanders were nominally in the 
kingdom, but were lawless and un- 
ruly. The Lowlauders accepted the 
teachings of John Knox ; the High- 
landers remained true to the Roman 

James I came to the throne of 
England in 1G03. 

i Mneaa J. G. Mackay in Dnt. Ency Vol. XXI., p. 47C. 

- Hume. 

Th c Sco ich-Irish . 


The Reformation, the successful 
rebellion from the authority of the 
Pope of Rome, to this day has been 
chiefly confined to the descendants of 
ancient Saxons and Northmen, the 
inhabitants of the north of Germany, 
Scandinavia, Denmark, Holland, Eng- 
land, and Scotland. With the Celts 
and the Latin races the allegiance to 
Rome is generally maintained. The 
Norman and Gothic influence in the 
affairs of France was probably repre- 
sented by the Huguenots, and with 
them was crushed. 

"The only part of the policy of 
James I to which it is possible to 
look back with satisfaction was that 
which concerned colonization, — then 
called ' plantation.' This gave an 
outlet to the increasing population, 
while it advanced the civilization of 
the countries to which the settlers 
went. The earliest of these schemes, 
the 4 plantation ' of the Hebrides by 
a number of gentlemen of Fife, called 
4 undertakers,' had comparatively lit- 
tle effect ; but, apart from it. some 
progress was made in introducing or- 
der and law in the Highlands and 
Islands, where the people were still in 
a semi-barbarous condition. More 
important was the plantation of Ul- 
ster, chiefly by Scottish farmers, 
whose descendants still retain a 
Scottish dialect and a Presbyterian 
church." 1 

That there was a colony of Scots 
in Ulster many years before this plan- 
tation was formed is known from the 
fact that the ostensible cause of 
Shane O'Neill's Rebellion (1567), in 
the reign of Elizabeth, was the u ex- 
pelling the Scots from Ulster." 

Early in the reign of James I 

1 British Ency., Vol. XXI, p. 551. : Brit. En 

11 the whole of northern Ulster was 
at the disposal of the government," 
and the lands " were parcelled out 
among English and Scotch colo- 
nists, portions being reserved to the 
natives. The site of Derry was 
granted to the citizens of London, 
who fortified and armed it : and Lon- 
donderry became the chief bulwark of 
the colonists in two great wars." 
;i But the conquered people remained 
side by side with the settlers ; and 
Sir George Carew, who reported on 
the plantation in 1611, clearly fore- 
saw that they would rebel again * un- 
der the veil of religion and liberty.' " 

The Rebellion came in 1641. "That 
there was no definite design of mas- 
sacring the Protestants is likely ; but 
it was intended to turn them out. 
Great numbers were killed, often in 
cold blood and with circumstances 
of great barbarity." 2 

It has been estimated that two hun- 
dred thousand were thus butchered 
in a single day. The lowest estimate 
ever made was forty thousand. 3 It 
is admitted that the rage of the Irish 
was chiefly directed, during this out- 
break, against the English ; but their 
Scotch neighbors came in for their 
share of the persecution. 

"Cromwell's campaign (1649-'o0) 
showed how easily a good general, 
with an efficient army, might conquer 
Ireland. Resistance in the field was 
soon at an end." ;1 Then came the 
transplantation beyond the Shannon. 
The Irish Catholic gentry were re- 
moved bodily, with their servants, 
and such tenants as consented to fol- 
low them, and with what remained of 
their cattle. They suffered dreadful 
hardships." Cromwell's civil policy, 

cy.. Vol. XIII, pp. 2*36 and 267. s Hume. 


The Scotch-Irish 

to use Macaulay's words, " was able, 
straightforward, and cruel." He 
thinned the disaffected population 
by allowing foreign enlistment, and 
40,000 are said to have been thus got 
rid of. ki About 9,000 persons were 
sent to the West Indies, practically 
into slavery." 

The derelict property was divided 
between adventurers who had ad- 
vanced money, and soldiers who had 
fought in Ireland. 

" In Scotland during the last years 
of the reign of Charles II, the Prot- 
estants, or Presbyterians as they 
nearly all were, were growing less 
and less secure ; and on the acces- 
sion of James II, 1G85, they began 
to be openly and terribly persecuted." 
" Quite a large number of the Cove- 
nanters, to escape misery at home, 
between the years 1684 and 1G88 
emigrated to Ireland and joined their 
countrymen there." 

The siege of Londonderry and its 
heroic defence is a matter of history. 
Those heroes withstood for three 
mouths the attack of a great army. 
The survivors were honored by the 
whole English nation. 

" The Scottish Presbyterians, who 
defended Londonderry, were treated 
little better than the Irish Catholics 
who besieged it, — the sacramental 
test of 1704 being the work of the 
English council rather than of the 
Irish Parliament." 1 "A bare toler- 
ation had been granted in 1720. 1 
. . Landlords often turned out 
Protestant veomen to g;et a higher 
rent from Roman Catholic cottiers. 
The dispossessed men carried to 
America an undying hatred of Eng- 

land, which had much to say to the 
American Revolution." 1 

In 1719 commenced the exodus of 
the Scotch colonists who had set- 
tled in Ulster in the north of Ire- 
laud, until it is estimated that fully 
50,000 came to the shores of Amer- 
ica. They settled in all the thirteen 
colonies, from Maine to Georgia. 

It is a matter of record that they 
were devout Presbyterians, not one 
among their number a Roman Cath- 
olic. As a race they were aggressive, 
adventurous, independent, and war- 
like. They were civilized and edu- 
cated. They were thrifty. They 
introduced into the colonies various 
arts and handicrafts. They were 
builders. They were able to govern 
themselves wisely. From the first they 
were self-supporting. In 1720 Rev. Mr. 
MacGregor wrote to Governor Shute, 
— " T\ r e are surprised to hear our- 
selves termed Irish people, when we 
so frequently ventured our all for 
the British crown against the Irish 
Papists ! " 

From the soldiers who defended 
Londonderry descended the Dins- 
mores, the Cochrans, the McKeens, 
the McClintocks, and many others. 
Among the Scotch-Irish emigrants 
who settled in New Hampshire, from 
Ulster, from the Lowlands of Scot- 
land, from the Covenanters, from the 
Anglo-Saxon stock of Lothair and 
Northumberland, from the Saxons 
under Horsa and Hengist, from the 
Teutonic race, which sent forth the 
Goths and Normans to overrun the 
Roman empire and give liberty to the 
world, sprang the Sullivans, the 
Starks, the Bells, the McNeils, the 

J The Encyclopedia Bri'.annica, Vol. XIII, p. 

The Scotch- Irish . 


Blairs, the Wilsons, the Knoxes, the 
Nesmiths, the Morrisons, the Burnses, 
the Wallaces, the Livermores, the 
Martins, and a hundred other fam- 
ilies in Now Hampshire history. 

Forty or fifty generations ago the 
ancestors of the Scotch-Irish were 
pirates and freebooters. They cov- 
eted a land, they fought for it, they 
occupied it. They were brave and 

of the Celts, of the Normans, and of 
the French, yet retaining the lan- 
guage, laws, customs, and character- 
istics of the old Saxons, they arc and 
always have been distinctively Saxons. 
Three hundred years ago, in the Low- 
lands of Scotland, they were a civil- 
ized people, separated by customs, 
traditions, education, and manners i 
from the half civilized Highlanders to 

warlike. Trained in the legions of the uorth of them. In Ulster it is a 

Rome, they were invincible. In the matter of history that the Scotch 

course of time they absorbed their colonists did not unite or amalgamate 

Norman conquerors in England, and with their Irish neighbors. In the 

gave language and character, law and American colonies for over half a 

custom, to the British nation. The century after their migration to this 

American Revolution caused a divi- country, or until after the American 

sion (1775). Sixty millions of people Revolution, they remained a separate 

in the Republic of the United States and distinct people, as in the north 

of America speak the language of the 
Saxons, modified by French and 
Latin. 1 The mother country, with 
its dependencies in America, Europe, 

of Ireland they continue to this day. 

2 " It has been computed that, in- 
cluding the population of the United 
States of America, some hundred and 
Asia, Africa, Australia, and Ocean- five millions of people speak the Eng- 
ica, with as many more millions, lish language, and belong generally 
speak the same language, and are to the Anglo-Saxon race." " In India 
governed by nearly the same laws, it may be said that two hundred and 
Between two hundred and three htm- seventy millions of natives are really 
dred millions of people, more or less or indirectly governed by England." 
civilized, recognize British authority. " At present the British Empire pos- 
As the Celtic people have absorbed scsses the most extensive territory 
the blood of the Norwegian. Dane, and the largest population, together 
ancient Briton, Spaniard, Roman, with the greatest amount of wealth 
Greek, and perchance the Phoenician, 
and still remained Celtic in its char- 
acteristics, so it is claimed for the 
Lowlauders of Scotland, from whom 
sprang the Scotch-Irish of Ulster and 
of the United States, that they may 
have received an infusion of the blood 

and commerce, owned by any nation 
in ancient or modern times." They 
44 monopolize one third of the world's 
trade : more than one fifth of the 
world's population is ruled over by 
the Queen of England." Their li flag 
waves over one eighth of the habit- 

of the Scots and Picts, of the Britons, abl 

e 2 


H'he Engii-h language is essentially Saxon. Drop every foreign word, and it still remains the English 
language, robbed of its wealth and power of expression, it is true, but easily understood in the nursery 
as well as in the university. Take from the English language words of Saxon origin, and the English 
language disappears. 

- Wtstmiatter lieciew, for January, 1389. 


Hon. William Plumer, Jr. 




William Plumer, the eldest child of 
Governor William and Sally Plumer, 
was born in Epping, February 9, 

1789. His childhood was marked by 
a love of books and the self- formed 
habit of study, and equally so by 
modesty, quietness, and docility. At 
the age of thirteen he entered Phillips 
Exeter academy to be prepared for 
college. He entered Harvard college 
in 1805, and graduated in 1809. Im- 
mediately after leaving college, he 
commenced the study of the law with 

his father, and was admitted to the 
bar in IS 12. In 1816 he was ap- 
pointed U. S. commissioner of loans 
for New Hampshire. In 1818 he 
was elected to represent Epping in 
the legislature, and at once became a 
leading member, taking a prominent 
part in the principal debates. At 
that session he was nominated as a 
representative to congress, and was 
elected in the spring of 1819, and 
was twice reelected, serving with 
honor and distinction. In 1827 and 

The Shazi- Family 


1828 he was a member of the New- 
Hampshire senate. - In 1850 he was 
a member of the constitutional con- 

He married, September 13, 1820, 
Margaret F. Mead. The later years 
of -his life were passed in literary 
pursuits at his pleasant home in 
Epping. He died September 18, 

He was modest and unambitious. 
He shrank from notoriety, and was 
seen in public only when sought out 
and drawn from his retirement. He 
had a strong mind, ;i accurate in 
fact, sound in opinion, weighty in 
influence, suggestive and instructive 
to one of kindred tastes and con- 
genial pursuits. 

" His moral tastes and sensibilities 

were eminently true, pure, and deli- 
cate. From youth to age his life 
was governed by the severest princi- 
ples, aud might have challenged the 
closest scrutiny. His friendships 
were strong, and he cherished no 
enmities. Xoue knew him but to re- 
spect him : none shared his intimacy 
without holding him in the most 
affectionate regard. As a neighbor 
and a citizen he was a peace-maker, 
a steadfast friend of improvement 
and progress, a counsellor and helper 
in every good work, a consistent and 
judicious advocate of whatever could 
make those around him happier and 

" He was a Christian in belief, 
practice, and spirit." 


[Copied by permission from MS. History 

Roger Shaw, the progenitor of the 
Shaw families of Hampton, was of 
Cambridge, in 1G36, and was made 
freeman in 1638. He came from 
Cambridge to Hampton about 1647, 
where he purchased the right of John 
Cross to certain tracts of laud, and 
also received some grants from the 
town. He settled where the late 
Simeon and John Shaw lived ; and 
the place is still owned by two grand- 
sons of the latter, their home being a 
few rods easterly of the site occupied 
by the earlier families. The old home 
which stood on this site was taken 
down a few years since, after having 
been the residence of Shaw families 
for several generations. It was the 
same home that the lightning struck 
in 1727, when the occupants were so 

of Hampton, written by Joseph Dow.] 

wonderfully preserved. Mr. Shaw 
was one of the selectmen in 1649 and 
1654; a constable in 1654; a com- 
missioner for small causes in 1651 ; 
and he represented the town in the 
Massachusetts General Court in 1651, 
1652, and 1653'. 

He was born in England; m., 1, 
Anne ; 2, Susanna, wid. of William 
Tilton, of Lynn. She d. Jan. 28, 
1655. He d. May 29, 1661, leaving 
two sons and four daughters. It is 
not known in what order their names 
should be arranged. 


1. Joseph (n), b. about 1635; m. Eliza- 
beth Partridge; d. Nov. 8, 1720, ae. So j. 

2. Benjamin (in), b. about 1641 ; m. Es- 
ther Richardson ; d. Dec. 31, 1717, ae. 76 y. 

3. Mary, b. ; d. at Cambridge, Jan. 
26, 1640. 

7 S 

The Shaw Family. 

4. Ann, b. m. Samuel Fogg; d. Dee. 9, 

5. Esther, b. at Cambridge, June, 1638. 

6. A daughter. 

7. Mary, b. Sept. 29, 1045. 

II. Joseph Shaw, son of Roger (i). 
m., June 26, 3 661, Elizabeth Part- 
ridge; b. at Salisbury, Feb. 14. 164§, 
and settled at the Falls on the place 
afterward owned and occupied by 
President Weare, and at the present 
time by Zebulon Dow. 


1. Abiah, b. Oct., 1662; in. Thomas 

2. Elizabeth, b. Aug. 23, 1664; m. 
Aaron Sleeper. 

3. Samuel (iV), b. Aug. 23, 1666 ; m., 1, 
Esther Batchelder ; 2, Mary Tuck. 

4. A son, b. Dec. 11, 1669. 

5. Caleb (v), b. Jan. 31. 1671 : m. Eliz- 
abeth Ililliard ; lost at sea, March 19, 1715, 
ae. 44 y. 

6. Josiah, b. Jan. 13, 1673; d. June 
10, 1700, ae. 27 y. 

7. Sarah, b. Dec. 5, 1676. 

8. John. 

9. Ann, b. Oct. 20, 16S1 ; m. Moses 

III. Benjamin Shaw, son of Roger ; 
m., May 25, 1663, Esther Richard- 
son, and lived on the homestead. She 
d. May 16, 1736. aged 91 years. 


1. Mary, b. Dec. 2, 1664. 

2. Esther, b. Nov. 17, 1666; m. Jabez 
Dow; d. March 25. 1730. ae. ~'2 y. 

3. Sarah, b. June 22, 1669; m. Seth 
Fogg ; d. April 10, 1756, ae. 86 y. 9 m. 8 d. 

4. Abigail, b. Aug. 22, 1671; m. John 

v 5. Ruth, b. Dec. 24, 1673 ; d. unm. April 
13, 1715, ae. 41 y. 3 m. 20 d. 

6. Benjamin (vi), b. June 28, 1676; m. 
Oct. 2, 1711, Deborah Fellows. 

7. Roger (vn). b. Sept. 23, 1078; m. 
Alice Rawlings: d. Oct. 29, 1752, ae. 7 4 v. 

8. Joseph (viii), b. Nov. 1, 1681; m. 
Hannah Johnson. 

9. Edward, b. July 23, d. Aug. 8, 1685. 

10. Edward (ix), b. ; in., 1, Mary 
Johnson ; '1, Abigail Marshall ; d. Dec 
24, 1764. 

11. Hannah, b. July 23, 1690; m. John 
Wedgewood ; d. Aug. 9, 1755, ae. 65 y. 

12. John. 

IV. Samuel Shaw, deacou, son of 
Joseph (n) ; in.. 1, Esther Batchel- 
der, dan. of Nathan, who died Jan. 
24, 1715, aged 50 years; m., 2, Ma- 
ry, dau. of John Tuck, June 21, 1716, 
and lived at paternal homestead at 
the Falls. 

Mary, b. Jan. 22, 1718; d. March 27, 
1718. " 

Samuel, b. Aug. 16, 1719. 
Caleb, bapt. Oct. 2, 1726. 

V. Caleb Shaw, son of Joseph (n) ; 
m. Elizabeth, dau. of Timothy Mill- 
iard. He was a mariner; in 1714 
was master of the sloop Mayjloicer . 
He was drowned at sea, March 19, 
1715, aged 44 years. His widow m., 
2, Capt. Joseph Tilton. She died 
April 19, 1724, aged 44 years. 


1. Rachel, b Jan. 27, 1695; m. Abner 

2. Apphia, b. Dec. 22, 1699; m., 1, 
Peter Sanborn; m., 2, Robert Rowe. 

3. Josiah, b. Jan. 15, 1702; d. Nov. 12, 
1721 ; bapt. Feb. 12, 170J. 

4. Samuel (xxvrn), b. April 5, 1703; 
m., April 5, 1725, Rachael Fellows; bapt. 
May 9, 1703. 

5. Elizabeth, b- May 15, 1705; d. unm. 
May 5, 1724, ae. 19 y. 

6. Anne, b. April 28, 1707 ; d. unm. 
May 20, 1724, ae. 17 y. 22 d. 

7. Margaret, b. April 10, 1709; m. Jon- 
athan Tilton; d. 1790, ae. 81 y. 

8. Joseph, b. June 2, 1711: m. Eliza- 
beth Batchelder : lived at Brentwood. 

The Shazu Family. 


9. Ebenezer (x), b. Oct. 7, 1713; m. 
Anna Philbrlck ; d. Mar. 13. 178:2, ae. 68 y. 

10. Mary, b. Dec. 5, 1715. 

VI. Benjamin Shaw, son of Benj. 
(in); ra., Oct. 2, 1711, Deborah 
Fellows, probably widow of Sam'l C. 
Fellows, who died about 1707. 

(Moved to Nottingham, 1742?) 

VII. Roger Shaw, son of Benj. 
(m) ; m.. March 2, 170£, Alice Raw- 
lings, and lived at Bride hill. 


1. Mary, b. Nov. 28, 1705; d. unm. 
April 22, 17S7, ae. 81 y. 4 m. 

2. Alice, b. Aug. 8, 1707 ; m. Rob- 

3 Jonathan, b. May 9, 1709; m., 1, 
Elizabeth; m., 2, wid. Mar}- James; d. 
May 31, 1780, ae. 71. 

4. Rachel, b. Aug. 30, 1711 ; d. young. 

5. Josiah, b. May 24, 1713; d. Feb. 6, 
1770, ae. 5G y. 8 m. 

6. Esther, b. Sept. 21, 1715; m. James 
Sanborn ; d. April 29, 1796, ae. 80 y. 

7. Jedediah, b. Feb. 23. 1719. 

8. Rachel, b. Sept. 5, 1721 ; m., Jan. 
26, 1741, John Smith. 

9. Benjamin, b. Nov. 15, 1723; d. Jan 
8, 1738, ae. 14 y. 

VIII. Joseph Shaw, son of Benj. 
(ni) ; m., Dec. 12, 1705, Hannah, 
dau. of James Johnson. 


1. Gideon, b. Nov. 30, 1700; m. Ra- 
chel Brown; d. April 9, 1789, ae. 82 y. 
4 m. 

2. Jerusha, b. March 2, 170$-; m. Sam- 
uel Locke ; d. Nov. 4, 1780, ae. 71 y. 8 m. 

3. Esther, b. Feb. 13, 17£f. 

4. Elihu, bapt. April 6, 1712. 

5. Moses, b. Feb. 22, 1715. 

6. Caleb, bapt. July 14, 1717. 

7. Miriam, bapt. April 10, 1720. 

8. Mary, bapt. March 24, 172£. 

9. Sarah, bapt. Sept. 18, 172*;-. d. young. 
10. Sarah, bapt. July 27. 1729. 

IX. Edward Shaw, son of Benj. 
(hi) ; m., 1, June 27, 1716, Mary, 
dau. of James Johnson; m., 2, July 
2, 1727, Abigail Marshall, of Ips- 
wich, who died June 4, 1757, ae. 71 y. 


1. Mary, b. April 3, 1720. 

2. lehabod, b. Feb. 27, 1722; m. Sarah 
Moulton ; in Sandown Nov., 1759. 

3. Edward, b. March 2, 1724; ni. Ruth 
Fellows; d. July 16, 1787. 

4. Benjamin, b. March 15, 1727. 

X. Ebenezer Shaw, son of Caleb 
(v) ; m. Anna Philbrick, and lived on 
Sargent's island, where he had his 
home about twenty years, engaged 
much of the time in coasting and 
fishing. In 17(32 he removed with 
his family to the vicinity of Sebago 
lake in Maine, and settled within the 
limits of the present town of Stand- 
ish. He died March 13, 1782, aged 
68 years. His widow died Dec. 12, 
1804, aged nearly 84 years. At the 
time of her death it was found that 
the number of her descendants was 
201, — viz., 9 children, 82 grandchil- 
dren, 109 great-grandchildren, and 
one of the fifth generation. Their 
children, all born at Hampton, were, — 

1. Josiah, b. Jan. 3, 1740; m. 

Lamprey ; had six children; d. in 1810. 

2. Abiah, b. Jan. 16, 1741 ; d. unm. 
April 10, 1762, ae. 21 y. 

3. Joanna, b. April 4, 1743; m. July 7, 
1762, Peter, >on of Worthington Moulton, 
and went with her father to Standish ; had 
10 children ; d. Jan. 16, 1834, ae. nearly 
91 y. 

4. Sargent, b. Oct. 23, 1745 ; m., 1, 

Westcott, by whom be had 2 children; m., 

2, Dosett, and had 4 children ; m., 3, 

Anna Colby, and had 8 children. He d. 
Dec. 23, 1823, ae. 78. 

5. Ebenezer, b. Jan. 3, 1749 ; m. 1, Sarah 
Wood, and had 8 children: m., 2, and had 


The Shaw Family. 

13 children. He died Aug. 11, 1836, ae. 
87 y. 7 m. 

6. Elizabeth, b. March 21, 1751; in. 
James Moody; had 11 children; d. May 
27, 1816, ae. 64 y. 

7. Thomas, b. Oct. 10, 1753; m., 1, 
Anna Wood, had 7 children ; m., 2, Susan- 
na Thomas, and had 3 children. He d. 
Oct. 20, 183S, ae. 85 y. 

8. Molly, b. ; m., 1, Stephen 
Sanborn, and several children, all of whom, 
except one daughter, d. young. Her hus- 
band d. in 1779, and she, thirty years after- 
ward, m., 2, John May all. She d. Oct. 
29, 1840, ae. 80 y. 

9. Margaret; m. Daniel Bean, and had 
11 children; d., ae. about 80, in Aug., 

10. Joseph ; m. Eunice Bean, and bad 
13 children. 

XI. Jonathan Shaw, son of Roger 
(vii), lived at Bride hill. He in., 1, 
Oct. 14, 1739, Elizabeth, who d. Dec. 
17, 1754, ae. 43 y. ; m., 2, May 13, 
1755, Mary, widow of Jabez James, 
and daughter of Dea. Joshua Lane. 


1. Elizabeth, bapt. Dec. 7, 1740; d. 
April 26, 1745. 

2. Jonathan, b. Nov. 5, 1741 ; m. ; 
lived at Brentwood. 

3. Rachel, bapt. March IS, 1744; d. 
May 7, 1745. 

4. Elizabeth, b. Jan. 10, 1710. 

5. Mary, b. July 14, 1748. 

6. Benjamin (xiv), b. March 25, 1756; 
m. Mary Sanborn; d. April 1, 1825, ae. 
69 y. 

7. Susanna, b. June 2G, 1757 ; d. unm. 
Oct. 12, 1781, ae. 27 y. 3 m. 16 y. 

8. Josiah (xv), b. Oct. 23, 1759; m. 
Lydia Fifield ; d. April 12, 1832, ae. 72 y. 
5 m. 20 m. 

9. Bathsheba, b. Xov. 27, 1760; m., 
Jan. 1, 1783, Josiah Berry, of Greenland. 

XIT. Gideon Shaw, son of Joseph 
(viii) ; m. Rachel, dan. of Thomas 

Brown, and lived where Dearborn T. 
Shaw now lives. 


1. Rachel, b. Jan. 7, 1734; m., Jan. 3, 
1754, David James, of Kensington. 

2. Elizabeth, b. Jan. 7, 1736; m. Dear- 
born Blake, of Epping. 

3- Mary, b. July 26, 1739; m., 1, Lem- 
uel Towle ; m., 2, Feb. 10, 1780, Jeremiah 

4. Benjamin Brown (xvi), b. Dec. 1C, 
1745; m. Abigail Taylor; d. Jan. 14, 
1804, ae. 58 y. 

5. Moses, bapt. Feb. 14, 1748; d. April 
8, 1749. 

6. Joshua (xvn), b. Sept. 1, 1750; m. 
Deborah Palmer; d. Oct. 12, 1834, ae. 
84 y. 

XIII. Edward Shaw, son of Ed- 
ward (ix) ; m., May 7, 1746, Ruth 
Fellows, of Salisbury, and lived on 
the old homestead. She died May 
29, 1798, aged 75. 


1. Jeremiah (xvm), b. July 26, 1747; 
graduated Harvard college, 1767; m Han- 
nab, dau. of Capt. John Moulton ; was 
ordained pastor Congregational church at 
Moultonborough Nov. 17, 1779 ; d. 1834, 
ae. 87 y. 

2. Samuel, bapt. Dec. 25, 1748; m. 
Susan Page, Feb. 26, 1778 (both of Hamp- 

3. Mary (Molly), bapt. May 27, 1750; 
d. unm. Aug. 14, 1840, ae. 91 y. 

4. Ichabod, bapt. March 4, 1753. 

5. Abigail, bapt. Aug. 17, 1755; d. 
unm. Feb. 1, 1775. 

6. Simeon, bapt. June 12, 1757 ; m. 
Betty Green; d. without issue, Sept. 7, 
1842, aged 85 y. 

7. Levi, bapt. Feb. 18, 1759. 

8. John (xix), bapt. June 14, 1761 ; 
m. Zipporah Towle; d. Aug. 9, 1844, ae. 
83 y. 

XIV. Benjamin Shaw, colonel, son 
of Jonathan (xi) ; m. Mary, dau. of 

The Shaw Family. 


Abraham Sanborn ; lived at Bride 


1. Lucretia, b. 1780; m., April 27, 
180 L, Thomas P. Clark (then of II.), of 

2. Jonathan, b. 1781 ; d. Feb. IS, 1787. 

3. Sarah, b. 1783; m., Nov. 26, 1801, 
Dr. Jonathan French. 

4. Tristan (xxm), b. May 23, 1786; rn. 
Mary Batchelder; d. March 14, 1843, ae. 
66 y. 

5. Theodate, b. 1791; in. Nathan Pike. 
G. Mary, b. ; m. Josiah Robinson, 

of Exeter; d. 1858. 

XV. Josiab Shaw, sou of Jonathan 
(xi) ; m. Lydia Fifield ; 5 children. 

XVI. Benjamin B. Shaw, son of 
Gideon (xn) ; m., Nov. 21, 17G0, 
Abigail Taylor, and lived on home- 


1. Elizabeth, b. Sept. 8, 1772; d. July 
7. 1773. 

2. Abigail, b. Xov. 21. 1773; m , Oct. 
28, 1704, Josiah Davidson, of Rye. 

3. Moses (xx), b. Dec. 23, 1774; m. 
Abigail Dalton ; d. July 24, 1830, ae. 01 y. 

4. John (xxi), b. May 11, 1777; in., 1, 
Hannah Page ; in., 2, Nancy Marston; d. 
May 12, 1805, ae. 28 y. 

5. Rachel, b. Feb. 15, 1780; in. Jere- 
miah Ilobbs; d. April 28, 1853, ae. 73 y. 

XVII. Joshua Shaw, son of Gid- 
eon (xn) ; m., Xov. 17, 1771, Debo- 
rah, daughter of Samuel Palmer, and 
resided where his granddaughter, Eliz- 
abeth Shaw, now lives in Hampton. 


1. Elizabeth, b. May 28, 1775; d. June 
14, L783. 

2. Molly, b. ; d. June 13, 17,h3. 

3. Samuel, b. Sept. 12, 17*4; m. Debo- 
rah Clark; d. Nov. 8, 18G7, ae. 83 v. 1 m. 
27 d. 

4. Willard. bapt. May 14, 178G ; d. unm. 
Sept. 8, 1869, ae. 83 v. 3 in. 

XVIII. Jeremiah Shaw, clergy- 
man, sou of Edward (xm) ; m. Han- 
nah (dau. of Capt. John Moulton), 
who died March 2G, 1827, aged 7G. 
He graduated at Harvard college in 
1767 ; was ordained pastor Congre- 
gational church in Moultonborough, 
Xov. 17, 1779. 


1. Abigail, bapt. July 10, 1774. 

2. John Moulton, bapt. Feb. 4, 1776. 

3. Jeremiah, bapt. July 2G, 1778. 

4. Edward, bapt. Feb. 13, 1780. 

5. Eunice. 

G. Ichabod, b. 1781; became a physi- 
cian; d. 1834, ae. 53 y. 
7. Ruth F. 

XIX. John Shaw, son of Edward 
(xm) ; m. Zipporah, daughter of 
Samuel Towle, and resided at home- 


1. Ruth Fellows, b. 1802; d. unm. Nov. 
9, 1835, ae. 33 y. 

2. Simeon Brackett (xxiv), b. 1804; m. 
Jane Perkins: d. Nov. 1G, 1871. 

3. Edward (xxv), b. 1814; m. Sarah J. 

4. Elizabeth, b. 1816 ; m., Dec. 8, 1844, 
Benj. S. True. 

XX. Moses Shaw, son of Benj. 
(xvi) ; m., Feb. 12, 1799, Abigail, 
daughter of Michael Dalton, of Eye, 
and lived on homestead in Hampton. 


1. Benj. (xxvi), b. Feb. 18, 1801; in., 
1, Abigail Leavitt ; rn., 2, Sarah Nudd. 

2. Clarissa, b. Nov. 21, 1804; m. 
Thomas Philbrick, of Rye; d. July 21, 

3. Dearborn Taylor (xxvn), b. April 
29, 180G; m. Clarissa Blake. 

4. Daniel Dalton, b. April, 1808; d. 
Aug. 20, 1809. 

XXI. John Shaw, son of Benj. 
(xvi); rn., 1, Nov. 27, 1799, Han- 

i n c o // a zz ' jramziy. 

nah (daughter of Dr. Samuel Page), 
who died Aug. 21, 180?, aged 23 y. ; 
m., 2. Feb. 2, 1S04, Nancy (daughter 
of Samuel Marston), who outlived 
him, and in., 2, Simeon Philbrick. 
Mr. Shaw lived on east side of home- 
stead, where Benj. Shaw lived iu 



1. Molly, b. Oct., 1801; d. unm. Sept. 

25, 1821, ae. 19 y. 11 m. 

2. Child, b. Dec, 1804 ; d. Jan. 17, 1805. 

XXII. Samuel Shaw, son of Josh- 
ua (xvn) ; m., Feb. 11, 1808. Debo- 
rah, daughter of John Clark 


1. Elizabeth, b. Sept. 14, 1808. 

2. David, b. Aug. 25, 1810; m. Sarah 
Clark, a cousin of Portsmouth. No child. 

XXIII. Tristram Shaw, son of 
Col. Benj. (xiv) ; m. Mary, daughter 
of Sanborn Batchelder, and moved to 
Exeter. Four children. 

XXIV. Simeon B. Shaw, son of 
John (xix) ; m. Jane, daughter of 
John Perkins. 


1. Simeon, b. March 7, 1831 ; in. Sarah 
E. Lamprey. 

2. John Brackett, b. May 5, 1836 ; m. 
Mary Augusta Merrill ; d. Jan. 18, 1874. 

XXV. Edward Shaw, son of John 
(xix) ; m. Sarah Jane, daughter of 
Amos Towle ; lives in west part of 
Hampton. Six children. 

XXVI. Benj. Shaw, son of Moses 
(xx) ; m., 1, 1819, Abigail (daughter 
of Moses Leavitt), who died April 

26, 1845, aged 40 y. 5 m. 21 d. ; m., 
2, Sept. 3, 1846, Sarah, daughter of 
Samuel Nudd. 

Emily II., b. Oct. 22, 1810; m. James 
Pike; d. June 11, 1858. 

2. Mary, b. June 4, 1821 ; m. Geo. \V. 

3. Sarah Abigail, b. Dec. 18, 1822; m., 
1, Ephraim Saffbrd, v of Boston, who d. Dec. 
26, 1S54; m.. 2, 

4. Moses, b. Aug. 11, 1824; m. Miriam, 
dau. of Daniel Dow, of No. Hampton. 

5. Matilda L., b. Jan. 22, 182G ; m., 
Aug. 17, 1847, George Irving. 

6. Oliver L.. b. Nov. 9, 1827; m. Eliza 
Wright; resides in East Boston. 

7. John, b June 27, 1S30: m. Loeva. 

8. Maria, b. Aug. 15, 1832; m., Sept. 
4, 1855, Alfred Ingalls. 

9. Chas L., b. June 23, 1838; m. Mary 
Olive, dau. of Francis P. Blake; d. April 
29, 1872. 

XXVII. Dearborn T. Shaw, son 
of Moses (xx) ; m. Clarissa, daughter 
of Nathan Blake. 


1. Died young. 

2. Died young. 

3. Clarissa, b. Aug. 30, 1830; m. Amos 
J. Towle. 

4. Caroline L., b. Nov. 27,1832; m. 
Buckley Howe ; resides Evans, Colorado. 

5. Alonzo Whipple, b. Sept. 3, 1834. 

6. Elvira, b. Aug. 17, 1836; d. Oct. 
19, 1851. 

7. Loring Dunbar, b. July 3, 1838. 

8. W. H. Harrison, b. Jan. 23, 1840; 
d. July 9, 1857. 

9. Eveline, b. 1842; d. Oct. 31, 1813. 
10. Abby Evaline, b. Dec. 20, 1844; in. 

Jacob H. Eaton, of Seabrook. 

XXVIII. Samuel Shaw, son of 
Caleb (v) ; m., April 5, 1725, Rachel, 
daughter of Samuel Fellows ; resi- 
dence, Hampton Falls. 


1. Caleb, b. 1725. 

2. Samuel, b. 1727; d. Oct., 1737. 

3. Josiah, b. 1729; d. Sept., 1736. 

4. Hillianl, b. 1732. 

5. Debora. b 1734; d., Oct , 1736. 

6 Michael, (?) b. 1736; d. same year. 

7 Rachel, b. 1737; m.. Aug. 28, V 
Richard Brown, of Kensington. 
S. Samuel, b. 1750; d. young. 
9. Sarah, b. 1743. 

10. Ann, b. 1745. 

11. Samuel, b. 17-48. 

Note. The Editor of the Graxite 
Monthly would gladly publish the genea- 
logical records of the early settlers of New 
Hampshire, and respectfully solicits con- 
tributions of that nature. 

Chapter XV. 

The next morning Captain Homer 
was in a fever, and, for several days 
after their rescue, tossed about as 
much as his tightly bandaged arm 
would permit, uttering the incoherent 
words of delirium. Isabella and Helen 
sat many hours by his side, trying to 
soothe his pain. "When he became 
convalescent, they would read to him 
from the few books in Lieut. Barnes's 
collection. When he became able to 
be assisted to the top of the tower, 
and could sit there by the hour looking 
off on the distant Atlantic, Isabella 
would sit by his side, sometimes 
pained by his far-away look. 

One bright morning in January the 
two sat there in silence for a long 
time, when Homer broke the spell by 
saying, — 

" Isabella, you have become very 
dear to me. I love you. Will you 
love me. and be my wife?" 

Only a moment Isabella hesitated, 
then came the answer, — •• I love you, 
Clarence ; I will be your wife." 

Only a few words, but on them 
hung the destiny of two lives. 

•* Dearest Isabella, I loved you first, 
or knew that I loved you, when I saw 
you threatened by a great danger. 
You heard mv cry of warning? " 

•• Yes, Clarence, and I think I un- 

derstood that cry as well as if you had 
been on your knees before me," said 
Isabella. " My whole heart went out 
to you from that moment." 

Long they sat there, hand in hand, 
talking of their past, present, and 
future, as only lovers can. 

At length Helen appeared, fol- 
lowed by Tristan Hernandez. Tris- 
tan approached Homer, and, taking 
his left hand, said, — v ' Congratulate 
me, Cousin Clarence, for Helen has at 
last surrendered at discretion, after a 
long siege. We are to be married 
when her father is relieved at the 

" Is this so, really so, Helen?" 
asked Homer, reproachfully. 

" I have tired of waiting for you 
to propose," said Helen with a smile ; 
and, as you will not be my lover, I 
want you for a brother." 

t; How do you explain that? " asked 

"If you had not been blinded by 
your own affairs, you would have 
seen long ago that, instead of 
Cousin Clarence, you should address 
him as brother," said Helen. " Own 

up, no 1 

Have you not taken ad- 

vantage of our obliging absence to 
settle everything?" 

" What a delightful tease she is, to 


The Bui oiv Plantation. 

be sure?" said Isabella. "If she 
were not so soon to be ray sister, I 
might try to get angry with her." 

u Helen is right, Tristan. I have 
asked your sister to be ray wife, and 
she consents. We will be married 
when you are — shall we not, dear Isa- 

" I will be guided by you here- 
after," answered Isabella, looking 
lovingly into Homer's eyes. v * My 
destiny I have placed in your hands." 

As soon as Homer was out of 
clanger, and his arm was in a fair 
way of healing, Shepard had made 
bis way to St. Augustine and report- 
ed to the commander there the situa- 
tion of affairs down the coast, espe- 
cially at the Bulow plantation. When 
at length the unfortunate expedition 
mentioned in history had been decid- 
ed upon, the commander did not seem 
to value Shepard's advice and ser- 
vices, looking on him as a mad man, 
or one very visionary in his ideas, and 
started without him. Shepard was 
honored by being sent as a messenger 
to the old fort with dispatches to 
Lieut. Barnes. These, on delivery, 
proved to be an order for the old 
fort to be abandoned, and for Lieut. 
Barnes to proceed, as soon as trans- 
ports could be provided, with his gar- 
rison and military stores to St. Au- 

In a few days the barges appeared. 
The next morning the old fort was 
left to its former solitude, and the lit- 
tle garrison started towards St. Au- 
gustine with a fair wind. Their jour- 
ney was without any incident of note. 
On their arrival they at once pro- 
ceeded to the old Spanish house, 
the home of Antonio. Capt. Homer 
reported to the general in command 

the situation of things on the Halifax- 
river, the sudden attack of the Indians 
on the IJulow plantation, and the re- 
pulse, and his own adventures during 
and after that event. Gen. Church 
was surprised at the number of In- 
dians reported by Homer, and feared 
for the success of the expedition un- 
der Major Putnam. The next day 
his fears were realized, for the de- 
tachment returned with seventeen 
wounded men, two of whom died al- 
most immediately from the effects of 
their wounds. The commander not 
only had to report the ill success of 
the whole expedition, but the loss of 
the son of Hon. Elias B. Gould, who 
fell into the hands of the Iudians, and 
suffered torture and death — the usual 
fate of Indian captives. 

Tristan Hernandez received per- 
mission to raise a force of voluuteers 
to cooperate with the militia and reg- 
ulars, and heart and soul he entered 
into the project. Shepard was his 
ri<z;ht-hand man, his ouide and conn- 
sellor, although he took no rank in 
the battalion. 

Only those men, old and young, 
who were in some way familiar with 
Indian warfare, were urged to enlist; 
and quietly, without the beating of 
drums or blowing of trumpets, Her- 
nandez had a hundred frontiersmen 
under his command, each ready and 
willing to encounter the Indians in 
their own method of warfare. 

The plans of a new expedition 
were laid ; and Major Putnam again 
prepared to leave the city with his 
detachment of regulars, three compa- 
nies of militia, and Capt. Homer's 
company of cavalry, — Hernandez, with 
his force accompanying and cooper- 

The Bulow Plantation, 


In the latter part of January the 
force took up their line of march ; 
and once more Capt. Homer advanced 
over the King's road, not in a hurried 
gallop, but by an easy walk or lope 
to allow the long line of foot soldiers 
to keep up. His wound had so far 
healed as to allow the captain to re- 
sume his command, and on no account 
would he forego the pleasure of being 
present at the relief of the belea- 
guered fortress. 

The force proceeded to Pellicer 
creek, reopened the passage across 
by rebuilding the bridge, which had 
been burned after the retreat of Maj. 
Putnam, and encamped for the night 
on the opposite side in the open pine 

Camp fires were built in the centre, 
and a line of sentries established, 
and all seemed settled for the night. 
The rough, irregular line of Hernan- 
dez's volunteers had caused a smile on 
many a face of the neatly uuiformed 
soldiers, but Homer did not smile, 
especially when he looked at Shepard 
with his grizzled locks, and many 
other fierce, grey-bearded men. and 
saw in their faces the resolve for re- 
venge, the hatred of their savage 
foes, — in fact, everything but shrink- 
ing or fear. 

In a couple of hours the camp-fires 
died out, aud one by one the sentries 
fell back on the main body, and silent- 
ly the force fell into line. The vol- 
unteers now took the lead, as before 
they had brought up the rear, and by a 
quick step soon left the regulars far 
behind. Four hours of forced march 
brought them to near the entrance of 
the Bulow plantation. Here they 
silently divided into two bodies, Tris- 
tan leading the first party through 

the swamp into the woods to the north 
of the castle, while Shepard as cau- 
tiously took a wide circuit to the 
south, each posting his men as he ad- 

At daybreak the attack began, arid 
soon the discharges became continu- 
ous. The Indians fought well until 
they saw themselves opposed to fron- 
tiersmen, who met them with their 
own tactics, and greatly outnumbered 
them. They were slowly driven into 
the open fields, where, seeing them- 
selves completely surrounded by de- 
termined enemies, and exposed to a 
galling fire from the late beleaguered 
fortress, they made a virtue of neces- 
sity, and threw down their rifles in 
token of submission. Forty braves 
were thus captured, ten having fallen 
in the combat. Outside the swamp 

the combat raged with violence be- 

tween the regulars and the Indians, 

who, contrary to their usual tactics, 
advanced through the open pines to 
give battle to their enemies, driven to 
desperation by the anticipated loss of 
their mates about the castle. 

It appears that the stratagem of 
the commander had deceived the old 
chief. King Philip, for a while ; for he 
had been hovering about the flanks of 
the little army, and was preparing a 
midnight surprise for their destruc- 
tion, when his scouts brought in word 
of the sudden departure of the whole 
force and their probable destination. 
He was thus placed in their rear, and, 
collecting his whole force, rapidly 
pursued. The regulars were posted 
at the entrance to the avenue leading 
to Bulow, with their rear and flanks 
well protected, aud awaited the as- 
sault. The Indians charged twice in 
overwhelming numbers, but the steady 


The Billow Plantation. 

fire of platoon after platoon drove 
them back. 

Securing the prisoners by knots 
that would ensure their enforced pres- 
ence, Hernandez, leaving them to the 
care of the gunners, led his force 
back through the avenue to cooperate 
with Major Putnam. His timely ar- 
rival turned the tide of battle against 
the Indians. The rout was made 
more complete by the charge of Ho- 
mer's cavalry on the discouraged and 
retiring foes. 

After the charge had been recalled, 
Homer dashed through the avenue 
towards his uncle's home. Meeting 
Hernandez and Shepard on his way, 
he proceeded more leisurely towards 
the castle. The door had been thrown 
open, and the inmates, black and 
white, poured forth to breathe once 
more the free air of heaven. The 
sailors stood guard over the captive 
Indians to prevent their escape, as 
well as to save them from injury from 
the negroes. 

As Homer. Tristan, and Shepard 
were drawing near the entrance, Col. 
Bulow was just leading out Miss Maud 
Everett, followed by Antonio, who had 
gone to summon them from their con- 
finement ; and the words of greeting 
and welcome were hearty, and made 
more so when the party from the 
castle were assured of the safety of 
Helen and Isabella. 

44 Here is the gentleman, uncle, to 
whom we owe a deep debt of grati- 
tude. He saved all our lives. Col. 
Bulow, I present Mr. Andrew Shep- 
ard, long known on this coast as the 
4 hermit hunter.' " 

* 4 What name did you give, neph- 
ew? " cried the old colonel. 

"Andrew Shepard!" repeated Ho- 

mer, in surprise at his uncle's evi- 
dent emotion. 

44 Let me be sure !" cried the colo- 
nel. 44 Where were you brought up, 
Mr. Shepard? Where did you live in 
your boyhood ? " 

44 I was raised on my father's place 
near Valle, in the state of Georgia." 

44 What became of your family?" 

44 They were murdered by the In- 

44 And you were hiding at the time 
from your brothers and sisters? " 

44 Yes, I was in a hollow stump." 
answered the hunter, now beginning 
to display some emotion. 

44 Of course you do not remember 
me! How should you? Fifty years 
since we parted as boys ! " 

44 And who are you ?" cried the 

4i I am your brother John, Andrew, 
who was then a little toddler ; but 
that terrible scene can never be 
effaced from my memory." 

With a long hand-clasp they wel- 
comed each other as from the dead. 

Major Putnam now came up with 
his staff, and, being presented to Col. 
Bulow and the remainder of the party 
from the fortress, advised their in- 
stant preparation for departure, as he 
wished to recross Pellicer creek before 
dark. Three hours were allowed for 

The four large plantation wagons 
were quickly drawn out from the lum- 
ber of the basement, and mounted on 
their wheels ; the eight pairs of mules 
were led out from the court and har- 
nessed ; the cattle coming next, were 
yoked in pairs. Then came the ques- 
tion of what to take and what to 
leave, which had to be decided the 
minute it arose. Finally the loads 

The Bulozv Plantation. 


wore adjusted, each one taking as he 
was able, for what was left had to be 
burned, for the castle would be burned 
at the first visit of the Indians any 
way. And the hands were told that 
they could have what was left that 
would not interfere with their carry- 
ing arms. Heavy bags of sugar, 
corn, cotton, and bacon were thrown 
over their horses by the cavalrymen ; 
and then, as the procession marched 
along the road toward the avenue, the 
match was applied to the wood-work 
of the interior. As the last of the 
line entered the avenue, the tower at 
the south-west angle was raised into 
the air by a terrific explosion ; and 
the ruin was left as it may be seen to 
this day — its north-east tower intact, 
and part of its east end aud west wall 
still standing. The colonel aud Her- 
nandez bade good-bye to their late 
beautiful plantation with much regret. 
The march back to Pellicer creek was 
without any particular incident worthy 
of note. Arriving there about dusk, 
a regular camp was established, only 
the tents were missing. 

The volunteers were, at their own 
request, posted as an outer line of 
pickets ; but the night passed without 
an attack. 

By a central camp-fire were gath- 
ered the friends who have figured in 
this story — Antonio, Tristan, Homer, 
Col. Billow, Andrew Shepard, Maud 
Everett, and Captain Smith. 

41 Now, Brother Andrew," said Col. 
Bulow, " I can wait no longer for your 

Shepard repeated it as we have 
already heard, but concluded with the 
remark, "Now that I have recovered 
one of my family in my little pet 
brother, I shall not feel so revengeful 

towards the Indians ; but it has be- 
come so much a mania to kill them at 
sight that I shall have to lead a retired 
life again to avoid it." 

Colonel Bulow now in turn gave an 
accouut of his life. He had been 
snatched up by an old Indian warrior 
at the time of the attack upon the 
home of his parents, and adopted into 
his family. At one of the frontier 
forts, after the close of the Revolu- 
tion, a childless couple, Colonel and 
Mrs. Bulow, had seen and wauted to 
take him from the Indian to adopt as 
their own. The Indian was at length 
bribed into parting with his little 
charge. After a time a daughter was 
born to his adopted parents, but no 
difference had been shown to their 
son ; and ouly his vivid memory of 
the sccue of the massacre of his fam- 
ily reminded him that his own parents 
were murdered by the Indians. At 
the proper age he had been sent to 
Princeton college, and, returning, had 
studied law and been admitted to the 
bar at his parents' adopted home, in 
Charleston. S. C. Early in his career 
as a lawyer he had examined the title 
deed of his own father to his grant of 
land and found it good, and, visiting 
it, found it occupied by a flourishing 
village, with a church over the cellar 
of his father's cabin. A long law- 
suit was instituted, which depended 
for its success ou his identification as 
the son of the murdered family, the 
old Indian being brought forward, and 
Colonel and Mrs. Bulow, as witnesses. 
It ended in a compromise, by which 
the actual settlers retained possession 
of their lands aud got a good title by 
the payment of $200,000. - Half of 
this sum I invested in the best secur- 
ities, and have always held in trust 


The Bulozt' Plantation. 

for yon, my brother, or for your heirs. 
I have advertised over the whole 
United States for a trace of you." 

44 I have not owned my name for 
many years until I met Capt. Homer 
shortly since." 

"•And your story explains to me 
why my grandfather consented, at 
your request, for all his fortune to 
go to my mother instead of part to 
you," said Homer. 

" Your grand father was all a father 
could have been to me, and I took his 
name when a child. When I recov- 
ered my own father's property, I had 
enough and to spare. I had a good 
chance to go into business in Charles- 
ton. I made and lost a great deal of 
money, but have managed to lay by 
for my daughter all that I received 
from my father's estate besides this 
unfortunate investment." 

44 1 hope, sir, you will consent to 
allow your purchase-money to remain 
in the family," said Tristan, w - for 
Helen has agreed, with your consent, 
to become my wife." 

" My dear friend, you have surely 
won your wife, and I entrust her to 
your care with implicit confidence. 
I have seen your love for a long 

44 1 shall want your blessing on my 
union with Tristan's sister Isabella, 
dear uncle," said Homer. 

44 Of course you can have it, my 
boy — the families cannot be united 
too closely ; but have you thought 
about your difference in religion, ray 
dear boys?" 

44 That cannot stand in the way of 
two hearts uniting. But as religion 
is said to be a stronger motive in the 
feminine branch of our race than in 
ours, I think it will be better for the 

husbands to agree with their w r ives 
than for them to try to force the sen- 
timents of the dear ones. Now you 
are an Episopalian, Clarence ; it will 
be very easy for you to become a 
Catholic. While for my part, I could 
conscientiously worship Christ and 
obey his divine laws with any sect 
who profess His divinity, from the 
Catholic to the Unitarian." 

44 1 do not know about this latitude 
of faith," said Antonio; "'but on 
talking the subject over with Miss 
Maud, she agrees with me that as we 
hold the same views on the subject, 
we should unite our destinies lest 
either of us be tempted from the 

44 So you, too, brother, are going to 
be married ! Allow me to congratu- 
late you both." 

44 I think my good woman would 
have footed it all the way from Sedg- 
wick to have been the witness to such 
a jolly romance. She is a powerful 
match-maker, though. On the whole 
I am glad she remained at home ; she 
would have been sure to have mixed 
you all up contrary like." 

The hour was getting late, and the 
party now separated for the night, to 
roll themselves up in their blankets 
and get all the sleep they could. 
Maud was glad to have a place ar- 
ranged for her beneath one of the 
plantation wagons. 

The next day they arrived safely in 
St. Augustine, and our party were 
once more united in the spacious 
home of Antonio. The sailors were 
paid off, and with Captain Smith and 
Mr. Turner took passage almost im- 
mediately in a returning transport to 
some northern seaport. 

The captured Indians were lodged 

The Bulow Plantation, 

8 9 

in Fort Marion ; and to stranger-visit- 
ors the old ordnance-sergeant who 
acts as guide points out the narrow 
port-hole through which one chief 
forced his way and made good his 

The first care of Colonel Bulow 
after his arrival in St. Augustine was 
to carry out the pledge given to his 
negroes. He purchased a tract of 
2,000 acres near the old city, and 
dividing it up into lots, built another 
village of cottages, and soon estab- 
lished the plantation hands thereon. 
In the long run it proved a paying 
investment, for, while cultivating 
their own land with renewed energy ^ 
Billow's land was made a garden 

The marriage of Helen and Tristan 
was solemnized by the chaplain of the 
regiment, while those of Homer and 
Isabella, and Antonio and Maud, 
were consecrated at the old cathedral. 

Antonio had seen enough of war 
with the Indians, and he settled down 
to the quiet life in St. Augustine, oc- 
casionally taking a trip to Washing- 
ton and New York. 

The careers of Homer and Tristan 
.were by no means quiet, as they both 
served through the Florida war, 
which lasted seven years : but at last 
both had the pleasure of seeing the 
last squad of the warlike Seminoles 
transplanted to the open prairies of 
the Indian Territory. 

Andrew Shepard lived with his bro- 
ther, Colonel Bulow, for many years, 
and at his death left his property in 
equal portions to the children of Helen 
and Isabella, both of whom were 
blessed with a little flock. 

During the fall and winter of 1S73 
it was the privilege of the writer to 

pass several months in St. Augustine, 
and down the coast in the neighbor- 
hood of the Bulow plantation. With 
the grandson of the fair Helen he vis- 
ited the old Spanish fort at Matanzas 
Inlet and the ruins of the old sugar 
house ou the Bulow plantation. The 
wreck of the Lucy Jane has long 
since disappeared, but the huge logs 
of Spanish cedar, still strewn along the 
beach, almost as sound as when first 
loaded on the ill-fated brig, are a si- 
lent witness of the story as given by 
young Hernandez. Encamped on the 
sand-ridge, of a moonlight night, the 
years seemed to roll back, and once 
more the three brave men launched 
their boat through the surf, while the 
red demons, hurrying along the beach 
from both directions, poured into the 
fugitives their unfortunate fire. 

The next summer, while cruising 
in a yacht on Penobscot bay, a har- 
bor was sought under the lea of Eagle 
island. While riding out a rain- 
storm, the writer accompanied a friend 
to the light-house on the eastern bluff. 
Here he was met and welcomed by 
a hearty old sailor who was the light- 
keeper. He entertained the party 
with his agreeable conversation, and 
to the question as to the occupation 
he followed before his appointment to 
the light-house he replied, — "Well. I 
have done most everything to make 
an honest living — logging, farming, 
fishing, coasting, piloting, and shoot- 
ing Indians." 

44 Please tell us your experience in 
the latter line," requested my friend. 

Then came the account of the ship- 
wreck on the coast of Florida, the 
defence of the Bulow castle, and 
the retreat to St. Augustine. Taking 
notes seemed to surprise him, but my 


Hon. Robert J. Walker. 

friend explained the apparent eccen- 
tricity by stating that it was a news- 
paper correspondent's freak, whose 
scribbling passion was strong under 
all circumstances. From this worthy 
old man, who proved to be James Tur- 
ner, were filled out many blanks that 
must otherwise have occurred in the 
story. Captain Smith had long gone 
the wav of all humanity, but his boys 

were at last accounts prosperous mer- 
chants in Rockland. 

The Tarr brothers had settled on 
Isle au Haut, both comfortable, well- 
to-do citizens. Although John had 
been watched very closely by the cus- 
tom-house officials, yet had he never 
been openly caught in avoiding the 
customs duties. 


By Charles S. Spauldixg. 

Robert James Walker was born at 
Northumberland, Pa., in 1801. At 
the age of fourteen he entered Penn- 
sylvania University, from which he 
graduated in 1819, and at once com- 
menced the study of law. 

Settling in Pittsburgh in 1821, he 
began practising law, taking at the 
same time a deep interest in political 
affairs, bringing forward the name of 
Gen Jackson for the presidency before 
it had been elsewhere mentioned. 

Mr. Walker removed to Natchez, 
Miss., in 182G, where he acquired an 
extensive law practice, subsequently 
was nominated judge of the supreme 
court, which honor he declined. 

He was elected United States sena- 
tor by the legistature of Mississippi 
in 1835, defeating the Hon. George 
Poindexter by seven votes. 

Soon after entering upon his duties 
in the seuate he made a spirited reply 
to Mr. Clay on the public land ques- 
tion, by which he acquired great pop- 
ularity throughout the North-west. 

When the acquisition of Texas be- 
came a serious consideration, a secret 
agent was s>ent to that country to in- 
quire into its resources, and a move- 

ment was inaugurated which led to its 
conquest : in this matter Mr. Walker 
was the personal advisor of the presi- 
dent. He supported the principle 
measures of Van Buren's administra- 
tion, especially on the Bank and the 
Independent Treasury questions. It 
was principally through his influence 
that John Tyler vetoed those Fiscal 
Bank bills which had passed both 
branches of congress, in August and 
September, 1841, which act created a 
rupture between the executive and 
the Whig party, — Mr. Walker being 
a brother-in-law of President Tyler's, 
and also being an adroit Democratic 
politician, and occupying a position 
that enabled him to render the presi- 
dent much aid in carrying out his 
principles against the Bank. 

It was his counsel more than 
that of any other statesman that influ- 
enced President Tyler to take those 
unexpected, vigorous, and initiatory 
measures at the very close of his ad- 
ministration which defeated European 
intervention and paralyzed political 
Intrigue, and resulted in the incorpo- 
ration of Texas with the American 
Union. Texas consecrated these ex- 

Hon. Robert J. Walker 

9 1 

ertions in their behalf by placing his 
statue in their capitol. 

The selection of Robert J. Walker 
as Secretary of the Treasury by Pres- 
ident Polk, March 4th, 1845, was a 
party necessity : he had been one of 
the most active and influential mem- 
bers of the Baltimore convention of 
May, 1844, in dei eating the nomina- 
tion of Martin Van Buren at that 
convention. It is doubted whether 
even Mr. Calhoun contributed more 
largely to produce that result, — and 
the demand of the Southern men for 
Walker's appointment was impera- 
tive. He was a gentleman of a great 
deal of ability, an accomplished law- 
yer, and equal to any duty that might 
be devolved upon him. 

The opposition of Mr. Van Buren 
to the annexation of Texas was the 
basis of Mr. Walker's opposition to 
the ex-president. Then, again, he was 
the main-spring in the convention to 
bring forward and secure the nomina- 
tion of James K. Polk for president. 
Being a strong advocate of a revenue 
tariff, he recommended to congress, 
in his annual report of December, 
1845, a reduction of duties on im- 
ports, which was incorporated into a 
law passed in 184C, and went into 
operation that year, and remained on 
the statute book substantially the 
same about sixteen years. 

In June, 1853, he was appointed 
commissioner to China, but resigned 
because a steamer was not furnished 
him according to promise. 

He was appointed governor of 
Kansas territory by President Bu- 
chanan in 1857, which otlice he sub- 
sequently resigned on account of a 
difference of opinion between him and 
the executive in regard to the gov- 

ernmental policy to be pursued toward 
Kansas. Had Mr. Buchanan adhered 
to the policy as foreshadowed in his 
letter of instructions to Governor 
Walker, there would have been no dis- 
turbance within the borders of that 

He was a warm supporter of Presi- 
dent Lincoln's war measures, and was 
one of the president's advisers during 
the war. 

In April, 1861, he delivered an ad- 
dress in New York city strongly 
defending the acts of the administra- 
tion party in regard to the Rebellion. 

In 1863 he was appointed financial 
agent of the United States government 
in Europe by Secretary Chase, return- 
ing in Nov., 1864, having effected the 
sale of $250,000,000 of 5-20 bonds, 
and defeated the sale of the second 
Confederate loan of $75,000,000. 

During the last few years of his 
life he paid considerable attention to 
literature, publishing several letters 
on finance and other subjects ; and 
in connection with his law partner, 
Frederick P. Stanton, of Tennessee, 
edited a monthly magazine devoted to 
literature, which was at first of some 
merit, but which lacked stability. 

He finally settled at Washington, 
and engaged in the prosecution of 
claims, and specific measures of legis- 
lation. In the latter capacity he was 
influential in procuring the ratification 
of the Alaska treaty, and was com- 
promised by an unpleasant scandal 
arising therefrom. 

Mr. Walker died at Washington, 
November 11, I860, aged 68. In 
the death of Mr. Walker the country 
lost one of its greatest statesmen and 
politicians combined, always exert- 
ing a great influence at Washington. 

9 2 

Captain 9 Alden Partridge, 

By Rev. S. C. Beane. 

Perhaps no country has so urgent twenty-three years of age, he was 

a motive for gratitude to its great called to the duties of the superintend- 

educators as the United States, be- ency of the academy during the ab- 

cause our republican system of gov- sence of Col. Williams, and held the 

eminent rests entirely on the enlight- position most of the time until 181 ,% 

enment and intellectual competency wben he was appointed superiutend- 

of the people. ent, holding the office a little over 

Massachusetts showed a wise iu- two years, 
stiuct when she chose as the two men The weak and crude condition, in 

whose statues should adorn her state- 
house vard the one that she then re- 

those days, of this beginning of a 
national military academy is shown 

garded as her greatest statesman, and by the fact that young Partridge had 

the one that had led in the creatiou but two teachers while a cadet, and 

of her public school system. that during his ad interim superin- 

Captain Alden Partridge, whose teudency, it required great effort and 

name, half a century ago. was famil- urging on his part to obtain from the 

iar and respected in every part of this government two small field pieces for 

country, and was not unknown in Eu- practice. 1 

rope, deyoted a long. laborious, and Iu 1818 he resigned both the super- 
self-sacrificing life to the development intendency and his military coramis- 
and application of what he regarded siou, and henceforth, excepting a 
as the true and adequate idea of year devoted to the government sur- 
American education — education for vey of our north-eastern boundary, 
Americau citizenship. A short sketch spent his life in the carrying out of his 
of his life and work will show how project of a national education, 
able, earnest, and disinterested was His purpose first took shape in the 
his devotion to this idea. establishment, in 1820, of "The 

Born, the son of a Vermont farm- American Literary, Scientific, and 
er, at Norwich, on the Connecticut; Military Academy," at Norwich, Vt., 
iu 1785, he entered Dartmouth which after five years was removed to 
college at seventeen, but in the midst Middle town, Conn., he being superin- 
of his course was appointed to the tendent of the institution. 
United States Military Academy at The principal distinguishing feat- 
West Point, as a cadet of the artil- ures of the Academy, as of all the 
lerists. In 1*0G he was transferred to educational institutions which he es- 
the corps of engineers, where he was tablished, were these : 
made 1st Lieutenant, and in a few First, the instruction was intended to 
weeks he became assistant professor fit the students for those common and 
of mathematics. In 1808, when only essential duties of citizenship with- 

* For this, and several other important facta of record, the writer i? indebted to a biographical paper 
written many year? ago by Hon. Thomui H. Seymour, a distinguished statesman of Connecticut. 

Caftain Aid en Pa?' I ridge. 


out which, as he thought, no Ameri- 
can is equal to his vocation. The 
languages, ancient and modern, were 
faithfully taught to all who desired 
them, but the chief stress was put 
upon the English language, the math- 
ematics, civil engineering, military 
science, and the duties of an Ameri- 
can citizen. Captain Partridge would 
give young men such an education as 
should make them competent for what 
they were required to do and to be in 
this new and vigorous republic. He 
would school them for the under- 
standing of our governmental system, 
for the exploring and developing of 
our national resources, for the intelli- 
gent doing of the political and com- 
mercial duties which might devolve on 
every member of the body politic, 
and for engaging in the defence of the 
country when the demand came, not 
as a raw and ignorant recruit, but as 
a well drilled and patriotic soldier, 
ready at any hour for the national 

He believed that wars, among civ- 
ilized nations, would grow infrequent, 
and before long cease, if the citizens 
of those nations were generally in- 
structed and equipped for military ser- 
vice, each people thus awing down 
its would-be foes, giving dignity and 
eusuring deliberation to all inter- 
national questions, and preventing 
those weak exposures to a rival power 
which are, after all, a chief provoca- 
tion to warfare. It was his strong 
hope that the United States would 
never again be called to grapple with 
foreign arms, if the fact and the 
understanding were, that our young 
men as a body had been well instructed 
in the military art, and that a trained 
volunteer army could be gathered 

at sudden call — an army composed 
largely, in rank and file, of disci- 
plined soldiers, who had not merely 
gone through the annual holiday drill, 
but had learned the tactics step by 
step with their geography and arith- 
metic, who from boyhood had prac- 
tised the duties of the camp and 
march, and who had given attention, 
uuder the best experts, to the science 
of fortification and the movements in 
the field. Captain Partridge magni- 
fied the value of the mathematics, of 
the knowledge of political and phys- 
ical geography and topography, sur- 
veying and engineering, international 
and commercial law, and especially 
of a knowledge of the Constitution of 
the United States, and the actual 
working of the general government 
and the state governments. Ju short, 
he contended for an American educa- 
tion, suited to our republican life, our 
pioneer experience, and the patriotic 
aspiration for power and prestige 
among the nations. 

Second, physical development and 
endurance, as promoted by the man- 
ual of arms and experience of the 
march and camp, and the subjection, 
in youth, to military rules, was an 
essential feature of the system. Box- 
ing and fencing were taught and rec- 
ommended, and pupils were encour- 
aged to make use of their easy and 
tireless military step in taking long 
walks. Travelling on foot was held 
in esteem, not only for its healthful- 
lness, but for the independence it in- 
sured. Captain Partridge walked 
seventy miles in a day without great 
fatigue. His cadets were taught to 
disesteem public or private conveyan- 
ces when the distance to be overcome 
was not more than twenty or even 

fifty miles. Military erectness, ease 
of personal carriage, and orderliness 
of behavior were, to his mind, sim- 
ple conformity to nature, and hence 
a secret of mental vigor and moral 
courage, no less than physical health. 

Third. Captain Partridge was the 
first distinguished advocate and ex- 
emplifier in America of the elective 
system in a liberal education. He 
believed that each young man. in 
council with his parents and teachers, 
should very early select his life-work, 
and thereto direct his chief mental 
energies. Not that he would discour- 
age the broadest culture ; but he claim- 
ed that study without a particular 
direction and goal could have no suf- 
ficiently sober motive, but would be- 
come superficial and be apt to degen- 
erate into mental dissipation. The 
■one definite and sturdy aim he be- 
lieved to be an indispensable condi- 
tion of the best and most faithful 
application in whatever main road or 
side path the mind might travel. So 
that, after insisting on the rudiments 
of an education for citizenship. — in 
the mathematics, grammar, geography, 
history, and military and govern- 
mental science, — he advised every 
student to direct his energies to one 
principal purpose. 

The writer will never forget an 
evening he spent with Captain Part- 
ridge, while his pupil, at the age of 
fifteen. It was by the captain's ap- 
pointment and order, made at roll- 
call. k% I have requested you to 
come," said the captain, k > that we 
might consider together your future. 
What do you mean to do in the world ? 
It is high time to decide." The young 
boy had never once thought of the 
matter. He entered the captain's 

study that evening a raw, 
ble stripling; he left it almost a man. 
feeling that at any rate some vocation 
needed him, and that life was a pretty 
serious business. This great teach- 
er's maxim seemed to be. " See early 
what God and nature have done for 
you, and make the best and most of 

Fourth. Captain Partridge was one 
of the first great teachers in this 
country, if not the first, to give in- 
struction largely by lectures. The 
college catalogues of sixty years ago 
make very little of this feature of 
instruction ; and wherever it ex- 
isted, it seems to have been a dry 
and literal recital of scientific or his- 
torical facts, or moral theories and 
precepts. Those of us who heard 
Agassiz lecture twenty years ago, and 
Captain Partridge from thirty-five to 
sixty years ago. must have asked our- 
selves whether the latter were not 
the intellectual child and successor of 
the former. Both taught largely by 
lectures ; both showed an exceeding- 
breadth of view, and saw everything- 
in its wide meanings and relations. 
Whatever the great naturalist was 
discoursing upon, he traced it to the 
larger domain, and fouud its true set- 
ting among the sciences. So that it 
was said that every lecture of Agassiz 
was a lecture upon the physical uni- 
verse, and everything was made to 
shed clear light upon the particular 
subject in hand. Just so with Cap- 
tain Partridge : his lectures on mili- 
tary science were not tissues of mili- 
tary rules and tactics and battles 
and sieges, but were concrete and 
often picturesque upholdings of the 
world's history, expositions of the 
events which led to particular wars. 

of the progress or backwardness of 

the people iu arts and sciences, of 
that intercourse or non-intercourse of 
the people with the larger world which 
would make their style of warfare 
what it proved to be. and the outcome 
in historic results. His cadets must 
all remember thankfully his lectures 
on Old Testament history, in which 
those Hebrew days were made almost 
as vivid as the 18th century, — each 
national movement, each clash of 
Israel with heathenism, each success- 
ive system of government, and each 
national assault and resistance, made 
real and significant. 

Fifth. But perhaps the most inter- 
esting and grateful characteristic of 
Captain Partridge's method of in- 
struction was its Socratic or Rabbini- 
cal feature. He made his pupils his 
comrades, maintaining strict mili- 
tary discipline, and each cadet con- 
stantly under orders ; yet he took his 
pupils on frequent and long walks 
almost always with a barometer in 
hand, fortified witli them a particu- 
lar hill, or attacked an enemy in a 
stronghold, while rocks, and trees, 
and water-currents, and atmospheric 
movements were observed in a de- 
lightful combination of work and 
play. At every national or state elec- 
tion or annual town-meeting he sent 
his cadets to the voting-place to spend 
the day in watching the actual opera- 
tions of our governmental system. 
More than once he made journeys, 
largely on foot, with a band of cadets, 
in vacation, visiting Washington and 
other places of historical or political 
interest, and on one and another such 
excursion called on every surviving 
president of the United States. No 
Gamaliel ever kept closer to his disci- 

ples, or companioned more intimately 
with them by the way ; and no 
teacher was ever more loath to call 
theoretical knowledge kuowledge, un- 
til it had found its application to real 
facts. These are a few factors of 
Captain Partridge's system of Amer- 
ican education. Whatever may he 
thought of it now, it was the work of 
a great, earnest, original mind. And 
for a time, at least, it commanded the 
attention of the country. 

Besides the institution at Norwich, 
which afterward went to Middletown, 
he obtained, in 1834, while a member 
of the Vermont legislature, a charter 
for Norwich University, to be located 
in his native town, in which charter 
the trustees were required k 'to pro- 
vide for a constant course of instruc- 
tion in military science and civil engi- 
neering," and " prohibited from estab- 
lishing any regulations of a sectarian 
character either in religion or politics." 
Of this- institution he was president 
for nine years, there being no finan- 
cial endowment, and the buildings 
and their contents, together with the 
arms, being his private property. 
Norwich University still exists, hav- 
ing been removed some years ago 
to Northfield in the same state, still 
unendowed, and depending upon tui- 
tion fees and annual state aid for sup- 
port. After West Point, no military 
school in America furnished from its 
alumni so many superior officers for 
the Mexican war and the Rebellion. 

In 1839 he established a similar 
institution at Portsmouth, Va. In- 
deed, the long list of military schools 
in the Southern states can for a large 
part be traced, directly or indirectly, 
to his genius. Probably to him, as 
much as to any other man, was it due 

9 6 

Captain Alden Partridge. 

that the South was found so well 
drilled for the war of the Rebellion ; 
though Captain Partridge had died 
seven years before the conflict began, 
and though he would never have sym- 
pathized with secession. 

In 18-10 he became the principal of 
"The Literary Institute and Gymna- 
sium," at Pembroke, N. H., an insti- 
tution which had been established 
nine years before, and which from 
the start had embraced in its scope 
more or less of physical culture and 
military drill. Here he remained two 
years, when he resigned the charge 
into the hands of Major William W. 
Benjamin, one of his cadets, who 
afterwards became the proprietor and 
superintendent of the famous military 
school at Sing Sing, N. Y. In 1853 
Captain Partridge opened, with a 
large and able corps of assistants, 
what in its equipments and advan- 
tages was the most complete, and by 
every omen promised to be the most 
successful, of all his schools, at 
Brandywine Springs in Delaware. 
But in its very first year the buildings 
were burned to the ground, and the 
crowd of students who had rallied at 
the opening were dispersed. The dis- 
aster, acting upon an overworked 
physical constitution, together with a 
hitherto unsuspected disease, resulted 
in the death of the great educator at 
Norwich, on the 17th of January, 

Captain Partridge was doubtless, 
among Americans, the greatest stu- 
dent and expert in military science 
during the first half of this century : 
and yet he n»ver saw a battle. It 
was said at the time of his death, on 
what was thought to be good author- 
ity, that when the city of Mexico was 

about to be attacked by our forces, 
Captain Partridge sent to General 
Scott a plan for the siege and cap- 
ture, which was not received until 
after the successful event ; but that 
General Scott afterward expressed 
regret at its delay, saving that he 
should have adopted the plan iu pref- 
erence to his own. 

Captaiu Partridge was reported to 
be a friend of American slavery ; but 
if so, his cadets never learned the 
fact. He was fond of what he called 
t; Southern chivalry," the sense of 
honor, the large generosity, and the 
military spirit of the Southern people. 
But the writer has heard him deplore 
the institution of slavery as not only 
unfortunate, but bad. He took the 
ground which most Northern people 
did. that the constitution was a com- 
promise, and that the preservation of 
the Union meant the toleration of 
slavery until the states wherein it 
existed saw fit to discontinue it. 

When the Rebellion broke out, both 
sides sought eagerly to obtain Cap- 
taiu Partridge's chart of New York 
harbor, with his original plan of for- 
tification for the same, but neither 
then nor since could it be found by 
his family, though it had been always 
kept in his library. 

Many years ago Captain Partridge 
took into his family a Greek boy, 
some seven or eight years of age. 
This protege, whose history is very 
interesting and romantic, reached the 
rank of Captain, U. S. N. His name 
was George Musallah Colvocoresses. 
He was murdered, and robbed of a 
large amount of money and bonds 
in the year 1872, while on his way 
from Litchfield, Conn., where he 
lived, to New York. In his will he 

Corresf c n den cc . 


left Si, 000 for a monument to be 
erected over his benefactor's grave. 
This shaft, raised to the memory of 
the town's most distinguished son, Is 
justly the most imposing object in 
the village cemetery at Norwich. 

The family home, still occupied 
by the widow and the son. stands on 
the pretty, maple-shaded Main street 
of Norwich, whither occasionally a 
cadet, no longer young, goes up as 
to a sacred Mecca. 

The present writer of this sketch 

devoutly hopes that sometime an 
adequate biography of this remark- 
able American will be written. Dif- 
fering as the writer does with many of 
the views of this old teacher, he ac- 
knowledges an indebtedness, both as 
his pupil and as an American citizen, 
which this little memorial poorly ex- 
presses. There can hardly be a 
school or college in the United States 
which is not experiencing the good 
iuflueuce of his ideas and his life 


Editor of the Granite Monthly: 

Dear Sir : In your issue of last 
month, a sketch of Captain Isaac 
Pattersou, one of the delegates to the 
convention of 17S8, contained an 
allusion to the Conway class, which 
might give rise to a slight error, one 
perhaps of sufficient historical impor- 
tance to require correction. 

The Conway class could hardly be 
regarded as a Grafton county constit- 
uency at that period. 

Col. David Page, of Conway, was 
their delegate, and has sometimes 
been mentioned as a member of the 
Graftou county delegation ir. the con- 
vention. Probably he should not be 
so considered. Conway, originally a 
town of Grafton county, was annexed 
to Strafford county in 1778. Burton, 
or Albany as it is now named, was 
transferred to Strafford county in 
1800. Eaton was originally a town 
of Strafford county. Thus it would 
sej n twj of the three towns in 
Col. Page's class were Strafford coun- 
ty towus, and onlv one was of Graf- 

ton, and he was a resideut of Conway. 
The ideas prevalent in the class would 
presumably be more in harmony with 
those entertained in Strafford county 
than with those which obtained in 

If we treat Col. Page as a Strafford 
county delegate, it would leave but 
one delegate from Grafton who voted 
against the ratification of the Federal 
Constitution in our convention of 

Your series of sketches already 
published, supplemented by similar 
treatment of the lives of Hon. Francis 
Worcester, of Plymouth, and Col. 
Thomas Crawford, of Alexandria, 
which may be expected, with the 
more extended papers on Hon. Sam- 
uel Livermore, of Holderness, by Mr. 
Corning, and on Col. Elisha Payne, 
of Lebanon, by Mr. Cotton, which 
have appeared in the " Proceedings 
of The Grafton -Coos Bar Associa- 
tion," and the biography of Capt. 
John Weeks, in the *• History of Coos 
County," by Mr. Fergusson, will con- 


Br in s Jc y Perk in s . 

stitute a valuable addition to the his- 
tory of the convention. It will fur- 
nish the details, from the stand-points 
of local historians, which, at this cen- 
tennial period, appropriately accom- 
pany the more general discussion of 
the important events which were re- 
lated to the promulgation and adop- 
tion of the Federal Constitution. It 
is to be hoped that those who are 
interested in the same subject in other 
parts of the state may be induced to 
continue and complete the biographies 
of the men who were the members of 
that very important New Hampshire 

To your readers in this state such 
papers would be of no less interest 
than the general reader has in the 
chapters of Bancroft, Hampton L. 
Carson, and McMaster, which are de- 
voted to this subject ; the admirable 
volume recently prepared by Mr. Jo- 
seph B. Walker ; the paper by Mr. W. 
F, Whitcher, published last year in 
this magazine ; and the centennial ad- 

dress bv Hon. J. W. Patterson, and 

other proceedings appropriate to the 
event, about to be published by the 
N. H. Historical Society. 


March, 1889. 

Massachusetts Historical Society, 
30 Tremont Street, Boston. 
March 6, 1889. 
Editor of the Granite Monthly : 

The following item, taken from 
44 The Boston Evening Post," April 
23, 1744, may interest some of your 
readers : 

We hear from Dunstable, that on 
the 11 th Instant, the Dwelling-House 
of the Rev. Mr. Daniel Emerson of 
that Town was consumed by Fire, 
with his Library, Furniture, &c. 

Mr. Emerson was the minister of 
Hollis, which at that time was known 
as Dunstable West Precinct. Mr. 
Worcester, in his history of the town, 
does not mention the burning of the- 

Samuel A. Green. 


By C. C. Lord. 

Brinsley Perkins was the most not- 
ed tavern-keeper ever residing in 
Hopkinton, N. H. We do not know 
when public hospitality was first of- 
fered by any one in Hopkinton. Set- 
tlements began as early as 1738, the 
first town-meeting being held in the 
fall of that year. In November, 
1757, the first minister of the town 
was ordained. By a previous vote 
of the town, entertainment on the oc- 
casion was provided at six different 

places. They were at the houses of 
Aaron Kimball, Matthew Stanley* 
Stephen Hoyt, Peter How, Samuel 
Putney, and Joseph Putney. This is 
the first intimation we have found of 
any special localization of public hos- 
pitality in the early history of Hop- 

The first ordination in town oc- 
curred at Putney's fort on Putney's, 
hill. The centre of the new town- 
ship was prospectively located on th& 

Br in sic y Per kin s . 


bill. Fate decreed that it should be 
otherwise. The " plain " soon came 
into competition with the ' k hill." 
The present village of Hopkinton is 
on t!ie " plain." 

A number of causes combined to 
determine the location of Hopkinton 
village where it now is. We will not 
attempt to enumerate them. It would 
appear, however, that the first public 
tavern was on the site- f the present 
village. Benjamin Wiggin was au 
early resident of this town. He is 
said to have been here as early as 
1774. He had a tavern here as early 
as 178G, the date on his swinging 
sign. Isaac Babson was also an 
early village tavern-keeper. "We do 
not know when he came to town. 
The date 1786 was once discovered 
in the lathing of the house he occu- 
pied, and which he is said to have 
erected. This house stood on the 
south-west corner of the present vil- 
lage square. 

About the year 1800 Roger E. and 
Brinsley Perkins came to Hopkinton 
from Middleton, Mass. They were 
brothers. Roger E. located on a 
farm on the western slope of Putney's 
hill, in what is now the Gage district. 
Brinsley located at the present vil- 
lage of Contoocook. and was proprie- 
tor of the water-power there. Roger 
E. subsequently purchased the Bab- 
son tavern, in turn selling it to his 
brother Brinsley, of whose occupancy 
and ownership we shall speak more 
definitely in the order of personal 

Brinsley Perkins was born in Mid- 
dleton, Mass., February 1G, 1789, 
being a son of Timothy Perkins and 
Hannah Trowbridge. When he came 
to Hill's Bridge, now Contoocook, in 

the north of Hopkinton, he was 
about 20 years of age. Having 
charge of whatever works there were 
on the* south side of the river, he lo- 
cated in a house on Mill street, on a 
spot now known as the old mill-yard. 
In 1805, December G, he married 
Susan Ladd, of Haverhill, Mass. 
She was a daughter of William Ladd 
and Hannah Ayer, who was a daugh- 
ter of the celebrated Dr. Ayer. In 
1808, on the first of March, Louisa 
Ayer, the only child of Brinsley Per- 
kins and Susan Ladd, was born. She 
is now living, being the widow of the 
late Joseph Stanwood, post-master 
and merchant, of Hopkinton village. 

Brinsley Perkins relinquished his 
situation in Contoocook and came to 
Hopkinton village when his daughter, 
Louisa Ayer, was about six years old. about 1813 or 1814. 
At the village he occupied his broth- 
er's tavern. In October, 1816, he 
went to Andover, N. H., became 
a landlord there, remaining till Jan- 
uary, 1818, when he returned to Hop- 
kinton, reoccupied the tavern, and in 
1826 it became his by purchase. 

Let us now observe Brinsley Per- 
kins, contemplating him in the merid- 
ian of manhood. He was tall, fully 
six feet and perhaps a little more, 
very erect, and slender rather than 
stout. His complexion was very 
light and fair. His hair was flaxen 
and his eyes were blue. His face 
was nearly beardless : there was only 
a thin tassel upon his chin. Alto- 
gether he was a handsome man. He 
was also a popular man. He had 
that natural affability that gains favor 
in social circles — an essential charac- 
teristic of a tavern-keeper. He had 
become Captain Perkins. This was 


Br i n s ley Perkins. 

because he had commanded the 
" troop." The troop was a famous 
company of cavalry. It was a de- 
tachment of the old 21st regiment of 
New Hampshire militia. When every 
man between the ages of eighteen and 
forty-five was legally required to do 
annual military duty, certain compa- 
nies were allowed to uniform them- 
selves at their own expense. They 
were, called independent companies. 
The troop was the most noted of all 
the independent, companies. The in- 
dependent companies naturally at- 
tracted the men of more pecuniary 
means, and became more aristocratic. 
The troop was the most aristocratic 
of all, because it cost more to belong 
to it. The troop was mounted on 
horses specially selected on account 
of their size and beauty. The men 
were clad in scarlet coats with buff 
facings, revealing an abundance of 
ruflles. The pants were darker. The 
cap was leather, bell-crowned, and 
bore a long white feather tipped with 
gorgeous red. No doubt many an 
unsophisticated observer looked upon 
the troop as an undisguised wonder. 
The gay horses, the scarlet coats, the 
stately plumes, the glisteniug arms, 
all eenspired to command the supe- 
rior admiration of beholders. 

Of course no man of ordinary per- 
sonal appearance could command the 
troop. Brinsley Perkins could and 
did. He was as famous as a com- 
mander as a landlord. Besides being 
of commanding personal appearance, 
he was a good rider. He literally sat 
his horse. In 1833 he received a 
special compliment. When General 
Jackson came to Concord there were 
Hopkinton people to see him. When 
the geueral appeared upon the street 

on horseback, Hopkinton people said, 
'•There's Cap'n Brin. Perkins in full 

Brinsley Perkins had tact, so use- 
ful in a landlord. One day he was 
putting the troop through warlike 
evolutious at the signal of the trum- 
peter. A funeral procession came 
along. Brinsley Perkins suspended 
military evolutions, dismounted the 
troop, and marched it on foot two 
and two to the grave. This was a 
great compliment to the memory of 
the dead. Sepulchrally impressible 
people remember such things. 

We have said that Brinsley Per- 
kins purchased the Babson tavern in 
182G. If he made any changes in 
the house they were minor ones. 
The house stood substantially un- 
changed till 1870. Its general ap- 
pearance is well known to thousands 
of living people. It was square, with 
a four-sided roof. It fronted the 
south, but there was a public entrance 
on the east. A long shed connected 
it with the commodious stable. The 
later out-buildings were erected by 
Brinsley Perkins. The house con- 
tained twelve sleeping-rooms. At first 
there was only a small lot of land 
connected with the establishment, 
but Brinsley Perkins bought out lands 
which, with a Contoocook estate, 
made him one of the largest real es- 
tate owners in Hopkintou. 

Under Brinsley Perkins's manage- 
ment the original Babson tavern be- 
came a place of local and general 
celebrity. A number of causes com- 
bined to produce this result. Hop- 
kinton was once a shire town of Hills- 
borough county, incorporated in 1771. 
In 1823 the county of Merrimack 
was incorporated, with the executive 

Bnnsley Perkins, 


seat at Concord. The transaction of 
county business at Hopkinton brought 
hither judges, lawyers, and the com- 
plement of executive county officials. 
Many of these men entertained at 
Perkins's tavern, where, in fact, the 
county probate court sometimes, at 
least, held its sessions. Previous 
to the complete establishment of the 
state capital at Concord in 1819, the 
General Court of New Hampshire 
met in Hopkinton four times. The 
presence of the General Court brought 
governors, councilmen, senators, rep- 
resentatives, and other distinguished 
people to Perkins's tavern. Besides 
being a centre of local trade and 
travel, in earlier times Hopkinton 
was on the direct line of travel be- 
tweeu Boston and Montreal. So Per- 
kins's tavern is said to have been the 
most celebrated public house between 
the two extreme points. This was a 
partially natural fact, for Perkins's 
tavern was a patrician, in contradis- 
tinction from a plebeian, house. First, 
second, third, etc., have always been 
social classifications since the dawn 
of civilization. 

It were impossible to mention all 
the notables that came to Perkins's 
tavern. Wc might mention the Hon. 
Jeremiah Mason, because he was so 
long that an extension had to be 
built at the foot of the bed lest he 
could not stretch himself upon it. 
We might speak also of Mrs. Royal, 
because she was such an eccentric 
person, bearing her red book and her 
black book, in which were written 
down the good and the bad respec- 
tively. But we cannot extend our 
personalities. The reader is curious 
upon another special point. How 
much did it cost each of those notable 

guests to sojourn at Perkins's tavern ? 
In the palmy days of the house a 
meal cost twenty-five cents and a 
lodging eight cents. This did not 
include refreshments at the bar, 
which were of a price according to 
kind and quality. 

Though it was a patrician house, 
the patronage of Perkins's tavern was 
not all of one class. There were at 
least three kinds of guests, classified 
with reference to their ability or dis- 
position to pay. In the first place, 
there were the moneyed guests, who 
paid cash for full accommodations. 
In the second place, there were the 
partial guests, so to speak. In the 
days when all the inland commerce 
was effected by means of teams, there 
were travellers who took along a part 
of their provision. Teamsters often 
had a box which contained their sub- 
stantial food, and they sometimes 
had grain for their horses. Their 
driuk and lodging for themselves, and 
the hay and stabling for their horses,, 
were obtained at the tavern. In the 
third place, there were the beggars 
and imposters. We need not dwell 
upon these. The needy and the 
naughty we have always with us. 

The table at Perkins's tavern was 
loaded with an abundance and a va- 
riety of food at all times. The guests, 
seated at the board, found all the 
aliments upon the table. Of course 
there was no such system of ordering 
by instalments as now obtains in most 
any hotel of note. There were wait- 
ers to serve, who also poured the cof- 
fee and tea that alone were customa- 
rily brought after the guest had been 
seated. The reader is curious to 
know how all this food was supplied. 
Much of it was raised upon the farm 


Br in sic y Perkins . 

or procured at the store. In those 
days a butcher drove to the door of 
Perkins's tavern perhaps once a week. 
But meat and poultry were dressed. 
frozen, and packed in winter for 
future use, and killing and dressing 
frequently occurred at all times of 
the year. In all matters relating to 
hospitality Brinsley Perkins was on 
hand, acting the part of the tavern- 
keeper par excellence. 

But another fact deserves mention. 
The landlady of those times was as 
much a character and feature of, the 
public house as was even a lady in 
her own home. Mrs. Perkins was 
housekeeper of the Perkins tavern. 
ami her efficiency was perhaps not 
less recognized and celebrated than 
the hospitality of her husband. In 
order to convey a definite idea of the 
capacity of Perkius's tavern, we will 
say that with the twelve sleeping 
rooms there were other accommoda- 
tions to match It is needless to add 
that Perkins's tavern was the frequent 
sceue of e\cvy kind of social activity 
that naturally belongs to a public 

Mrs. Susan Perkius died March 18, 
18-17. Her remains were buried in 
the so called new part of the old vil- 
lage cemetery, and a granite mouu- 
nieut raised over them. This was the 
first granite monument erected Ed 
town, and it attracted special pub- 
lic notice. About the time of Mrs. 
Perkins's death her husband closed 
his house to the public. There was 
no longer any special inducement to 
keep a public house open in Hopkirt- 
ton village. All the other public- 
houses had closed. Concord, the 
state and county seat, had become a 
prosperous and growing town. It 

was a railroad station, and all local 
travel was centring to that point. 
Hopkinton was declining in popula- 
tion and influence. 

Brinsley Perkins continued to re- 
side in his old home, in company with 
his son-in-law, Joseph Stanwood and 
family, till his death, on the 26th of 
February, 1856. The reader will ob- 
serve that lie had reached the ripe 
age of 77 years. 

Perkins's tavern was closed to the 
public till December 1, 18G4. In the 
meautime Joseph Stanwood had diedi 
in 1859, and Mrs. Stanwood owned 
and occupied the premises. At the 
date last mentioned David B. Story, 
now sheriff of Belknap county and 
proprietor of the Weirs hotel, opened 
the old Perkins tavern as the " Per- 
kins House," making it a scene of much 
winter festivity and a resort for sum- 
mer boarders. In 1870 he rebuilt the 
house, putting on a Mansard roof, 
constructing an extended veranda, 
and otherwise changing its external 
appearauee somewhat. In October, 
1872, the Perkins House went up on 
the wings of flame. It was evening, 
and the fire was accidental. 

The Perkins House burned, there 
was no hotel in Hopkinton village. 
In the summer of 1872, George G. 
Bailey, a former resident of Hopkin- 
ton, and later of Boston, Mass., had 
purchased and rebuilt the residence 
of Isaac Long, a former bookbinder 
and bookseller. A year or two after, 
Mr. Bailey enlarged his establishment 
and constructed the '* Putney House," 
which he kept open a few years. In 
the summer of 188G this house was 
reopened by John Stevens Kimball and 
Willard T. Greene, being called the 
" Mt. Putney House." On the 23d 

Brinsle v Perkins . 


of the next December this house was 
also burned, aud Hopkinton was 
again without a hotel. This portion 
of our narrative leads to a further aud 
more direct relation of facts. 

A country village without a public 
house sutlers a crreat disadvantage. 
It loses the interest of people else- 
where, and experiences a depression 
of local values. So people in Hop- 
kinton village thought, after the loss 
of the Mt. Putney House. The 
project of a new hotel was not so 
easily reduced to an actual fact. The 
difficulty was solved in the summer of 
1887 by Miss Kate Pearl Kimball, of 
Boston, Mass., who visits Hopkinton 
during the warm season annually. 
This lady solicited subscriptions to a 
building fund, and developed a pro- 
ject that culminated in a voluntary 
corporation, with a capital of 810,000, 
on the 25th of August. The site of 
the former Perkins House was pur- 
chased of Mrs. Louisa A. P. Stan- 
wood, and the work of building be- 
gun, Miss Kimball removing the first 
earth. On the 6th of the next April 
the capital stock of the corporation 
was increased to 812.000. 

The new hotel was opened with a 
public dinner on the Fourth of July, 
1888, by Frank A. Hale, of Lowell. 
Mass., a landlord of successful expe- 
rience. On an ancient elm, on the 
street corner, was hung the refur- 
bished swing-sism of Benjamin Wig- 
gin. Attached to the sign was the 
evidence of proprietorship. The new 
house bore the name of '-The Per- 
kius Inn." This name, commemora- 
tive of the hospitable fame of Brinsley 
Perkins, was selected and proposed 
by Miss Kimball. 

The Perkins Inn has a direct east- 

ern and southern exposure of 80 feet 
each, with a lateral depth of 40 feet, 
is 3 stories in height, and has a veran- 
da 200 feet long and 10£ wide. At 
the western extremity of the southern 
wing is an extension of 36 by 34 
feet. At the chief angle of the edi- 
fice is a tower and flag-staff 83 feet 
in height. A stable, constructed the 
past winter, is 60 by 06 feet. The 
Perkins Inn is handsomely furnished, 
and admirably adapted in all its ap- 
pointments for a public house. The 
corporation has a board of ten direc- 
tors, of which Robert R. Kimball is 
the president. 

The reader who comes to Hopkin- 
ton village ou a clear summer day 
will find pleasant streets and beauti- 
ful prospects. The scenery abounds 
in those charming features that make 
New Hampshire celebrated as a place 
of summer resort. Beholding both 
the ancient swing-sign and The Per- 
kins Inn, he will note the evidence of 
the associated reflections of the old 
and the new in public hospitality. 
Benjamin Wiggin, the first, and 
Brinsley Perkins, the last, of the old- 
line landlords, are recalled to memo- 
ry by the sign of the one and the 
name of the other. The present ex- 
istence and refurbishing of the old 
swing-sign are due to the preservative 
care of Herman W. Greene, great- 
grandson of Benjamin Wiggin. 

On the Main street of the village, 
only a minute's walk from The Per- 
kins Inn, resides Mrs. Stanwood, 
the only child of Brinsley Perkins, 
and whose memory is rich with the 
reminiscences of an age of public 
hospitality that is fading from the 
memory of the living like a shadowy 


The Palatine Hill. 

By Fred Myron Colby. 

There are certain places which are 
set apart as unique, it may be as in- 
tellectual shrines like the Acropolis of 
Athens, as religious Meecas like the 
cathedrals of Europe or the temples 
of the Orient, as memorials of a fallen 
civilization like Kara ic or Mycenae, 
or as haunts of beauty and splendor 
like Venice slumbering ou her lagoons, 
and Moscow with her oriental magnifi- 
cence set like a brilliant among the 
capitals of western civilization. 
Though hardly partaking of the qual- 
ities of any of the classes designated, 
yet, as being specifically different from 
all other places in the world, the fa- 
mous Roman eminence known as the 
Palatine hill must claim for itself an 
enviable reputation for uniqueness. 
Anything that is "Roman is unique, and 
of the seven imperial hills — '•' the 
world's seven wonderments" — the 
Palatine claims preeminence in this 
peculiar line. The earliest of the 
hills upon which the foundations of 
Rome rose, its gray and wasted ruins 
are vivid with a splendid throng of 
historical recollections. The straw- 
roofed hut of the bandit founder rose 
upon the rocky summit that afterward 
was covered by that extreme of lux- 
ury and magnificence, the Domus 
Aurea of Nero. Its brown rock cliffs 
have resounded with the eloquence of 
the Forum and the Campus Martius. 
It was a silent witness of the strife 
between plebeian and patrician in the 
days of the republic. Beneath its 
hoary brow have passed in review 
those triumphal processions of victo- 
rious generals and kin^s which have 

engirt the Roman name with ideas of 
grandeur surpassing all other earthly 
magnificence. To all intents and 
purposes its history is an epitome of 
civilized society. The straw-thatched 
cottage of Romulus has long since 
perished ; and of the splendid Golden 
Palace where the young monster Nero 
revelled with his slaves and harlots 
only the ruins remain ; — yet the lessons 
it speaks are as sublime as ever, and 
men of all nationalities, — scholars, 
historians, philosophers, — still turn 
for instruction to the Royal Mount. 

The Palatine first emerges in the 
light of tradition upon the historic 
page in connection with the exploits 
of the Greek hero Heracles. In that 
early mythological time, Cacus, a fa- 
mous robber, made his home, it is said, 
in a cave on the Aventine ; and the 
hero trod, if indeed he lived at all, 
upou the soil made memorable in 
after ages by the homes of kings and 
statesmen and emperors. A great 
altar, said to have been dedicated to 
Hercules by his contemporary Evan- 
der, long stood at the base of the north- 
western corner of the Palatine, which 
was enclosed by Romulus within the 
line of his furrow, and was venerated 
from the earliest to the latest period 
of Roman story. 

Five hundred years later, and the 
ark of the twin princes came floating 
down the tide of the yellow Tiber. 
It is the fashion now to discredit all 
of those wild tales of the she wolf, 
of the vulture's flight, and the myste- 
rious disappearance of the regal des- 
pot, — and who ever did seriously be- 

The Palatine Hill. 


lieve them? But that here, on the 
broad, level, square surface of the 
Palatine, were laid the first foundations 
of the Roman city there is no doubt. 
It was on the 21st day of April— 
strange that the exact year cannot 
be ascertained as well, but somewhere 
about seven hundred and fifty years 
before our Christian Era, when Ly- 
curgus was legislating in Greece, aud 
King Jotham reigued in Jerusalem — 
the plowshare of Romulus laid out 
the limits of the ancient city. Up to 
the time of the empire, as the gossipy 
old Plutarch informs us, the humble 
cottage of the founder, beside which 
grew the sacred cornel tree, was pre- 
served witli reverent care by the 
Roman people. If, indeed, this was 
true, it must have borne a singular 
similarity to the ship of the Athenian 
hero, which occasioned so much dis- 
cussion among the Greek sophists, 
the majority of the disputants claim- 
ing that it could not be the ship of 
Theseus, for the reason that there 
was not a single spike, sail, plank, or 
rope of the original vessel existing. 

The Latin village was of slow 
growth, but as an asylum for the 
outcast and the stranger, and from 
the pillaging propensities of its peo- 
ple, it early attained to celebrity. 
Wealth gradually crept into the Pala- 
tine cabins, and a luxurious despot- 
ism succeeded the patriarchal gov- 
ernment of its earliest kings. In 
haughty pride Tarquin rides through 
the streets of his Etruscan city in a 
silver chariot, and clothed in the regal 
purple. The citadel from whose 
ramparts Tarpeia, the only Roman 
woman who ever betrayed her coun- 
try, looked with longing eyes upon 
the golden bracelets of the Sabine 

warriors, shadowed a scene which 
poets and paiuters have loved to de- 
pict. Junius Brutus stands over the 
dead body of the outraged Lucretia, 
aud swears by all the gods that Rome 
shall be free. So from his stately 
palace the proud ruler goes forth 
to return no more, and the city he 
had adorned with lavish outlay throws 
off its Etruscan allegiance and takes 
its place among the republics. In 
vain Lars Porsena leads up the 
twelve Etruscan cities under his ban- 
ner against the Palatine ; as vainly 
did the Tusculan Mamilius advance 
the banners of the thirty cities of La- 
tium. Rome henceforth will be free. 

The orators, the philosophers, and 
the heroes of the republic succeed the 
race of warlike kings, and their palaces 
adorn the hill. Below it the busy 
Forum assumes new life, where the 
highest problems of political science 
are debated by plebeian and patrician, 
and where the grave patriot strives 
to moderate the fiery strife of parties. 
Tumults more than once disturbed 
the quiet of the Palatine. The terri- 
ble bondage of the Ten meets with its 
retributive vengeance, and though 
Virginia dies a spotless victim on the 
altar of freedom, the haughty and bru- 
tal Claudius suffers a more dishonor- 
able death among felons. Coriolanus 
leaves his palace on the Palatine an 
exile, and returns a conqueror; but 
the vengeful conquerer disappears 
before maternal and wifely entreaty, 
and Rome is saved by the patriotism 
of her women. 

A more savage foe appears in the 
Gaul, who desolates the Palatine with 
the torch of a barbarian. Amid the 
waste of ruins nothing stands but the 
citadel on the Capitoline, and the 


The Palatine Hill. 

Roman spirit seems dead. But the 
heroism of Camillas rescues the fallen 
city from the invaders, and ere long 
the white steeds and gilded chariot 
of the second restorer passes up the 
street among the rebuilded houses of 
the Palatine. Among these towers 
is the palace of the patrician Marcus 
Fabius Arabustus, around which the 
legend has woven the charm of a story 
second only to that of Cornelia bend- 
ing over her children. 

Two Roman ladies sit in the atrium 
of the palace oue summer day. The 
plash of a fountain mingles musically 
with the pleasant chatter of the ladies. 
Around them are entablatures of mar- 
ble, telling the story of Roman days 
gone by. Suddenly a loud clash 
like the din of a battle starts one of 
the ladies from her seat. kt Fear not, 
wife of the plebeian Licinnius," said 
the other assuringlv, fci it is only my 
husband returning. The noise that 
alarmed you was the sound of his lie- 
tors thundering at the door." The 
scornful words rankle in the breast of 
the plebeian dame, and soon after the 
Forum is tumultuous with the strife of 
the agitators. Time brought its re- 
venge, and to-day the wife of the ple- 
beian is remembered while the patri- 
cian's name is forgotten. 

The august procession passes along 
like the march of a frieze. On the 
Palatine rose the villas of the Grac- 
chi, of Ilortensius, of Crassus,of Sul- 
la, of Pompey, and of Cicero ; below 
was the Forum which witnessed their 
honors or defeats, and the Sacred 
Way, up which they passed in haughty 
triumph, the lordliest pageant that 
even Roman potency could furnish. 
Cicero's house, white pillared and 
marble porticoed, interests us as 

much as any of those clustering man- 
sions which crown the hill with beauty. 
We can almost see him, the pater 
patrice, standing in that portico, and 
looking out over the city that he had 
saved. Among the colossal figures 
of that age Cicero alone seems near 
to us, and I fancy we should have 
found ready welcome in the house of 
this many-sided Roman. During his 
exile the home of the great orator 
was destroyed through the successful 
cabal of Clodius. The senate rebuilt 
it with increased magnificence on his 
triumphal return, but it was confis- 
cated after his murder. It seems to 
have occupied the highest portion of 
the hill ; but neither fancy nor anti- 
quarian scholarship can now point to 
the place where it stood. 

As Rome slowly grew into power, 
the Palatine looked down upon a peo- 
ple fast sinking into moral degen- 
eracy. The sources of Roman civili- 
zation and glory became gradually 
corrupted by gold, ambition, and 
shivery, and genius, intelligence, and 
devotion failed to save the struggling 
state. The Catos and Scipios dwell 
in their palaces, with tarnished fame. 
The Gracchi perish within the very 
sight of their noble home. Marius 
and Sulla war with each other, and 
the streets of the Palatine and the 
Forum below flow with the blood of 
slaughtered citizens. Many a proud 
villa on the hill wears crape for a 
murdered master ; the halls of others 
are silent and tenantless. Yet free- 
dom is not altogether dead so long as 
Cicero lives. The triumvirs pass 
along the Palatine, cruel, selfish, san- 
guinary ; bloody proscriptions follow, 
and the severed head looks over the 
Forum scene of his former glorv. 

The Palatine Hill. 


The republic perishes with the last 
accents of the great consul's tongue. 

The Palatine now became the cen- 
tral seat of those powerful and volup- 
tuous rulers whose names have become 
synonyms of lust and cruelty. With 
the ruin of the Republic all the 
streets and even the natural features 
of the mount were swept away, to 
make room for the dwelling of the 
master of the world. Augustus, the 
founder of the paiace of the Caesars, 
comprised within his own habitation 
the houses of Hortensius, Cicero, 
and some others of the victims of 
the proscription which sealed the last 
triumvirate. It was the boast of this 
-emperor that he had found Rome of 
brick, and left it of marble — doubtless 
a fact which he thought sufficiently 
compensated for finding Rome free, 
and leaving it enslaved. And indeed 
the blaze of poetic and architectural 
splendor makes men forget that the 
age of Rome's apparent glory was in 
truth that of her real degradation. 
80, around the proud palace built 
from the despoiled mansions of 
Rome's sternest republicans is re- 
flected a refulgence which far out- 
shone anything of the simpler former 
times — the starry luminance of the 
Augustan age. Through its courts 
wandered Livy, the prince of Roman 
historians, the jocund Horace, the 
gossipy Ovid. A sweetly modulated 
voice rises above the sound of the 
fountain in the Cavaedium. It is Vir- 
gil reading aloud the pages of his im- 
mortal poem to the despot. 

The luxurious Tiberius built an- 
other splendid palace on the opposite 
side of the Palatine, looking into the 
Velabrum. His successor. Caligula, 
also built one fronting the Capitol. 

A flight of steps led up from the 
Forum to the royal residence. A 
temple to Apollo stood within the 
royal precincts, and spacious gardens 
stretched down towards the Circus 
behind. Caligula had also a palace 
on the Capitoline hill, and the two 
were connected by an aerial bridge 
thrown over the Forum. Building 
bridges was one of the manias of this 
monster, for he actually threw one 
over the broad expanse of the Bay of 
Baiae. Claudius had the good sense 
to pull down both the palace on the 
Capitol and the bridge that con- 
nected them, and tried to be content- 
ed with the magnificent dwellings on 
the Palatine. Then came Nero, who 
built himself a home which he called 
Transitoria. This he afterward burn- 
ed down, and most of the imperial city 
with it, erecting on its site the Domiis 

The Golden House of Nero was 
probably the grandest and most mag- 
nificent palace the world ever saw. 
The most skilful artists and mechan- 
ics then living wasted their noblest 
genius upon it, and the wealth of the 
empire was expended upon its con- 
struction. We read with wonder of 
its avenues, its triple porticos, and 
its thousand columns extending a 
mile in length. The fabulous splen- 
dor of Arabian and Persian tales is 
dwarfed in contrast with this creation 
of unlimited power and wealth. The 
roof, says Leu ton ins, was covered 
with tiles of gold, which glittered in 
dazzling splendor when the sunlight 
shone upon it. The entrance to the 
palace was sufficiently lofty to admit 
a colossal statue of the emperor one 
hundred and twenty feet high. But 
it was the interior of the Golden 


The Palatine Hill. 

House that excited the most marvel. 
There were a thousand rooms, and the 
walls of each one were overlaid with 
gold, and richly adorned with precious 
stones and mother of pearl. Some 
of the large halls had vaulted ceilings 
of ivory so constructed as to open of 
themselves and scatter flowers upon 
the guests, and golden pipes that 
shed over them showers of soft per- 
fumes. His great banqueting room 
was circular, and perpetually turned 
round night and day in imitation of 
the motion of the celestial firmament. 
Other wonders claimed attention in 
this vast depository of imperial mag- 
nificence. The plundered treasures 
of the East and of the Ionian capitals 
had been gathered there without stint, 
and the whole interior was embel- 
lished with the finest paintings and 
statues the world could furnish. The 
most exquisite products of Grecian art 
met the eye at every hand. 

Little cared the senseless voluptu- 
ary for the beauty of his palace and 
its priceless treasures. He simply 
determined to build a residence that 
could not be surpassed, and he util- 
ized what came to his hand. List- 
lessly he wandered among the gor- 
geous halls lined with the precious 
marbles of Egypt and Libya, eager to 
take advantage of any passing excite- 
ment. His biographer gives us a 
picture of the imperial boy dressed 
in purple and silk and gold, sur- 
rounded by his twelve lictors, and at- 
tended by courtiers and slaves, view- 
ing with luxurious case the mad games 
of the circus. At other times, dressed 
like a woman, his light glossy hair 
falling in ringlets upon his shoulders, 
he would play upon his harp while 
crowds of beautiful female slaves 

danced before him. His extravagance 
was boundless. The stables of his 
chariot horses were of marble anol 
their mangers were of gold. Not 
content with covering the whole of 
the Palatine with his golden palace, 
Nero extended its gardens and pleas- 
ure grounds over the whole plain 
south of the Forum, and even upon 
the Esquiline and Coelian hills. 
Thus, so lavish was his taste, so 
boundless his desires, that the spot 
which once comprised the whole of 
Rome, which, till the extinction of 
the republic, contained the dwellings 
of her senators and the temples of 
her gods, was now found to be too 
circumscribed for the wants of one 

A nobler memory than that of Nero 
is connected with the Golden House. 
Through those marble halls walked 
the thin, care-worn frame of Paul. 
He was manacled, and guarded by 
two soldiers, but his bronzed, aquiline 
face and glowing eyes spoke of the 
heroic spirit that was within him. 
Nor was his work vain even in that 
haunt of sin and luxury. More than 
one of Caesar's household heard the 
word gladly, and there is a tradition 
that the empress Poppsea was one of 
Lis converts. The presence of the 
apostle consecrates in a measure the 
halls devoted to pagan rites and 
revels, and from out the crowd of 
bestial, cruel, and besotted men and 
women the figure of St. Paul stands 
alone in its purity and nobility. 

Vespasian tore down all that Nero 
erected beyond the Palatine, and re- 
duced the imperial palace .to the con- 
fines of the hill that once contained 
Rome ; but his son Domitian, who 
revived the career of Nero, a^ain re- 

The Palatine Hill. 


built what Ills predecessor had demol- 
ished. His additions comprised the 
Adonea, or halls and gardens of 
Adonis, and their surpassing splendor 
excited the astonishment even of that 
age of magnificence. Other empe- 
rors made additions to the imperial 
pile, till the time of Diocletian, a. d. 
29o, who turned rather a cold shoul- 
der to old Rome. To this emperor, 
rather than to Constantine, the city of 
Romulus is indebted to her loss as au 
imperial dwelling-place. What Con- 
stantine really did do was to found a 
more suitable and enduring site for 
the seat of the new empire. 

The palace of the Caesars stood 
unspoiled for centuries, and its ruin 
was less the work of foreign barba- 
rians than of the Romans themselves. 
Most of its portable treasures, its 
gold and silver ornaments, its ivory, 
and its marbles did indeed become 
the spoil of Alaric, and Genseric the 
Vandal pillaged it of its bronzes and 
remaining precious metals. So far, 
and only so far, did the splendor of 
the imperial palace suffer from the 
hands of its barbarian conquerors ; 
its immense exterior, its courts and 
corridors, pavements, roofs, and walls, 
stood in perfect preservation till the 
days of Anastasius in the eighth cen- 
tury. It even welcomed royal as 
well as noble guests within its walls. 
Belisarius lodged in it, and Flerac- 
lius made it his abode when he visited 
Rome in 62G. The long feudal wars 
of the Roman nobles, however, sadly 
devasted it. Time after time it was 

fortified and attacked, taken and re- 
taken, by the contending parties. 
The Frangipani family for half a 
century made it the central fortress 
of their power, and during that length 
of time defied their enemies from its 
walls. The Farnese popes and 
princes consummated its final destruc- 
tion, constructing a hundred palaces 
and villas from its ruins. 

To-day the Palatine is heaped with 
ruins; the eye vainly wanders over 
the wide-spread debris of a thousand 
years to find one atom of the old- 
time splendor. One solitary convent, 
which bhelters a few barefooted 
monks, is the only human dwelling 
to be seen on the hill, and cabbage 
gardens an 1 vineyards cover the re- 
mainder of the surface. Eighteen 
centuries have left their traces on 
the ancient hill, but to-day we regard 
it with sensations of undying interest. 
To our own country the Palatine 
bears a special relation, and as a na- 
tion we have profited largely from the 
instructions of its historic scenes. 
And as we look back to the spot 
where Rome grew into greatness and 
fell iuto decay, and when the first 
light dawned of that freedom and 
civilization which now sheds its 
brightness over Christian lands, may 
our nation learn wherein to follow 
the example offered by those illustri- 
ous statesmen and heroes of the 
republic, and shun the luxury and 
extravagance of the despots who first 
corrupted and then enslaved her lib- 


Daniel Hough and His Descendants. 

By C. C. Benton, Lebanon, 1S75. 

Daniel Hough, the second son of 
Captain David Hough, was born in 
Bozrah, Conn., January 23, 1752, and 
came to Lebanon, N. H., some time 
before the Revolutionary war. De- 
cember 12, 1780, he married Lydia 
Edgerton, of Norwich, Conn., a sister 
of Lebbeus Edgerton, He;. tenant-go v- 
ernor of Vermont about 1833. Mr. 
Hough purchased land in what is 
called the town-farm district, situated 
on the south side of the road which 
runs westerly by the old burying- 
g round and Dea. Cole's residence, 
and his house was next, and a little 
higher up on "Daisy hill," and is 
the same now owned by Pliny E. 
Davis. His first house, however, was 
near that of Sluman Lathrop, the 
father of George H. Lathrop. They 
lived neighbors in great harmony for 
many years. The two families were 
so intimate that at one time, having 
children about the same age, the two 
mothers often relieved each other, 
one nursing both children while the 
other was absent from necessity or for 
pleasure. It was kind and neighborly, 
beside being a great convenience, and 
perhaps worthy of imitation in simi- 
lar cases. It appears that the change 
of food was favorable to longevity, 
for the two babies, who nursed to- 
gether then, are now Major George 
H. Lathrop, now living in our village, 
and Lydia Hough, the widow of Dea. 
Abner Allen, still living in Beloit, 

Mr. Hough was industrious and 
skilful in the management of his busi- 
ness, and exercised good judgment in 

improving his farm. His wife pos- 
sessed more dignity and independence 
of character than her husband. De- 
cision was in her walk, and her ad- 
dress was graceful and queen-like. 
The writer can never forget her self- 
possession and ease of manner as she 
walked into church and passed to her 
accustomed seat on Sundays. Mr. 
Hough was more unassuming in man- 
ner. They lived together, prospering, 
and enjoying their home and family, 
until the old gentleman died, Septem- 
ber 11, 1820, aged 68 years and 8 
months. His wife lived in the family 
of her son Clark until March 12, 
1846, when she died at the age of 81 

Colonel Clark Hough, whose death 
occurred a few days ago, was the 
fourth son of Daniel Hough, and was 
born June 19, 1702. He was the 
adopted farmer in the family, and 
ever lived and labored on the farm 
until his father's decease in 1820, at 
which time he succeeded his father in 
possession of the property ; and by 
an arrangement with the heirs he 
established himself in the old home- 
stead. September 3, 1822, he mar- 
ried Miss Sophronia Allen Royee, of 
Woodstock, born May 2, 17 ( J0, the 
only sister of Mrs. James H. Ken- 
driek, lately deceased. They com- 
menced their new life with a fair 
prospect of success, and lived to real- 
ize and enjoy the fruit of their labors. 

Mr. Hough possessed a strong mind 
and excellent judgment, and was one 
of the most industrious and scien- 
tific farmers in the town of Lebanon. 

Daniel Hough and His Descendants. 


He was very particular in his work, 
and seldom left anything undone that 
ought to he done. Like nearly all the 
farmers in town, he entered into the 
excitement in regard to raising wool. 
lie was among the first to purchase 
Merino sheep, and stoek his farm with 
a grade that would yield a liner qual- 
ity of wool, and bring a higher price 
in market, and consequently return a 
better profit. Thus he continued to 
multiply his income until he obtained 
a competency : then he sold his farm 
on " Daisy hill," purchased the brick 
bouse now occupied by F. A. Cush- 
nian, and removed his family into the 
village. Aside from his farming, he 
was well qualified for public business, 
and much respected for an honest 
and independent expression of his 
views upon all subjects. He has often 
held the office of selectman and other 
positions in town, and also received 
from the state the commission of 
brigade inspector in the New Hamp- 
shire militia, which gave him the title 
of colonel — an office which he filled 
with military precision ; and it was 
said at the time that no officer in the 
state ever did his duty better. In 
his tour of inspection, if the officers 
or privates of the company were uot 
armed, equipped, or uniformed as the 
law directs, their delinquencies were 
specified with a military severity so 
mortifying that the guilty could hard- 
ly be restrained from an insurrection. 
With -all the apparent severity of 
Mr. Hough, he was very pleasant, 
sociable, and interesting in conversa- 
tion. He was a great reader and a 
good reasoner, and seldom said too 
much or too little. He became a mem- 
ber of the Universalist society, and 
remained in that faith during life. 

His wife and his father and mother 
were also believers in the same doc- 
trine. In politics, he was a Demo- 

Mr Hough's wife was very much 
beloved as an excellent woman. She 
was calm and modest in appearance, 
agreeable in manner and conversa- 
tion, and possessed all those amiable 
qualities which give so much beauty 
to a wife and mother; and those who 
knew her best can never forget the 
pleasant smile which lighted up her 
face when meeting her friends. 

When Mr. Hough moved into the 
village, his mother, who had been a 
member of his family from the time 
of her husband's death, still remained 
with them, continually receiving the 
unfailing love and kindness of her son 
and daughter until her decease. After 
the death of his mother, Mr. Hough 
remained some years in Lebanon ; at 
length sold his house, and removed 
to Exeter, N. H., and lived in the 
family of their daughter Frances, the 
wire of W. W. Stickney, Esq., and 
remained with them during the sick- 
ness and death of his wife. In his 
deep affliction . he decided to make his 
home in the family of his son Henry, 
in Brooklyn, N. Y., where he received 
every attention from his son and wife 
until his decease, November 15, 1875, 
ngeel 83 years. His remains were 
couveyed to Exeter, N. II., and now 
rest beside those of his wife.- 

Their children were, — 

Henry R., born July 6, 1823. After 
some experience as a clerk, he looked 
forward to a more important life, and 
went to New York, commenced busi- 
ness, was successful, and • is now a 
retired merchant in Brooklyn. He 
married Susan F., youngest daughter 


Daniel Hough and His Descendants, 

of James Willis, Esq., late of East 
Lebanon, January 1, 1853. They 
have one son — William Clark. 

Edward C. married Sela F. Peck, 
August 4. 1850, daughter of John M. 
Peck, of Lebanon, and is now living 
in Rome, Georgia, having one daugh- 

Frances M. married W. W. Stick- 
ey, Esq., November 5, 1850. They 
have two daughters — Ellen Maria and 

Wade, the eldest son of Daniel 
Hough, was born October 3, 1781. 
When young, he was a clerk in James 
Duncan's store with Stephen Ken- 
drick, and remained there until Dun- 
can closed his business in 1805. He 
taught school occasionally, and final- 
ly left Lebanon, went to Boston, then 
to New York, in which places he 
was more or less engaged in trade. 
He married Miss Jane PI u miner, of 
Charleston, S. C, May 21, 1815, and 
at last settled in Brooklyn, N. Y., 
where he died March 4, 1868. in his 
86th year. His wife died November 
8, 1873, aged 81 years. They had 
six children, among whom was Dan- 
iel, the eldest, born February, 1816; 
went to California. 

Philura, eldest daughter, was boru 
February 10, 1783, and married Ed- 
ward Freeman, son of the Hon. Jon- 
athan Freeman, of Hanover. She 
died in 1813, and her husband mar- 
ried Elizabeth Duncan, of Meriden. 

Richard H. was born May 2, 1784, 
and married Sarah Squires, of Fair- 
field, Conn., May 12, 1812. He first 
went to New York, and, it was said, 
was in company with his brother, 
Wade, at one time, and that he after- 
wards became engaged in the South- 
ern trade, bought and sold mules and 

other property ; and when on a jour- 
ney to New Orleans, he was taken 
sick, and died there April 3, 1843, 
aged 59. They had five children — 
Mary M., two Richards, Elizabeth, 
and Sarah. 

Daniel, Jr., born December 19, 
1787, was selected for a liberal edu- 
cation, and taught school in sundry 
places while preparing for college, 
and graduated at Dartmouth in 1812. 
He studied law in Keene, N. II. ; went 
West to find business, and found a 
wife in Kentucky, and finally settled 
in St. Louis, and lived there until 
his decease. They had four children. 
Among them was Henry \\ r ., who be- 
came president of the Life Associa- 
tion of America at St. Louis. Sally 
and Helen died young, and Josephine 
is probably living in St. Louis. 

Sally, born March 2, 1790; died 
at the age of 11 years. 

Asa E , boru May 9, 1794. When 
voimo;, he was full of life and iov ; 
and his presence was always known 
by his hearty laugh and pleasant 
voice. In 1817 he formed a copart- 
nership with John Baxter, who mar- 
ried a sister of Wareham Morse's 
wife, and commenced business under 
the firm name of Baxter & Hough, in 
the Benton store, now occupied by 
Durant & Perkins. In less than a 
year their business was closed by the 
sudden death of Mr. Baxter. Mr. 
Hough and Timothy Ivendrick opeued 
the same store, and traded a few 
years, when they dissolved, and Mr. 
Hough emigrated to the Western 
couutry, and died in Potosi,. Wiscon- 
sin, March 20, 1846. He married, 
and left children. 

Lydia E. was born October 5, 1796, 
and married Abner, eldest son of Di- 

A Lyric of Lyrics. 


area Allen, January 8, 1823. Their 
home was on the Allen farm for many 
years. At length, desiring relief from 
farm duties, he purchased a house in 
the village, where they lived quietly 
until the death of Mr. Allen. Novem- 
ber 25, 1864. Mr. Allen was deacon 
of the Congregational church, the 
same of which his wife was a member. 
Mrs. Allen seems to have inherited a 
long life from her mother, and also a 
personal resemblance, and her grace 
of mind and manner. Being left a 
widow, and most of her relatives far 
away, she selected the home of her 
daughter, Susan Ann, who married 
Rev. Joshua Blaisdell, of Beloit. Wis- 
consin, son of Elijah Blaisdell, Esq., 
late of Lebanon, as the most congen- 

ial place to spend the remainder of 
her days. Julia Maria married Rev. 
Leonard Swain, August 24, 1847, son 
of Richard Swain, of Nashua. N. H. 
He graduated at Dartmouth, was a 
Congregational clergyman, preached 
at Nashua and Providence. He died 
several years ago. 

Polly was born in 1800. and mar- 
ried Am mi B», son of Capt. Samuel 
Young, of Lebanon. He was a cele- 
brated architect, and died in the city 
of Washington, March, 1874. She 
died in Lebanon in 1823. They had 
oue daughter, Helen, who married 
Samuel R. Reed, of Toledo, Ohio, 
who died, April 6, 1856, at that place, 
leaving a daughter, Temperance Pratt 

By R. II. Stoddard. 

These lyrics are writ 

In my heart of heart, 
By a sleight of wit, 
And the lucky hit 

Which is better than art. 

In the clatter of city cars, 

In the babble of falling waters, 
Where the twinkle of summer stars 

Is a lance the leafage shatters, 
Or a flight of arrows that darkness scatters 

Others that went before, 

And some that were to follow, 
Crooned themselves like fairy elves 

Of haunted hill or hollow, 
That where no eye is seeing 
Dance their sweet souls into being. 

Others again in shady nooks, 
Whose leaves are the only books 

That a poet ever reads, 

And whose rain-fall his only beads, — 
In dying again were born 
Betwixt the night and the morn. 

— Scribner's for February. 

114 Charter of JLcbanon. 


Province of New Hampshire. 

George y e Third. 
By the Grace of God of Great Britain, France & Ireland 
King Defender of the Faith &c. 
To all persons To Whom These Presents shall come. 


Know ye That we of our Special Grace, certain Knowledge and meer Motion, 
for the due encouragement of Settling a New Plantation within our s d Prov- 
ince by and with the Advice of our Trusty and well-beloved Benniug Went- 
worth, Our Governor & commander in chief of our s d province of New Hamp- 
shire in New England & of our council of y e s d Province. 
Have upon the Conditions and Reservations hereafter made, given and 
granted and by these presents for us, our Heirs and sucessors, Do give and 
grant equal shares unto our loving Subjects, Inhabitants of our s d Province 
of New Hampshire and our other Governments and to their Heirs and assigns 
forever, whose names are entered on this Grant to be divided to and amongst 
them into sixty-eight equal Shares — all that Tract or Parcell of Land, sit- 
uate lying and being within our s d Province of New Hampshire, containing 
by Admeasurement Twenty Three Thousand acres, which Tract is to contain 
Six Miles square aud more ; out of which an Allowance is to be made for 
highways & unimprovable Lands, by rocks, ponds, Fountains & rivers. One 
thousand & Forty Acres for Recording a plan and survey thereof, made by 
our s d Governors order and returned into the Secretary's office and hereunto 
annexed, butted and bounded as follows, Viz. Beginning at a white pine tree, 
marked with the figure 3. on one side & 4 on the other, which tree is about 
eighteen Miles north from the upper end of Charles Town and stands on the 
bank of Connecticut River, from thence south 72° East Six Miles, from thence 
North 3C° East five miles & one half, from thence North 64° West seven 
miles to Connecticut river, to a hemlock tree marked with 4 & 5 that stands 
just at the head of "White river Falls, from thence down the river to the first 
bound mentioued. And that the same be and hereby is incorporated into a 
Township by the name of Lebanon and the inhabitants that do and shall 
hereafter inhabit the s d Township, are hereby declared to be enfranchised 
with, and entitled to all and every the privileges and immunities that other 
Towns within our Province by law exercise & enjoy : And further that the 
said Town as soon as there shall be Fifty families resident and settled there- 
on, shall have y e liberty of holding two Fairs, one of which shall be held on 
the and the other on the annually, which Fairs are not to 

continue longer than the respective Allowing the said and 

that as soon as the s d Town shall consist of fifty families, markets may be 
opened, aud kept one or more days each week, as may be thought most ad 

Charter of Lebanon. 115 

vantageous to the inhabitants. Also that the first meeting, for the choice of 
Town Officer^ agreeable to the laws in our s d Province, shall be held on the 
last Wednesday of August next — which s d meeting shall be notified by John 
Bawhhvin, who is hereby also appointed the Moderator of the first meeting, 
which he is to notify and govern agreeable to the laws and customs of our s d 
Province, and that the annual meeting forever hereafter for the choice of such 
officers for the s d town shall be on the second Tuesday of March annually. 
To have and to hold the said tract of land as above expressed, together with 
all privileges and appurtenances to them and their respective heirs and as- 
signs forever, upon the following conditions — viz that ever}- Grantee, his 
heirs or assigns must cultivate five acres of land within five years for every 
fifty acres contained in his or their share or proportion of laud in s d Town- 
ship and continue to improve and settle the same by additional cultivation on 
penalty of the forfeiture of his grant or share in the s d Township and of its 
reverting to us our heirs and successors to be by us or them regranted to 
such of our Subjects as shall effectually cultivate and settle the same. — 

2 d That all white and other pine trees within the said Township fitt for 
masting our Royal Navy be carefully preserved for that use and none to be 
cutt or felled without our special License for so doing, first had and ob- 
tained upon the penalty of the forfeiture of the right of said grantee, his 
heirs and assigns to us our heirs and successors, as well as being subject to 
the penalty of any act or acts of Parliament that now are, or shall hereafter 
be enacted. 

3 d That before any division of the land be made to and among the Grantees 
a Tract of land as near the Centre of the s d Township as the land will admit 
of, shall be reserved and marked out for Town lots, one of which shall be 
allotted to each Grantee, of the contents of one acre. 

4 th Yielding and paying therefor to us our heirs and successors for the 
space of ten years, to be computed from the date hereof, the rent of one ear 
of Indian Corn only, on the twenty-fifth day of December annually, if law- 
fully demanded, The first payment to be made on the twenty fifth of Decem- 
ber, 17G2. 

5 th Every proprietor settler or inhabitant shall yield and pay unto us our heirs 
and successors Yearly and every year forever from and after the expiration 
of ten years from the above said twenty fifth day of December — namely, on 
the twenty fifth day of December which will be in the year of Our Lord 1772 
one shilling proclamation money for even' hundred acres he so owns, settled 
or possessed and so in proportion for a greater or lessor Tract of Land : 
which money shall be paid by the respective persons their heirs or assigns 
in our Council chamber, in Portsmouth or to such Officer or Officers as shall 
be appointed to receive the same and this to be in lieu of all other rents and 
services whatever. 

In testimony whereof we have caused the seal of our Province to be here- 
unto affixed, Witness Kenning VTentworth our Governor and Commander in 
Chief, of our s d Province, the Fourth day of July in the year of our Lord 


Charter of Lebanon. 

Christ, one thousand seven hundred and sixty one and in the first year of our 
Reign. By his Excellency's Command with advice of the Council 

Theodore Atkinson Sec 7 . 
B. Wentworth. 

The names of the Grantees of Lebanon, 

John Hanks 
Thomas Barrows Jun 1 
John Salter 
Joseph Dana 
Obadiah Loomiss 
John Swift 
Elijah Huntington 
Daniel Allen J r 
John Baldwin 
Huckin Storrs Jun r 
Robert Barrows Jun r 
David Eldridge 
Jesse Birchard 
Nathan Arnold 
Richard Salters. 
Jonathan Martin 
Nathan Blodgett. 

Levi Hyde 
Constant Southworth 
John Burchard 
Hobbart Estabrooks 
John Alien 
Benjamin Davis 
Lemuel Clark 
Daniel Blodgett 3 d 
Joseph Wood 
Thomas Storrs 
Moses Hibbard Jun r 
Charles Hill 
John Hide 
Joseph Turner 
Josiah Storrs. 
Jesse Birchard 
Nehemiah Estabrooks 

Samuel Storrs 
Robert Hide 
Joshua Blodgett 
John Storrs 
Jonathan Yeomans 
Seth Blodgett 
Jonathan Walcott 
Nathaniel Porter 
Jabez Barrows 
Nathaniel Hall 
Jonathan Murdock 
Darid Turner 
John Burchard 
Joseph Martin 
Daniel Blodgett 
Juda Storrs 
Robert Martin 

Edward Goldstone Lalushien 

One whole share for the Incorporated Society, for the Propagation of the 
Gospel in Foreign parts 

One whole share for a Glebe for the Church of England as by law established. 
One whole share for the First settled Minister. 
One share for the benefit of a school in s d Town. 

His Excellency Denning Wentworth Esq r . a Tract of Land of five hundred 
acres as marked in the plan, which is to be accounted two of the within shares. 

Jedediah Dana William Dana Mark Hunt AVentworth 

James Neveus Esq r Jonathan Blanchard Oniel Lamont 

Clement Jackson Esq r Hugh Hall "Wentworth 

Samuel Penhallow and William Knight. 

Province of New Hampshire July 5 th 1761 
Recorded in the Book of Charters 

Theodore Atkinson Secy. 

A true copy of the Grant of the Township of Lebanon 

Attested and recorded the 7 th day of October Anno Domini, 1761. 

Pr John Salter Prop" Clerk. 

Early Histor v of L eban on . 




At a meeting of the proprietors of 11 The following persons were 

the New Incorporated Township of chosen for a Committee for laving 

Lebanon in New Hampshire, legally 
warned, holden at the house of Ama- 
riah Storrs, Innholder in Mansfield 
Conn, on the 6th day of Oct r A. D. 
1761. the following votes were passed : 

1 st Made choice of Nehemiab Esta- 
brooks for Moderator. 

2 ud Chose John Salter a Clerk of 
said propriety. 

3 d Voted to admit Moses Hibbard 
to vote as a proprietor, although by 
mistake his name was left out of the 

4 th Chose Jonathan Murdock Col- 
lector for said propriety. 

5 th Chose Amariah Storrs Treas- 
urer for said propriety. 

out said lots as above directed Viz. 
Capt. Nath 1 Hall Huckins Storrs jun r 
and Daniel Blodgett jun T . 

12 Voted to allow the aforesaid 
committee 3/ pr. day when in said 
service and also to defray their ex- 

13 th Voted that the proprietors 
of the Townships of Lebanon would 
choose a Committee to join a Com- 
mittee chosen by y c proprietors of 
Enfield, to receive and settle the ac- 
counts of Jedediah Dana Agent for 
the proprietors of said Townships, 
and that each committee make report 
to their respective Constituents at 
their next meeting, and the following 

6 th The following persons chosen persons were chosen as a committee 

for a standing committee for said 
propriety, viz. Nehemiah Estabrooks, 
Charles Hill and Joseph Dana. 

7 th Voted that the Main street run- 
ning through the Township of said 
Lebanon, should be laved out teu rods 

8 th That the committee hereafter 

for y e purpose aforesaid Viz. Nehe- 
miah Estabrooks, Capt Samuel Storrs 
and John Storrs. 

14 th Voted tli at a tax of ten shil- 
lings lawful money be levied upon 
each proprietor, to defray the expense 
of laying out said Township by the 
Committee chosen for that purpose, 

be chosen for y e purpose of laying out and that s d tax be paid in by the first 

y e lots and roads in said Township ; Monday in Jan- V next, 

make reservation of such lands aud 15 th Voted that the money which 

roads in said Township as they shall was paid in by the proprietors of the 

judge necessary and convenient. Townships of Lebanon to refund the 

th Voted that the first division, expense of the proprietors of the 

after the one acre division mentioned Townships of Enfield in case they 

in the Grant, shall consist of fifty 
acres, being proportioned according 
to the quality of said land. 

10 th That the committee for laying 
said lots shall proceed to y e business 
at or before the 10 th day of Oct r in- 

» From the 1LSS. of 

had not obtained a Grant of a Town- 
ship, shall be taken out of the hands 
of y e former Treasurer (John Salter) 
by the present Treasurer of said pro- 
priety (Mr. Amariah Storrs) he giv- 
ing a receipt therefor to y- said for- 
mer Treasurer and committee y e same 
the late C. C. Benton. 


Early History of Lebanon* 

into the hands of y* Committee for 
laying out said Township of Lebanon, 
and said committee to exchange the 
same (being paper bills) for silver to 
the best advantage and render an ac- 
count of their doings to said pro- 

16 th That the committee, for laying 
out said Townships, shall provide a 
Surveyor for the purpose and exhibit 
his account to said proprietors. 

17 th This vote ha.~ reference to pro- 
posing a settlement between Lebanon 
and Enfield proprietors &c. The 
meeting was then dissolved, the fore- 
going votes attested and recorded. 
John Salter 

proprietor's Clerk. 

The next proprietors' meeting was 
at the same place on the 15th day of 
December, 17C1 . 

l lt Chose Nehemiah Estabrooks 

2 nd Chose the following persons 
assessors for said propriety : Nehe- 
miah Estabrooks, Capt. Sam 1 Storrs 
and Thomas Storrs. 

3 rd Chose the following committee 
to join with the Enfield committee 
for the purpose of making a settle- 
ment with the proprietors of the two 
Townships &c Capt Storrs, Thomas 
Storrs & 

4 th Voted to allow Jedediah Dana, 
Ageut for the propriety, above what 
was before granted. 

5 th Voted to accept the doings of 
the Committee in their laying out of 
lots with the alterations made upon 
their plan. 

6 th Voted to allow the accounts of 
the committee for laying the lots and 
raise £30-0-0 lawful money to make 
up the sum due them. 

8 ,h Voted a Lottery be made by 

Thomas Storrs and Judah Storrs, and 
that Oliver Davidson and Ephrairn 
Parker should draw y e lots. 

9 th Voted that the Clerk procure a 
book for Records. 

10 th Voted Charles Hill be appoint- 
ed to treat with the proprietors of y c 
Townships between } t6 Old Fort at No. 
•1 and said Lebanon relative to a high- 
way between said Fort and said Leb- 

11 Voted that for the encourage- 
ment of the speedy settlement y e said 
Township of Lebanon, that those of 
the proprietors who shall settle upon 
said lands within the term of two 
years, shall have the privilege of cul- 
tivating and improving such a part 
of the Interval as shall best suit theru, 
with these restrictions, That the in- 
terval land so improved by them be 
iu one piece or body and when said 
interval shall be divided among the 
proprietors, Those persons aforesaid 
shall have their proportion of y c afore- 
said interval so cultivated by them. 

12 th Contains the names of the pro- 
prietors and the no. of the lot, drawn 
against each name. 

" Voted to raise a tax of 10/ upon 
each right to be paid into the Treas- 
ury the first of December ensuing, 
and also 10/ more to be paid in by 
the said day of December, 1763, to 
encourage Oliver Davidson to build a 
Saw Mill upon some suitable stream 
within the township of Lebanon ; and 
if the said Davidson should begin and 
complete a good and sufficient Saw 
Mill as near the centre of said Town- 
ship as shall be judged best within 
the term of two years ; then the afore- 
said sum and sums to be paid to the 
said Davidson at the several terms 
above mentioned, and to direct the 

Early History of Lebanon. 


Committee of the propriety of said 
Township to take sufficient bonds for 
the performance of the promises." 
Voted to adjourn to the second Tues- 
day of March next (1762) — — 

Met according to adjournment. 
Having discovered, since their vote 
in 1761 upon their draft of Township 
lots that there was a'great mistake in 
running the lines on the plan and 
also in laying out said lots and that 
many inconveniences would follow, 
and therefore for the peace as well as 
the interest of said propriety, it was 
thought best to reconsider and disan- 
nul those former votes relative to the 
laying out and drafting said lots, 
which was done accordingly. 

Voted that Oliver Davidson have the 
privilege of laying out his first divi- 
sion of one hundred acres, so as to 
include the spot which shall be judged 
convenient for erecting the saw mill, 
reserving all other privileges of the 
stream with a sufficiency of land for 
other mills and necessary roads. 

Voted to choose three surveyors to 
continue in office two years, or until 
March 10, 1764, and made choice of 
Charles Hill, Levi Hyde, and Jededi- 
ah Dana. 

It will be seen that the proprietors' 
meetings were still held in Mansfield, 
Conn., for the next one was the sec- 
ond day of September, A. D. 1762. 
Chose Nehemiah Estabrooks Modera- 
tor and Thomas Storrs Collector in 
place of Jonathan Murdock. and chose 
the following persons to clear a road 
from the Old Fort No. 4, to said Leb- 
anon— Capt. Nath 1 Hall, John Hanks, 
and John Birch ard. 

Voted the Committee proceed to 
clear a horse road from said Fort to 
Lebanon or further if thought best, 

and to use their influence with propri- 
etors of other towns to assist them, 
and voted also to raise a tax of 5/ 
upon each proprietor to defray the 
expenses of said road. 

The proprietors met according to 
adjournment the 2 d day of December, 
1762, and chose a committee of three 
men, viz., Capt. Samuel Storrs, Jo- 
seph Dana, and Dea. Nehemiah Esta- 
brooks, to treat with the proprietors 
of the Townships adjoining to or near 
the Township of Lebanon, relative to 
an encouragement for the preaching 
of the Gospel in said Townships, and 
make report of their proceeding as 
soon as the nature of the business will 
admit of. 

They voted to have the second di- 
vision of one hundred acre lots sur- 
veyed and laid out, and also the inter- 
val land laid out, in proportion to 
each proprietor, by a committee ap- 
pointed for that purpose. &c, and 
chose Dea. Nehemiah Estabrooks, 
Capt. Samuel Storrs, and Capt. Nath 1 
Hall ; also voted a tax of 12/ upon 
each right to pay the expenses of said 
laying out. 

At an adjourned meeting the last 
Tuesday in March, 1763, they voted 
to accept y e report of y e committee 
appointed to treat with the proprietors 
of y e neighboring Townships for en- 
couraging y e preaching of y e Gospel 
in said Townships, in consequence of 
which said propriety voted a tax of 
4/ on each proprietor for the purpose 
aforesaid, and appointed Dea. Esta- 
brooks a committee to join a commit- 
tee of the neighboring Townships to 
make provisions for y e .preaching of 
y c Gospel in said Townships the en- 
suing summer. 

Voted to appoint Constant South 


Marly History of Lebanon. 

worth to go to Portsmouth and collect 
the rates due from the proprietors 
residing in those parts, and to allow 
him 3/G lawful money pr. day for 
himself and horse and defray the ex- 
pense of y e journey. 

Again at Mansfield on the 9 th day 
of January A. D. 17G4, they voted 
that the encouragement given by y e 
proprietors at their meeting in 17G2 
(for y e speedy settlement of the laud 
in said Township) should be contin- 
ued until March A. D., 1765. Peter 
Aspiuwall was appointed a committee 
to act in conjunction with y e commit- 
tees of Hanover and Norwich in set- 
tling the account for laving out and 
clearing the road from Old Fort No. 
4 to Lebanon ; also voted the sum of 
£29-6-7f for clearing the above men- 
tioned road. 

Voted to dismiss the standing com- 
mittee, Chas. Hill, Neheniiah Esta- 
brooks, and Joseph Dana, and ap- 
point Nehemiah Estabrooks, Constant 
South worth, and Peter Aspinwall in 
the room of those dismissed. 

From the following it appears that 
the proprietors held their servants 
accountable for an honest fulfilment 
on their part. They voted to allow 
Thomas Storrs three shillings per 
day, and defray his expenses, in case 
he forthwith repair to Portsmouth to 
collect the taxes from v e proprietors 
in those parts; said 3/ per day to be 
allowed only while said Storrs is act- 
ually in said service. 

The one acre division of lots was 
drawn to the proprietors this year 
(17G4). Seven shillings upon each 
right was assessed for the purpose of 
making roads. In December, 1764, 
eight shillings, lawful money, was 
raised on each right to support y e 

preaching of the gospel in said town- 
ship, and appointed Nehemiah Esta- 
brooks and Capt. Samuel Storrs a 
committee to provide preaching in 
said township y e ensuing summer. 
Voted, to raise a tax of ten shillings 
and sixpence on each proprietor's 
right, for making and improving 
roads, and appointed Nath'l Porter, 
Silas Watermau, and William Dana 
a committee to lay out said money. 

Voted, that the encouragement giv- 
en to settlers in 17G2 for taking up 
lands be extended, in regard to time, 
to 17G5. 

Voted, to grant to Charles Hill 
one acre of the undivided laud, in 
consideration of his deeding one acre 
of land to the propriety on the south 
part of his 100-acre lot for the use of 
a burying place (the old burviug). 

Voted, to grant John Ben net a priv- 
ilege on y e stream between Oliver 
Davidson's saw-mill and the mouth 
of the Mascoma to erect a grist-mill, 
and liberty of passing to and from 
said mill on the undivided land, pro- 
vided said mill be completed by the 
first day of March, 17GG. 

Voted, to appoiut Levi Hyde clerk 
for propriety. 

A record of the lots of land takeu 
up by the first settlers of the town- 
ship upon tin: encouragement given 
by the propriety for the speedy set- 
tling of said township was made, 
giving the names of the settlers, tiie 
numbers of the lots of upland, and 
also their proportion of interval 

Voted, to allow Charles Hill liberty 
to keep up gates and bars at each 
end of the road running through his 
lot. during the proprietor's pleasure. 

The first meeting of the proprie- 

Early History of Lebanon. 


tors in the town of Lebanon, in the 
province of New Hampshire, was 
held the "22 J day of April, 17G5. 

Voted, to collect the money raised 
sX the last meeting for road pur- 
poses, and have it laid out accord- 

Voted, to raise a tax of 3/ on each 
right to enable the committee to set- 
tle y e accounts against the propriety. 
Also paid Samuel Storrs fifty shil- 
lings for travel and expenses to pro- 
cure money for y e service of said 

At an adjourned meeting in De- 
cember, 17Gj, it was voted to raise 
the sum of 10/, lawful money, upon 
each proprietor's right, to be appro- 
priated for y e use of supporting y e 
preaching of y e gospel in said town- 
ship v e ensuing summer. Also to 
raise 10/6, lawful money, on each 
right for making roads, and Aaron 
Storrs and Jedediah Hebard were 
chosen a committee to direct the use 
of it and to accept three days' labor 
in full of y c aforesaid tax, from May 
until the 1st of October. After that 
time to y" 10th of November four days 
labor shall be accepted as aforesaid. 

It was further voted, that John 
Slapp have the liberty to erect a mill 
on Mascoma river, below Davidson's 
saw-mill, provided he will build a 
good grist-mill on or before the first 
of December next (176G). 

In 17GG Charles Hill, John Wheat- 
ley, and Levi Hyde were chosen as- 
sessors ; Aarou Storrs, collector ; and 
Johu Wheatley, treasurer. 

Voted, to hold the proprietors' 
meetings of the township of Leba- 
non in said Lebanon for the future. 

Voted, also, to raise a tax of 
twenty shillings, L. M., on each 

right for the settlement of the gospel 
in said Lebauon, to be paid in Oct., 

The next meeting was held June 
9, 17G7. at the house of Charles Hill, 
in Lebanon. Aaron Storrs was cho- 
sen moderator; Capt. John Wheat- 
ley, for 1st committee to manage the 
prudential affairs of said propriety ; 
Nath'l Porter, for the second ; and 
Aarou Storrs, for the third. 

Voted, that the clerk of the pro- 
prietors warn the meetiugs by the 
application of one sixteenth of said 

At another meeting the same year, 
July, 17G7, it was voted to raise a 
tax of six shillings, lawful money, on 
each right, to support the preaching 
of the gospel the current year. 

Voted, also, to raise six shillings 
for making aud mending highways in 
said town, or two days work. 

Voted, that Maj r John Slapp have 
all the undivided land between the 
now travelled road to Oliver David- 
son and Mascoma river, &c, pro- 
vided said Slapp shall erect a grist- 
mill by Jan. 1, 17G9. 

At a meeting of y e proprietors of 
y e township of Lebanon, in the prov- 
ince of New Hampshire, at the house 
of Charles Hill, 17GS, upon the arti- 
cle in the warning for settling the 
town line between Lebanon and 
Plaiufield, Charles Hill, John Wheat- 
ley, and Lieut. Nath'l Porter were 
chosen a committee for that purpose, 
and requested to settle the difficulty. 

Voted, to raise a tax for laying out 
aud making a road from the great 
river to the great interval and so on 
to the Enfield line, and a tax was 
raised of eighteen shillings, lawful 
money, on each right of land for that 


Early History of Lebanon. 

purpose. Levi Hyde, Huekin Storrs, 
and John Wheatley were chosen a 
committee for that business, and di- 
rected to call a day's work 3/, lawful 

At au adjourned meeting. May 17, 
1768, voted to accept the doings of 
the committee chosen to settle town 
lines between Lebanon and Plainfield. 

After several meetings in the year 
with no transactions interesting to 
relate, they met according to notice, 
October 23, 1769. 

Voted, to have the south-west cor- 
ner of the township established ac- 
cording to the charter, and that 
Aaron Storrs and Elijah Sprague be 
a committee to make application to 
his excellency to grant the request. 

On the-26th of May, 1772, the pro- 
prietors voted to build a meeting- 
house, and Aaron Storrs, Huekin 
Storrs, and Jedediah He bard were a 
committee for carrying out the ob- 
ject. And also voted to raise forty 
shillings upon each proprietor's right, 
to be paid by the first of September 
next, for the use of said committee 
to build said meeting-house. 

Voted, to raise twelve shillings, 
lawful money, on each right to pay 
outstanding debts of said propriety, 
to be added to the forty shillings tax. 

Voted, to appropriate said forty 
shillings for building said meeting- 
house when all proper arrangements 
are made. 

Voted, to build said house in the 
township of Lebanon for the use of 
the town on the south side of the 
river Mascoma, on the east side of 
the road which leads from the saw- 
mill lately belonging to the estate of 
Oliver Davidson, deceased, into the 
road called Enfield road, near the 

house of Lieut. Nath'l Porter, about 
half way between the Hubbard bridge 
and the present residence of Dea. 
N. B. Stearns, and opposite Maj. 
John Slapp's corn-mill. Said meet- 
ing-house to be 4-4 feet in length and 
32 feet in breadth and 20 feet posts. 
And a committee of three men to be 
appointed to accomplish said purpose 
as soon as the nature of said busi- 
ness will admit. 

At a meeting of the proprietors at 
the house of Charles Hill, the 29th 
of September. 1774, 

Voted, to pursue some method to 
ascertain the south-west corner of 
the township, and a committee was 
appointed to mark the southern line 
of the same according to the charter, 
which corner bound is IS miles dis- 
tant in a line from the north-west 
corner of Charlestown. And the 
committee were requested to warn 
any person or persons who were tres- 
passing within the township of Leb- 
anon to depart immediately, and if 
they desist, to take legal steps to 
remove them, so as to put a final end 
to the dispute. In December, 1774, 
the committee employed Jonathan 
Freeman to assist them in surveying 
the said lines, and his report was 
laid before the proprietors and ac- 
cepted by them, and the dispute was 

In 1775 a meeting was held at 
Charles Hill's, and voted that the 
jjropriety empower their committee 
to call any meeting on the applica- 
tion of one sixteenth part of the pro- 
prietors by posting a warning on the 
house of Capt. Bela Turner. 

It seems that some portions of the 
records were lost. At a meeting, the 
24th day of March. 1778, Dea. Nehe- 

Early History of Lebanon, 


miah Estabrook was chosen modera- 
tor. A new standing committee was 
chosen for the propriety, consisting 
of Dea. X. Estabrooks, John Wheat- 
ley, and John Griswold. Chose Nath'l 
Hall collector. 

Voted, that Elisha Payne have the 
privilege of laying out an undivided 
tract of laud abutting easterly on 
Benjamin Fullers, Jr., hundred acre 
lot, and southerly on Masquema riv- 
er, &c, on condition that the said 
Payne, his heirs or assigns, shall build 
and erect a good saw-mill and grist- 
mill on Mas com a river, near to the 
place where said river empties out of 
the poud, within two years from the 
first day of April next, unless the 
public commotions and the present 
war shall render it impracticable, in 
which case they shall be built as soon 
as the public affairs will admit of. 

Voted, that the Rev. Isaiah Potter 
may have a small tract of common 
and undivided land, enclosed within 
his fence lyiug near the bridge over 
the Masquema river near Maj. John 
Slapp's grist-mill. 

Voted, that Charles Tildeu, Will- 
iam Dana, Elisha Ticknor, and Moses 
Hibbard be a committee to lay out 
all the undivided lauds in said town ; 
and Voted, to allow the committee 
and surveyor five gallons of rum 
while laying out said undivided lands. 

In Oct. 20th day, 1778, Voted, that 
John Wheatley, Aaron Storrs, aud 
Levi Hyde be a committee to rectify 
all mistakes in the propriety records, 
and all the omissions in the entry 
of said records. 

In December 24, 1778, Voted, Col. 
Elisha Payne have the liberty of 
erecting a dam across Mascoma river, 
at the mouth of Enfield pond (so 

called), in order to raise said pond 
sufficient for the use and benefit of 
the mills, which he has undertaken to 
build, by a former vote of the pro- 

At a meeting of the proprietors, 
June 1, 1779, many allotments of 
land were made to sundry proprietors, 
and a grant was voted of a certain 
piece of undivided land in said Leba- 
non to David Hinkley, clothier, as an 
encouragement to him to set up his 
trade, said piece containing eight 
acres. It was also voted to pay Levi 
Hyde £62=0 — in Continental mon- 
ey for his services as clerk of the 

At a meeting in March 17, 1780, 
Voted to appropriate the whole of 
the sequestered rights of land in said 
Lebanon, viz., the propagation right 
and the glebe for the Church of Eng- 
land, so called, for the support of 
schools in said town. 

Voted, that the committee who laid 
out the last division, make a correct 
plan of said town, and lodge it with 
the clerk of the propriety when com- 
pleted. During the year a division 
of the laud was continued. 

March 27, 1781, the following votes 
were passed : That Theophelus Hunt- 
ington be moderator ; and that Heze- 
kiah Waters shall represent Ensign 
Thomas Blake in the meeting ; then 
proceeded to divide the land, and a 
draft was made by numbers. 

December 9, 1782, Gideon Baker 
was chosen moderator. During this 
year there was an exchange and as- 
signment, etc., of lands. 

In November 8, 1785, met at the 
dwelling-house of Nath'l Porter, Gid- 
eon Baker moderator. Voted to raise 
a tax of 12/ upon each right, to be 

I2 4 

Early History of Lebanon. 

paid one third bard money, and the 
rest in certificates for the delivery of 
grain at cash price. 

May 24, 1786, Voted, that Robert 
Col burn be agent to petition the Hon. 
General Assembly of the state of 
New Hampshire, then to be holden 
at Concord, in said state, the first 
Wednesday of June next, praying 
that they will please order, that the 
charter of said Lebanon be entered 
by the secretary in the records of 
said state, and that said agent receive 
of the clerk of said propriety the 
records of said propriety and said 
charter, in which said charter is fairly 

November 24, 178G, Voted to dis- 
miss Dea. Theophulus Huntington 
from being a standing committee, 
and chose James Jones and Lemuel 
Hough said committee. 

April 24, 1788, met at the house of 
Nath'l Porter. Relating to surveys 
of lots, etc., voted to appoint Elisha 
Payne, Jr., collector. Voted to ad- 
journ this meeting till the third Mon- 
day in June, at the meeting-house in 

In 1700, Dec. 27, a meeting of the 
proprietors was held at the said meet- 
ing-house ; chose Lemuel Hough mod- 
erator, and adjourned to Esquire 
Hydes. Voted the widow Wheatley 
a certain piece of land ; also voted 
to hold proprietors' meetings in future 
at the meeting-house. 

At a meeting warned and convened 
at said meeting-house, April 30, 1789, 
Gideon Baker was chosen moderator. 

March 30, 1791, Robert Colburn 
chosen moderator, and made arrange- 
ments to dispose of the undivided 
lands, and voted that Lieut. Robert 
Colburn, in behalf of the propriety, 

request the selectmen of Lebanon to 
call a meeting, to see if the town will 
allow the proprietors to dispose of 
part of the road formerly laid ou^ 
eight rods wide, to assist them in de- 
fraying the expense of laying out and 
dividing their lands. 

May 12, 1791, relates to sales of 
land by auction — Gideon Baker and 
Robert Colburn Committee for the 

Met the 30 th day of May 1792. 
Voted to dismiss Elisha Payne jun r , 
from his collectorship and chose 
James Jones in his place. 

Voted to hold proprietors meetings 
at Robert Colburns for the future. 
At a meeting the 9 th day of November 
1795, Gideon Baker moderator. 

Met Jau- T 4, 1796 Voted to choose 
agents to settle a dispute between the 
proprietors and Cap*. Daniel Phelps. 
Chose Col. Elisha Payne and Lemuel 
Hough and directed them to take 
such legal methods as they shall judge 

Met at Cap 1 Robert Colburns on 
the 30 th day of September 1802. 
Chose Cap* Robert Colburn modera- 
tor — and finally adjourned to Jan y , 


In accordance with the act of in- 
corporation of the town of Lebanon, 
the first meetiug of the inhabitants of 
the town was held on the 13th day of 
May, 1765. Their record is in the 
following words, verbatim et litera- 
tim : 

A True Coppy of y e Votes Passed 
at A Town Meeting Held at Leba- 
non On May y e 13 th , 17G5, at y e house 
of Mr. Asa Kilbourn (Viz) After 
Chusing a Moderator. 

Query 11 2 d Whether we will Have a 

Early History of Lebanon. 


Minister this Summer or Will Not. 
Voted in the Affirmative. 

3 d That We First Send Subscrip- 
tions To v e Neighboring Towns and 
Get What We Can subscribed and 
what Remains Wanting To Supply y' 
Pulpit six Months. Will Stand Spon- 
sible For To Be Paid at y e end of s J 
Six Months. Voted the affirmative. 

4 th Chose Aaron Storrs To carry a 
Subscription To Take Care To Get 
as much In y e Neighboring Towns as 
he can. 

5 th Voted that the Selectmen take 
it upon them to Seek Quarters for y e 
Minister and Provide For His accom- 

[This was, indeed, a very pleasant 
opening of the town record, an honor 
to the inhabitants, thus to lay out 
first, a Christian highway, then se- 
lecting a ministerial surveyor to work 
and improve it with moral power and 
gospel truth.] 

At the next town-meeting, legally 
warned. Sept. 12, 17G5, John Wheat- 
ley was chosen moderator, and it was 

Voted, that the highway through 
the interval on the great river (the 
Connecticut) shall be an open way. 

Voted, that the town lay out land 
for a burying place on the north side 
of the road that leads to the saw mill 
[on Charles Hill's land, which place is 
now the " old burying ground'' near 
the Luther Alden house]. — Voted that 
Silas Waterman purchase a book for 

Here follows the record of the first 
March meeting, 1706. 

Charles Hill was chosen Moderator, 
John Wheatley, Silas Waterman, and 
Charles Hill, Selectmen. Silas Water- 
man, Town Clerk. Aaron Storrs. Con- 
stable. Jedediah Hibbard and Samuel 

Meacham, Tytheing men. Charles 
Hill and Jedediah Hibbard, Highway 
Surveyers. Voted Silas Waterman 
Ss Sd lawful money to pay for record 

At the town-meeting of Au< 


1766, it was voted, Whether it would 
be proper and convenient under our 
present circumstances to pursue such 
methods as may be thought best for 
the obtaining of a steady gospel ad- 
ministration amongst us. Resolved. 
in Affirmative, and next resolved to 
treat with the Rev. Mr. Treadway, 
and voted that the selectmen provide 
for him on his return. 

May 25, 1767, Resolved to choose 
a regular candidate for the gospel min- 
istry the ensueiug season, and voted 
Aaron Storrs, Jo 8 . Dana and Capt n 
John Colburn, a committee for the 
purpose aforesaid. 

Oct 1- , 1767, Voted to have the Rev. 
Mr. Wales to preach the ensueiug 

Feb. 26, 1768. Upon the question, 
" Whether the town will do any thing 
about building a meeting house for 
the convenience of public worship." 
It was voted in the negative. 

July 19, 1768, " Whether the spot 
-near the burying ground should be the 
place to set a meetinghouse upon. 
Voted in the affirmative." 

July 27, 1768, "Query, whether 
they would give Mr. Wales a call to 
settle in the ministry in this town. 
Resolv'd in y e affirmative. Query, 
whether they will give Mr. Wales 
fifty pounds as a salary for the first 
year and rise five pounds a year 
till it arrives to seventy pounds if he 
may be obtained. Resolved in the 
affirmative. " 

Sept. 7, 1768, The town voted 


Early History of Lebanon 

twenty pounds for the support of 
schools, and appointed a committee 
to conduct said schools, consisting 
of Lt. John Griswold, Asa Kilburn, 
and Joseph Wood. 

Sept. 30, 1768, ''Query, whether 
they would accept of Mr. Wales* 
verbal answer (sent by Dea. Nehe- 
miah Estabrooks) of his acceptance 
of, and compliance with, their call to 
settle in the work of the gospel min- 
istry amongst them. Resolved in the 

March 14, 1760, 3 d " Whether they 
will build two bridges across the Mas- 
koma — oue at the fordway near Benj a 
Fullers' and the other near the mill in 
said Lebanon. Eesolved in the nega- 

" Query, Whether they will agree 
to build one bridge. Resolved in the 

kl Query. Whether they will build a 
bridge at s d Fordway. Resolved in 
the negative." 

Query, Whether they will build a 
bridge near said mills. Resolved in 
the affirmative. 

4 th Whether they meant to be under- 
stood by their former vote Sept. 30, 
1768, wherein they manifested their 
nou-acceptance of Mr. Wales' verbal 
answer, thereby to have repealed or 
made void all their former votes, 
passed by them in favor of said Mr. 
Wales' settling in the gospel ministry 
amongst them. Resolved in the 
affirmative. 5 th to see if they will 
think proper as a town, to make Mr. 
Wales some compensation for the loss 
of his horse, supposed to be gored to 
death in Levi Hyde's pasture. Re- 
Bolv d in the negative." 

May 8, 1760, " Query, whether the 
town would do any thins; relative to 

having the gospel administration 
amongst them the ensueing summer. 
Resolv d in the affirmative. Chose 
Cha 5 Hill. Capt. John Wheatley and 
Joseph Wood a committee to procure 
a minister, and directed them to ap- 
ply to Mr. Kenne, and if they could 
not obtain him, to take the best 
method possible to secure a minis- 
ter the ensueing summer. Voted to 
purchase a Law book for the use of 
the town and to be kept in the Town 
Clerk's office." 

Jan- V 20, 1770. "Query, whether 
they would build a bridge over the 
river Jfasquonia, near the grist mill 
in said Lebanon. Resolved in the 
affirmative. Voted, to build said 
bridge below Maj. Slapp's dam, 
where it will best accommodate the 
public and make the road two rods 
wide from said bridge. Voted a tax 
of sixty pounds lawful money for the 
purpose aforesaid." 

March 13, 1770, No other business 
bet the choice of town officers for the 

Nov r 5, 1770, "Query, whether 
they would do auy thing relating to 
the article in the warning to build a 
meetinghouse. Voted in the affirma- 
tive." Next, voted that they would 
not " build a meetinghouse for the 
convenience of public worship in 
town." Voted that the selectmen erect 
2 line posts to sit up warnings on for 
the future, one to be placed at the 
corner of the road that leads to Mr. 
Woods, and the other at the corner 
that leads out to Maj. John Slapp's, 
said posts to be kept at town cost. 

Nov r . 26, 1770. "To -see if they 
agree to build a house for public wor- 
ship. Resolved in the affirmative." 

Adjourned meeting, Jan- V . 10, 1771. 

Early History of Lebanon. 


Tbe followiug questions, which were 
brought before the meeting, — relating 
to the building of a meetinghouse in 
Lebanon — were acted upon and 
passed in the affirmative, viz., whether 
they would go into a reconsideration 
of the votes heretofore passed in re- 
gard to building. And whether they 
will build a house of public worship 
and take a longer time to complete 
said house, than heretofore agreed 
upon — and whether they will set upon 
some other spot than that already 
selected, and whether they will agree 
to choose a committee to fix the spot 
to set said house upon, which shall 
be the established place — all of 
which was resolved in the affirma- 
tive. Then proceeded and chose 
Samuel Chase, Esq r , Capt n Hezekiah 
Johnson, and Lt. David Woodard a 
committee to affix the spot to set said 
meetinghouse. These gentlemen not 
being residents of the town — a com- 
mittee was very properly chosen to 
receive and wait upon them during 
the performance of their duties. 

Jan- V 29, 1771. - Voted to build a 
house for public worship, to be thirty 
feet square and ten feet posts. 
Voted, to fence tli£ burying ground 
upon the town's cost." 

Annual Town Meeting, March 12, 
1771, only chose the necessary town 

March 19, 1771. l » Voted, to take 
into consideration the request of Dr. 
Eleazor Wheelock, President of Dart- 
mouth College, that one mile and a 
half of land in breadth and three 
miles in length, of the Township of 
Lebanon in the north-west corner 
thereof, be incorporated with other 
lands into a township or parish. Pur- 
suant to said request — voted to pray 

the General Court that the lauds in- 
cluded within the following lines 
(viz.), from the north west corner of 
Lebanon, ruuning easterly upon the 
town line, three miles, thence south- 
erly at a right angle, oue mile and a 
half, thence westerly in a line paral- 
lel with the Grst line to the river, 
thence abutting westerly on said river 
to the abovemeutioned bound, may 
be incorporated into a town or par- 
ish. Voted that Dr. Eleazor AVhee- 
lock be au agent to represent the 
town at the Geueral Court in favor of 
the above request and the obtaining 
of the same. Voted that a tax of six 
pounds, L. M., be laid upon the towu 
to defray town debts." 

Aug 1 21, 1771, " Whether they will 
agree to give Mr. Isaiah Potter a call 
to continue in the work of the Gospel 
ministry in order for settlement in 
said work amongst them. Resolved 
in the affirmative. Chose Charles 
Hill and Azariah Bliss a committee 
to treat with Mr. Potter for the pur- 
pose aforesaid. Voted, that the se- 
lectmen should assess the inhabitants 
of Lebanon for defraying all neces- 
sary charges arisiug on account of 
obtaining Mr. Potter for his labor 
and support for the time being amongst 
them. Voted to enlarge the meeting- 
house already voted to be built, from 
thirty feet square and ten feet posts 
to forty eight feet in length and thirty 
four feet in width and twenty feet 
posts. Voted to adjourn to Septem- 
ber 4, 1771, at which time the above 
named committee made their report 
to said meeting. Of Mr. Potter's ac- 
ceptance of their proposition made to 
him by said committee, so far as to 
return to them the ensuing spring — 
extraordinaries excepted." Voted to 


Early History of Lebanon, 

accept the report. Voted to change 
the spot, heretofore selected near the 
burying ground, on which to erect 
the meetinghouse, to the most con- 
venient place in Mr. HilFs pasture, 
near the road that leads to the saw 
mill. " Voted, that Maj. Slapp, Silas 
"Waterman and Huckin Storrs, be a 
committee to build said meeting- 
house. Voted, that said committee 
proceed to erect and enclose said 
meetinghouse and lay a good floor by 
the first day of Oct r next, which will 
be in the year 1772." 

" November the 7 th , 1771. Voted. 
to transpose the meetinghouse, voted 
to be erected in Mr. Hill's pas- 
ture, to the clay pit about fifty rods 
westerly of said spot. Voted, chat 
Azariah Bliss, John Slapp, and John 
Wheatley, 3^sq r , be a committee to 
oversee the erectiug, enclosing, and 
laying a good floor to said house by 
the 1 st of Oct r , 1772." 

Meeting Dec. 2 rt , 1771. Voted to 
raise a tax to build a meetinghouse 
on sawmill road at the spot last 
agreed upou. 

Town Meeting, Jan- V 7, 1772. Voted 
to accept of a spot, pitched by a com- 
mittee, iu the field of Jonathan Dana, 
to set the meetinghouse. Voted to 
transpose the meetinghouse already 
voted to be built by a tax, near the 
clay on saw mill road, to the said 
spot iu said Dana's field. Voted, 
that Maj. John Slapp, Charles Hill, 
John Griswold and Silas Waterman 
be a committee to oversee the build- 
ins: of said house. 

Annual town meeting, March 10, 
1772. The usual town officers were 
chosen, and voted forty pounds law- 
ful money for making and repairing 

Town meeting Ap l 7, 1772. Re- 
solved to alter the size of the meet- 
inghouse to 40 feet in length, 30 ft. 
in breadth, and 10 feet posts. 

At a meeting April 20, 1 772, " voted 
to transpose the meetinghouse from 
Mr. Dana's field to Mr. Hill's field, 
near the house of Bela Turner, and 
that Azariah Bliss, Cha 8 Hill, Silas 
Waterman. Maj. Slapp, Lieu ts Porter 
and John Wheatley be a committee 
to oversee and forward the building 
of said house. Adjourned to the 27 
iust., and voted that said committee 
proceed to erect said Meetinghouse 
as soon as may be." 

June 12, 1772. The committee 
appointed to confer with Mr. Potter 
in regard to the proposals of the town 
to give him a call reported, and a 
motion was made by the meeting to 
Mr. Potter to give his answer to the 
call, by the people of Lebanon, to 
settle in the Gospel ministry amongst 
them. To which Mr. Potter was 
pleased to answer in the affirmative. 
Voted, to give Mr. Potter thirty eight 
pounds in addition to the sixty two 
pounds granted by the proprietors of 
said Lebanon towards the settlement 
of the first gospel minister settled in 
said town (as a settlement for Mr. 
Potter) in case he becomes the estab- 
lished minister in said town. Voted, 
to give Mr. Potter as a salary fifty 
pouuds lawful money a year, for the 
first two years, and then to rise an- 
nually, five pounds a year, till it shall 
amount to eighty pounds, and that 
said eighty pounds, when attained as 
above, shall be the stated salary for 
Mr. Potter so long as .he shall con- 
tinue in the gospel miuistry in said 




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Early History of Lebanon — C 

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'Devoted to Literature, 'Biography, History, and State Progress. 

VOL. II. (New Series.) 
Vol. XII. 



£. J 1S89. 

Nos. 5, 6, 


For over a century New Hampshire 
has been contributing to her sister 
states men and women of the first 
class. To nearly every state of the 
South and West have her sons and 
daughters gone, to become identified 
with their highest advancement. 
While the many have gone towards 
the centre, some have sought a home 
in the adjoining state of Maine, 
where they have received dis- 
tinguished treatment. From New 
Hampshire went General Henry 
Dearborn, Senator John Chandler, 
Senator William Pitt Fessenden, 
Judge Nathan Clifford, Governor 
Edward Kent, John B. Brown, the 
McKeans, Cochrans, Burleighs, and 
many other influential men and fam- 
ilies. From Maine, Vermont, and 
Massachusetts, New Hampshire has 
received many valuable accessions to 
her population, who have become so 
identified with the state of their 
adoption that it has become in every 
sense their home. From Vermont 
came Edmund Burke, Ossian Ray, 
George A. Bingham, and Harry 
Bingham. From Maine, the Pine 
Tree State, came one who has done 
much to build up Berlin, one of the 

most flourishing villages in northern 
New Hampshire, a man who would 
be a welcome addition to any com- 
munity in which he might cast his 
lot, — Mr. Henry H. Furbish. 

The following sketch is from the 
pages of the History of Coos County, 
written by W. A. Fergusson. 

4i Successful manufacturers are pub- 
lic benefactors, and merit the grati- 
tude and praise of their countrymen. 
The nation that produces the most in 
proportion to its numbers will be the 
most prosperous and powerful. The 
United States possess all the natural 
advantages for the attainment of a 
result so desirable. It is the part of 
patriotism to turn these advantages 
to the best account, to differentiate 
the industries of the people, and to 
give employment to all classes of 
mind and capacity." 

The citizens of Berlin have great 
reason to congratulate themselves on 
the formation of the Forest Fibre 
Company, and the establishment of 
this industry, as it brought to the 
town one who identified himself with 
its interests, is a most prominent 
factor in its development, and a gen- 
erous contributor to all matters hav- 


Henry H. Furbish. 

ing for their object the weal and bet- 
terment of the community. 

Henry Hart Furbish, son of De- 
pendence H. and Persis H. (Brown) 
Furbish, was born June 3, 1835, in 
Gray, Me., where for many years his 
grandfather had conducted one of the 
largest tanneries of the state. The 
family removed to Portland when Mr. 
Furbish was but six months old, and 
he received the educational advan- 
tages of the excellent schools of 
that city, and was fitted for college. 
Inheriting business qualities of a high 
order from his paternal and maternal 
ancestors, at the age of sixteen he 
entered the sugar house of J. B. 
Brown, from whom he received the 
best of training in the supervision of 
large interests. He was an apt pu- 
pil, was made manager in due time, 
and had held this responsible posi- 
tion for several years when the works 
were closed in 1870. 

In 1871 the attention of Mr. Fur- 
bish was attracted to the manufacture 
of wood fibre by the soda process. 
He conducted experiments for the 
perfection of this process in New 
York until 1873, and from 1873 to 
1877 was manager of the experi- 
mental works at Yarmouth, Me. 

In July, 1877, availing himself of 
the valuable water-power at Berlin 
Falls, Mr. Furbish formed the nucleus 
of the present large operations of the 
Forest Fibre Company, by starting a 
small pulp mill (Mill "A"), which 
could manufacture three tons of 
wood-pulp a day. The capacity was 
soon increased to six tons, and the 
industry became a fixed institution, 
and was the signal of progress and 
development of the town. The de- 
mand for the product became so 

large that in connection with J. A. 
Bacon, of Boston, Mi'. Furbish, in 
1880, erected "Mill B," which has a 
capacity of about twenty-five tons a 
day. The Forest Fibre Company 
has now one of the largest, if not 
the largest plant for making chem- 
ical fibre in America, if not in the 
world. It furnishes employment to 
nearly 300 men, and ships its prod- 
uct to paper-mills in every section 
of the United States. This estab- 
lishment is the pioneer of the many 
like enterprises which ere long will 
utilize the waters which now go roll- 
ing almost unchecked along the rocky 
bed of the never-failing Androscoggiu. 

In 1880 Mr. Furbish purchased his 
residence, which is beautifully sit- 
uated, commanding a fine outlook. 
On a clear day the summit of Mt. 
Washington can be seen, and at all 
times "Far, vague, and dim, the 
mountains swim," and the many 
pleasure-seekers who travel miles, 
and expose themselves to the perils 
and discomforts of sea voyages, can 
find here the most lovely and romantic 
scenery. The river, which has a fall 
of some 200 feet in a mile, is bold, 
wild, and picturesque. The cultured 
taste of Mr. Furbish has made his 
home, with its accessories of comfort, 
convenience, and elegance, one of 
the most attractive places to be found 
in many a mile of distance. 

No one who has been familiar with 
the growth of Berlin for the last dec- 
ade will fail to award Mr. Furbish 
much of the credit for its present 
prosperity. His energetic force, his 
love of the beautiful, his broad liber- 
ality, have united in rendering him a 
most positive power in the com- 
munitv in making in the wilderness 


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Berlin . 

comfortable homes, and providing for 
the many the labor by which their 
daily bread may be earned. He has 
laid out a large territory into building 
lots, graded streets, introduced elec- 
tric lights, made other valuable im- 
provements, and created a beautiful 
Tillage of eighteen model houses, to 
-which number additions are being 
xapidly made. At the present time 
lie is contemplating a systematic 
-sewerage of the place, an undertak- 
ing of no small moment when we 
consider that the village is located on 
immense ledges of granite, every- 
where outcropping on the surface of 
the ground. From his agricultural 
operations and fine Jersey stock the 
farming community can draw useful 
lessons of improved agriculture and 

Mr. Furbish married, first, in Sep- 

tember, 1856, Harriet A., daughter 
of Reuben Ordwav, of Portland, Me., 
who died in December, 1871. Of 
their three children, but one, Willard 
H. (bom March 4, 1862), survives. 
He is in business with his father. 
Mr. Furbish married, second, Sep- 
tember 20, 1883, Susan A., daughter 
of George F. Emery, of Portland. 
They have one child, Persis E., born 
June 14, 1884. 

Mr. Furbish was made a Mason in 
Atlantic Lodge. Portland, and has 
taken thirteen degrees in Masonry. 
He is a Republican in politics, an 
Episcopalian in religion, a valuable 
citizen, a prosperous manufacturer, 
a progressive leader in town improve- 
ments, and, by his public spirit and 
large-hearted generosity, proves his 
belief that he lives not for himself 


One of the most flourishing, most of 1890 will show over 4,000 inhab- 
enterprising, and most progressive itants within the township, mostly 
towns in New Hampshire is Berlin, confined to the village, 
situate in Coos county, on the Andros- The main street of the village, ex- 
coggin river, where that dashing, tending for more than a mile, follows 
rushing stream leaves the highlands, the course of the valley, and has a 
and becomes, in the adjoining town decided " up-hill" tendency as it leads 
of Gorham, a dignified river making toward the Berlin Mills. The build- 
its way slowly toward the ocean, ings, public and private, are modern, 
Berlin without the Androscoggin artistic, and attractive. They are not 
would perhaps ha\e enjoyed the quiet temporary structures designed for the 
of its sister towns for many decades day, but are built to withstand the 

rigors of a Northern winter, and to 
charm the eye during the summer 
when the neighboring mountain re- 
gion draws so many tourists from 
away . 

ir Ihe history of the town goes back 

to come, but the fall of a great river 
two hundred feet in a mile of its 
course attracted enterprising men to 
the development of the water-power, 
and within ten years the town has 
doubled its population. The census 

1 Compiled from Fur^useon's History of Ceus County. 

Berlin . 


to the years previous to the Revolu- 
tion ; but for a long time it was un- 
interesting and of little importance. 
Hunters and trappers camped here in 
pursuit of game and peltry ; later, 
the magnificent growth of pine 
brought lumbermen from the lower 
country to cut the logs which they 
transported to the mills below. Early 
settlers on farms farther down the 
valley, when in want of ready money 
to make payments on their land or to 
purchase supplies for their families, 
would make a temporary occupancy 
in a rude camp hastily constructed, 
and by hard labor would make " salts" 
from the ashes of the large elms 
along the valley ; then, having accom- 
plished the object of their visit, 
would return to their homes to tell of 
the rocky ledges, the beautiful cas- 
cades, and the wonderful growth of 

The surface of Berlin is broken 
and mountainous, with ledges of rock 
outcropping in inauy places, and in 
others, with boulders of varying sizes 
scattered over the ground. It is not 
an agricultural town, although there 
are some good farms in the eastern 

The town was granted as Maynes- 
borough, December 31, 1771, to Sir 
William Mayne, Baronet, Robert, 
Thomas, and Edward Mayne, and 
others, of Barbadoes, and was incor- 
porated as Berlin July 1, 1829. It 
has an area of 31,154 acres. Many 
fine views of mountain, river, and 
forest scenery are afforded from va- 
rious points ; but the charm of all 
this section is the river scenery at 
Berlin Falls. For over a mile a suc- 
cession of rapids and falls whirls along 
the rocky banks of the Androscoggin, 

which is the only outlet of the Ura- 
bagog chain of lakes. In its course 
above it receives the waters of the 
Magalloway, Diamoud, and Clear riv- 
ers, and several minor streams, and 
at this point it is scarcely inferior in 
volume to the Connecticut at North- 
umberland. At the Glen Manufac- 
turing Company's works this immense 
mass of waters is poured through a 
narrow chasm thirty-three feet in 
width, descending in one hundred 
yards over one hundred feet. At 
times of high water the view com- 
bines the terrible, majestic, grand, 
and beautiful, in a weird and fas- 
cinating combination. Seething and 
plunging and whirling itself into 
masses of snowy foam, it rushes down 
the narrow passage. 

" Rapid as light 
The flashing mass foams, shaking the abyss." 

Rev. T. Starr King says that he 
does not think " in New England 
there is any passage of river passion 
that will compare with Berlin falls." 

In the Act of Incorporation, dated 
1829, Benjamin Thompson, Thomas 
Ordway, and Thomas Wheeler, Jr., 
were authorized to call the first town- 
meeting, which was held at the dwell- 
ing-house of Andrew Cates. Amos 
Green was chosen first selectman at 
the meeting, Peter "Wheeler, consta- 
ble, and Samuel S. Thompson, sur- 
veyor of lumber. Other residents at 
that time were Samuel Blodgett, Abi- 
athar Bean, Simon Evans, and fam- 


Green, Thomas, Jr., b. Feb. 12, 1783. 
Lydia F. (Evans), b. Feb. 3, 1785. 
Amos, b. March 21, 1807. 
"Daniel, b. Dec. 19, 1808. 
Edmund, b. Jan. 26, 1812. 



Green, Aaron, b. Jan. 4, 1814. 

Lydia, b. Aug. 17, 1817. 
Wallace, Levinia, b. March 29, 1811. 
Gates, Andrew, b. May 30, 1784. 

Betsey (Scribner), b. July 14, 1785. 

♦Daniel, b. Aug. 11, 1S13. 

Lydia, b. Oct. 11, 1S16. 

♦Sinclair, b. March 19, 1820. 

Scribner, b. Oct. 13, 1821. 

Hannah, b. Jan. 10, 182G. 

Betsey, b. Sept. 16, 1810. 

Andrew, Jr., b. April 2, 180S. 

Betsey (Griffin), b. Sept. 28, 1805. 

Nathaniel, b. May 15, 1829. 
Wheeler, Peter, b. Dec. 18, 1790. 

Sally (Seavey), b. Feb. 23, 1S00. 

Nathan, b. Nov. 24, 1818. 

James, b. Nor. 19, 1820. 

Albion, b. May 2, 1823. 

George, b. Nov. 13, 1825. 

Lafayette, b. March 9, 1829. 

Thomas, b. Dec. 29, 1783. 

Sally (Blodgett), b. April 2, 1787. 

Thomas, Jr., b. June 18, 1806. 

*Cyrus, b. July 5, 1810. 

Polly, b. April 1, 1812. 

Sally, b. May 18, 1814. 

*Dexter, b. April 27, 1816. 

♦Reuben II., b. April 20, 1819. 

♦Hiram, b. April 8, 1822. 

Daniel J., b. Oct. 12, 1825. 

Jonathan W., b. Nov. 1, 1829. 
♦Blodget, Samuel, b. Aug. 28, 1802. 

Rebecca (Bean), b. Oct. 10, 1800. 

♦Samuel D., b. Oct. 27, 1827. 

Zeruah, b. Jan. 23, 1828. 

♦Nathan, b. Aug. 30, 1829. 

♦Joseph, b. Dec. 6. ISO I. 

Mary L. (Wright), b. April 12, 1809. 

♦Herman A., b. Nov. 28, 1827. 

Ruby, b. Nov. 30, 1829. 
Bean, Abiathar, b. June 30, 1794. 

Mercy, b. Jan. 1, 1797. 

Eliza Jane, b. Jan. 2, 1817. 

Lydia M., b. June 10, 1821. 

Louisa, b. Sept. 25, 1823. 

Thomas C, b. Oct. 27, 1826. 

Mary A., b. Aug. 13, 1829. 
Thompson, Samuel S., b. Sept. 1J, 1773. 

* On check 

Thompson, Catharine, b. Nov. 15, 1772. 

Benjamin, b. Aug. 1, 1803. 

Eliza, b. Feb. 29, 1807. 

Sarah J., b. Sept. 1. 1810. 

Amos, b. July 19, ISIS. 
Evans, Simon, b. Sept. 13, 1780. 

Mehitable (Messer), b. Aug. 19, 1782. 

Caroline, b. March 28, 1799. 

Lydia, b. June 8, 1S07. 

Lovina, b. Aug. 7, 1808. 

Uriah, b. Feb. 25, 1810. 

William, b. Jan. 21, 1S12. 

Polly, b. May 19, 1814. 

Abigail, b. April 15, 1816. 

Betsey, b. Dec. 23, 181S. 

Esther A. R., Sept. 3, 1823. 
William Sessions, of Gilead, Me., 
came to Berlin in 1821 or 1S22, 
cleared a piece of land, and with Cy- 
rus Wheeler built the first house in 
the township, in 1823 or 1S24. In 
tbe spring of the latter year a party 
of eighteen people from Gilead ac- 
companied Mrs. Sessions into the 
wilderness, and formed the first set- 
tlement. Mr. Sessions sold his farm 
to Benjamin Thompson, before 1829. 
He died in 1885, aged over 90 years. 
Simon Evans came from Shelburne. 
Samuel S. Thompson, an old Revo- 
lutionary soldier, and his son Benja- 
min, came in 1827. He was a car- 
penter. Samuel Blodgett, a brother 
of Mrs. Sessions, was the first settler 
on the west side of the river. Benja- 
min Bean came from Success. Thom- 
as Wheeler, son of Samuel Wheeler 
(a soldier of the Revolution, who 
moved from Temple, N. H., to Gil- 
ead, Me., in 1799), came from Shel- 
burne in 1826. They were all na- 
tives of Gilead. His daughter Polly 
married Daniel Green, and Sarah 
married Benjamin Thompson. The 
Chandlers, early settlers, were of 
Pembroke extraction. 

-list n 1^77. 




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The first trader in town was Thom- 
as Green, who bad a small store near 
his grist-miil as early as 1835. He 
afterwards introduced wool carding 
machinery into town. Daniel Green 
opened a store in 1850. He had 
commenced the manufacture of mill 
machinery in a small way in 18-13, at 
which time he was, with his brother 
Thomas, making clapboards, which 
they drew to Hair: on, Me., a dis- 
tance of forty miles. The last raft 
was run down the river in 1851. In 
1850 the population was 173, the val- 
uation $161,045. The valuation in 
1888 was $760,963; in 18S9 it will 
amount to about $1,000,000. 

During the Rebellion, Berlin is 
credited with nineteen three-years 
men, thirteen one-year men, and three 
nine-mouths men, over half of whom 
fill soldiers' graves. There is but 
one man who enlisted from Berlin 
who now resides there. Three of 
Daniel Green's sons were in the ser- 
vice, — Sullivan D., Fraucis D., aud 
Charles V. Only the former returned 
to his old home. On the Berlin roll 
of honor should be inscribed also the 
names of Scribuer Gates, D. W. 
Blodgett, S. A. Andrews, Ethan A. 
Andrews, Nelson Green, Charles S. 
Green, Albert Green, and Jesse 

The Congregational church of Ber- 
lin was organized in 1877. and has 
been ministered to by Rev. Arthur 
J. Benedict, Rev. Albert Donnell, 
and Rev. Stephen L. Bowler. The 
meeting-house was built in 1682, and 
is valued at $10,000. St. Ann's, 
Roman Catholic, was built in 1880. 
The Universalist church was organ- 
ized in 1885. The St. Paul, Luth- 
eran, was organized in 1887. St. 

Barnabas church (Episcopal), organ- 
ized in 18SS, is in charge of Rev. 
Herbert L. Mitchell. It is designed 
to build in the immediate future an 
appropriate chapel. The high school 
house was finished in 1885. 

About §3,000 is raised for school 
purposes. Mr. Irving Stearns has 
been principal of the high school for 
the past year. 

The Atlantic & St. Lawrence Rail- 
road was incorporated in 1817. The 
road was completed to Gorham in 

1850, aud trains ran regularly to and 
from Portland on and after July 4, 

1851. The road was opened to North 
Stratford in 1852, to Island Pond in 
1853, connecting with the Canadian 
road in July of the latter year. In 
1853 the road was leased to the 
Grand Trunk Railway. From Berlin 
Falls statiou, which is 1,011 feet 
above tide-water, the branch was 
opened to Berlin Mills in 1851. 


The opening of the Atlautic & St. 
Lawrence Railroad to Berlin threw 
the great advantages of the enormous 
water-power of the Androscoggin 
river into practical availability, and 
those wise financiers and far-seeing 
business men to whom this railroad 
owed its existence at once took 
measures to utilize the falls in the 
manufacture of lumber. J. B. Brown, 
Josiah S. Little, Nathan Winslow, 
and Hezekiah Winslow, all of Port- 
land, under the firm name of II. Wins- 
low & Co., erected a mill in 1852 on 
the Thomas Green privilege, at the 
head of the falls. This mill contained 
one gang and two single saws, with 
a capacity of production of from 
(',000.000 to 8,000,000 feet of lumber 



per annum. The river at this point 
has a fall of seventeen feet, with an 
estimated power of 20,000 horses, 
only a fraction of which has as yet 
been utilized. In 1855 another gang 
saw was added. The mill was in 
good operation, and had established a 
demand for its lumber, when the dis- 
astrous and widely sweeping panic 
of 1857 overwhelmed the business 
world and carried many large lumber- 
ing firms to destruction. Through 
skilful management and judicious 
care H. Winslow & Co. weathered 
the storm, although conducting busi- 
ness for some years at a loss of 
thousands of dollars. This was the 
critical period of the prosperity of the 
mill, and, once passed, nothing but 
success has since attended its prog- 
ress. In 185S a single saw and a 
grist mill were introduced, and in 
1860 the first rotary saw was placed 
in position. From that time to the 
present many changes have been 
made, numerous buildings erected, 
and machinery added, until the plant 
to-day is one of the largest in north- 
eastern New England. Its present 
production is 140.000 feet of long 
lumber per day, 30,000 shingles, 
10,000 clapboards, 60,000 laths, 
15,000 pickets, etc. There are four 
circular saws, a gang and a band 
saw, three single machines, two clap- 
board machines, lath and picket 
saws, etc., etc. To attend to the 
labor the services of from 275 to 300 
men are required. The main building 
is 225 feet by 60 feet in size ; but 
with the out-buildings, blacksmith 
and repair shops, offices, store, houses 
of operatives, etc., etc., a flourishing 
village has sprung up, with a beauti- 
ful church and paisonage. In the 

winter season from 300 to 400 men 
are employed in the logging opera- 
tions in the woods on the upper 

In 1866 the Berlin Mills Company 
was formed, the members of the 
company being J. B. Brown, Mrs. 
Little, and Messrs. Clemens, Brig- 
ham, and Warren. Subsequently the 
other members of the firm acquired 
the interests of Messrs Clemens, 
Brigham, and Warren. In 1868 J. B. 
Brown sold his interest to William 
W. Brown, and Lewis T. Brown pur- 
chased a part of the interest of the 
Little heirs. Subsequently Mr. W. 
W. Brown sold a portion of his in- 
terest to J. W. Parker and Thomas 
Edwards. In 1888 Mrs. A. I. C. 
Davis and Mrs. L. T. Brown sold 
their interest to the other partners 
and H. J. Brown. 

William W. Brown has shown 
himself possessed of rare business 
powers, and stands prominent among 
the lumber manufacturers of the 
age. He has taken a fatherly in- 
terest in the progress of Berlin, 
and his financial assistance is always 
to be relied upon in furtherance of 
any movement to advance or improve 
the condition of its people. Lewis 
T. Brown was for many years the 
superintendent, and formed an exten- 
sive acquaintance in Coos county, 
and probably no one in this section 
ever stood higher in the esteem of the 
leading men. He died in 1886. 

The corporation formed in 1888 
consists of William W. Brown, J. W. 
Parker, Herbert J. Brown, and Thos. 
Edwards. William W. Brown is 
president, Thomas Edwards, treasu- 
rer ; J. W. Parker iias charge of the 
logging operations ; H. J. Brown, su- 


Berlin . 

perintendent of the mills ; II. E. Oleson 
is in charge of the store. This "store" 
is a mammoth affair, conducted with 
the same system, and rivalling in ex- 
tent of its transactions many metro- 
politan establishments. There are 
departments for dry goods, clothing, 
groceries, hardware, stoves, etc., 
paints, oils, etc., flour, feed, etc. The 
Berlin Mills post-office was estab- 
lished in 1881, with J. W. Parker 
post-master. L. C. Beattie is the 
present incumbent. 


The large chemical pulp-mill of 
this company attracts prominently 
the attention of every visitor to Ber- 
lin, by its conspicuous location, the 
prominence and size of the buildings, 
the thick clouds of smoke rising from 
the massive smoke-stacks of its fur- 
naces, and in the evening by the 
brilliancy of the electric lights, which 
not only illuminate the large grounds 
of the plant, but a much larger area. 
In the manufacture of wood pulp in 
this manufactory the wood used is 
principally poplar and spruce ; the 
poplar is brought from the surround- 
ing country, and the spruce consists 
of the slabs and waste product from 
the saw-mills of the Berlin Mills 
Company, several hundred yards 
above', and connected with the pulp- 
mills bv a car-track. The lo^s and 
sticks, of any and all sizes, are fed 
into a large hopper and descend upon 
a set of heavy knives, revolving with 
great rapidity. Here they are speed- 
ily converted into small chips, which, 
falling on an elevator belt, are car- 
ried into the adjoining building and 
dropped upon the floor of the mill. 
Thev are then shovelled into iron 

boilers set beneath the floor, where 
the chemicals are added, and the chips 
reduced to pulp by boiling. After 
coming from the boilers, the pulp is 
taken into large wooden tanks and 
passed through heavy rollers, thus 
straightening out the fibre and remov- 
ing a large proportion of the water 
and chemicals. It then passes to the 
pressing-room, where it is made into 
cheeses under a hydraulic pressure of 
3,500 pouuds to the square inch, 
after which it is tied up in bags and 
is ready for the market. The liquid 
pressed from the pulp is taken to an 
adjoining building, and the chemicals 
reclaimed with very little loss. Henry 
H. Furbish is the directing spirit. 


In Juue, 1885, availing themselves 
of the grant of exemption made by 
Berlin to any establishment for the 
manufacture of wood-pulp which 
should be erected on the "great- 
pitch" of the Androscoggin, a num- 
ber of wealthy Massachusetts capi- 
talists formed the Glen Manufacturing 
Company, and erected one of the best 
constructed and equipped pulp and 
paper-mills in New England, at a 
cost running into hundreds of thou- 
sands of dollars. Building opera- 
tions were commenced July 4, 1885, 
and the mill was started May 1, 1886. 
The special feature of this mill is the 
development of power, 9,000 horse- 
power being produced under a head 
of forty feet. Connected with the 
mill are four pairs of forty-two inch 
horizontal wheels, one thirty-six inch 
and two twentvfour inch vertical 
wheels, sixteen pulp-grinding ma- 
chines, eight fifty-four inch rag- 
enfrines, two ninety-two inch and one 



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ninety-six inch paper machines. A 
large and complete fire service lias 
been provided, consisting of auto- 
matic sprinklers, steam and rotary 
fire-pumps, etc. The mill produces 
thirty tons of ground wood-pulp and 
twenty-fire tons of roll-paper a day, 
and employs 200 workmen. Seven 
double tenements were built in 1SS6 
by the company for rent to the em- 
ploye?. The officers are J. L. Hob- 
son of Haverhill, Mass., president; 
H. M. Knowles of Boston, treasurer; 
and I. B. Hosford of Haverhill, 
Mass., manager. 

This mill, in connection with the 
Haverhill (Mass.) Paper Company, 
furnishes the print paper for the New 
York Tribune, New York News, Bos- 
ton Globe, Chicago News, besides nu- 
merous journals of smaller circula- 
tion. It uses in the manufacture of 
this paper 7,000,000 feet of spruce 
lumber, and 4,000 cords of poplar 


In September, 1883, P. W. Locke 
purchased a guaranteed 500 horse- 
power near the mouth of Dead river, 
of Daniel Green, and at once began 
the erection of a three-ton pulp-mill. 
In December, 1883, the White Moun- 
tain Pulp and Paper Company was 
organized, with a capital of 8-10,000, 
B. S. Gibson, of Portland, president, 
P. W. Locke, treasurer, A. M. Munce, 
clerk. In 1885 the company more 
than doubled the capacity of the mill, 
purchasing additional power sufficient 
to run it. Additions were made in 
1886 which have increased the capac- 
ity to seven tons a day and 'jive 
employment to thirty men. The mill 

uses about 1,800 cords of spruce and 
poplar wood per annum, and is light- 
ed at night by forty-one of Edison's 
incandescent electric lights. In 1886 
Benjamin F. Hosford, of Boston, 
Mass., purchased the interest of Mr. 
Locke. The officers were B. F. Hos- 
ford, president, A. M. Munce, treas- 
urer, superintendent, and clerk. In 
August, 1887, this mill passed into 
the hands of the Glen Manufacturing 
Co., and Charles D. Porter succeeded 
Mr. Munce in his offices. Production 
increased to 12 tons daily. There is 
1800 horse power utilized at No. 2. 

The Glen Manufacturing Com- 
pany's mill No. 3 was built in 1888 
on the old Horner & Hastings priv- 
ilege, on the site of the first mill in 
Berlin. The capacity of the mill is 
six tons of grouud wood pulp per 
diem. The horse-power is 900. The 
three mills give employment to 400 

Hon. Samuel E. Paine, state sen- 
ator from Coos county for 1887-'8S, 
has been a resident of Berlin for 
eighteen years, and one of its B keeuest 
business men. His active life has 
been mostly passed in Milan and 
Berlin, and wholesome practical re- 
sults testify to his busiuess ability. 
A Democrat in politics, a Universa- 
libt in religion, he supports in the 
most energetic manner anything he 
deems for the good of the public, 
which has often called him to/posi- 
tions of trust. The senator is im- 
mensely popular with the masses, 
and rarely fails to carry his point. 
He was representative from Berlin in 
1877, 1885, 188C. 

Physicians. — The early physicians 
were those who were called from ! a 
distance. The "visits of Dr. John 

Berlin . 


Grover, of Bethel, Me., Dr. 0. B. 
Howe, of Shelburne, and Dr. 0. M. 
Twitchell, are remembered by the 
older citizens as being often made, 
and furnishing the medical aid of the 
day. Later, Dr. H. F. Ward well and 
Dr. E. M. Wight came fromGorham. 
Finally, Dr. WardweU located here, 
the first settled physician of Berlin. 
His practice has been a large one, 
and with undiminished clientage he is 
to-day as brisk and ch^rful, as cor- 
dially welcomed to the homes of the 
suffering, as when he first threw his 
4 'pill-bags" over the back of his 
horse for a trip up the Androscoggin. 
Dr. F. A. Colby, a young man of cos- 
mopolitan experience and thorough 
medical knowledge, came here in 
June,' 1882, and after a stay of near- 
ly three years sold out his practice, 
in April, 1885, to Dr. F. B. Locke. 
After two years' residence on the 
Pacific coast on account of his health 
he returned to Berlin, purchased from 
Dr. Locke the right to again practice 
in the village, and permanently 
located here in February, 1887. 
Dr. J. A. Morris came here from Lit- 
tleton in 188b'. Dr. Lavallee is the 
French physician. Dr. J. D. Holt 
settled in Berlin in April, 1888, and 
Dr. H. W". Johnson settled in August 
of the same year. 

One of the oldest and most promi- 
nent business men of Berlin is Daniel 
Green, in whose possession at various 
times has been all the water-power 
along the Androscoggin at Berlin. 
His sons Sullivan D. Green aud John 
W. Green are residents of Berlin. 

Among the young, enterprising, aud 

uccessful business men, no one ranks 

higher than Eugene W. Scribner, 

born in Gilead, March 12, 1852, who 

settled in Berlin in 1870. He is a 
Democrat, and has served Berlin as 
selectman, and Coos county as coun- 
ty commissioner two terms. He has 
lately moved to Fort Payne, Ala. 

The law business of the village is 
attended to by Robert N. Chamberlin 
aud Daniel J. Daly. Mr. Chamber- 
lin was born in Bayor, N. Y., July 
24, 1856, and comes of French stock. 
His father lives at West Stewarts- 
town. Mr. Chamberlin commenced 
to study law in the winter of 1877- , 8, 
and was admitted to the bar at Guild- 
hall, Vt., in 1881, and to the New 
Hampshire courts in 1883. He set- 
tled in Berlin in 1881, and is a mem- 
ber-elect of the New Hampshire leg- 
islature. He is a Republican. Mr. 
Chamberlin is a ready speaker, a well 
rend lawyer, an energetic worker, 
and would make a good presiding 
officer of any assembly. Daniel J. 
Daly was born in Lancaster, Jan. 27, 
1859, read law with W. & H. Hey- 
wood, and was admitted to the bar in 
March, 1885, and a few months later 
settled in Berlin. He is a Democrat, 
and was elected State Solicitor for 
Coos county at the last biennial elec- 
tion for a term of two years, running 
largely ahead of his ticket. 

The firm of Twitchell & Goss was 
established in Berlin in November, 
1888. Mr. Twitchell resides in Gor- 
ham. Herbert I. Goss, born in Ver- 
mont, Dec. 4, 1857, read law in St. 
Johnsbury, and was admitted to the 
bar in Vermont in June, 1883, and in 
New Hampshire in July, 1885. 

George H. Hoadley, D.D. S., lo- 
cated in Berlin in 1886. He is a 
native of Vermont. 

As might be expected in such a 
young and thriving village, most of 

I 4 2 


the business of the place is in tbe 
hands of young and active men. 

Stahl Brothers, dealers in dry 
goods, clothing, boots and shoes, 
fancy goods, carpeting, jewelry, sil- 
ver-ware, etc., established in 1881, 
claim the largest store and largest 
stock in Coos county, with branches 
in Gorham and New York. The 
brothers are natives of Germany. , 

The firm of C. C. Gerrish & Co., 
dealers in dry goods and general mer- 
chandise, was founded in 1878. They 
have a large store, and do a large 
business. The firm consists of 
Charles C. and William H. Gerrish, 
cousins, who came from Maine. 

J. B. Gilbert, dealer in hardware 
and furniture, started in business in 
January, 1889. 

Pickford Brothers, dealers in gro- 
ceries, clothing, and general merchan- 
dise, were established in 1887. They 
settled in Berlin in 1876. They are 
natives of Quebec. 

A. B. Forbush, jeweller, carries a 
choice stock of goods. He is a native 
of Lancaster, N. EL, and has been in 
business in Berlin since January, 1885. 

Hodgdon & Crowell, dealers in 
general hardware, silver, tin, crock- 
ery, glassware, stoves, sporting 
goods, paint, and furniture, attend 
to the plumbing and steam-heating 
of the village, and manufacture tin 
plate, sheet iron and copper work, 
steam boilers, furnaces, and gas ma- 
chines. The firm was established in 

F. F. Bisbee, druggist, successor 
of F. C. Stevens, commenced busi- 
ness in April, 1889. 

Steurns, "Wheeler & Co., dealers in 
general merchandise, meats, and pro- 
visions, were established in July, 

1888. The firm succeeded John B. 
Noyes, who sold the business when 
he was appointed P. M. The Co. is 
George W. Page. 

Tucker & Hodgdon, dealers in hay. 
grain, flour, clothing, and groceries, 
was established in June, 1888. The 
members of the firm are both natives 
of Coos. Mr. Tucker has been in 
business since 1886. 

Life insurance and accident insur- 
ance business in the village is attend- 
ed to by K. M. Abbott, a resident of 
Berlin since 1869, and a native of 
Stow, Maine. 

Oliver Lambert, dealer in dry 
goods, ready made clothing, boots and 
shoes, and general merchandise, set- 
tled in Berlin in 1879, and has been 
in business since 1884. He is a na- 
tive of Quebec. 

Frank L. Wilson, druggist, was 
established in business in the village 
in 1885. He comes of Londonderry, 
N. H., stock, and has lived in town 
since 1855. 

The Wilson House, A. C. Evans, 
proprietor, has a good livery con- 
nected with it. It is a small hotel 
of twenty-four sleeping-rooms, and 
the only hotel in town. The Cascade 
House, very popular with the travel- 
ling public, was sold in the fall of 
18S8, and is to be turned into a 
parochial school. 

The Berlin Independent, a Repub- 
lican newspaper published by W. A. 
Boothby, was first issued early in 
April, 1888. 

The future of the town is assured. 
Such immense water-power, only par- 
tially utilized, is certain to be ail im- 
proved in the near future, and Berlin 
has only commenced its career as a 
manufacturing centre. 



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• - ^ .S.UL' >&' 


Hon. William E. Chandler 


Hon. William E. Chandler was 
elected June 15, 1887, by the legisla- 
ture of New Hampshire, to fill out the 
unexpired term in the senate of the 
United States caused by the death of 
Hon. Austin F. Pike. At that time 
we predicted in the pages of the 
Granite Monthly that the state 
would be represented by another 
strong senator ; that he would enter 
the senate chamber with a national 
reputation for sagacity and wisdom ; 
and that his ability and influence 
would be immediately recognized by 
that body. For two years Mr. Chand- 
ler has served New Hampshire in 
the senate of the United States — the 
most august legislative body since 
the days when the Roman senate gov- 
erned the world : only two years of 
a senatorial career, yet long enough 
to demonstrate to his constituents and 
to the whole country that Mr. Chand- 
ler is the equal of any of his senato- 
rial associates. 

The most important work of mod- 
ern legislative bodies is done in com- 
mittees. Mr. Chandler, very proper- 
ly, was given a place on the Commit- 
tee on Naval Affairs, being peculiarly 
fitted for the duties of that important 
committee from his service as Secre- 
tary of the Navy during the adminis- 
tration of President Arthur. He was 
also a member of the Committee on 
the Improvement of the Mississippi 
Eiver, of the Committee on Railroads, 
of the Committee on Additional 
Accommodations for the Library of 
Congress, of the Committee on Indian 
Traders, and of the Committee on 
the Suppression of Epidemic Dis- 


During the session of the Fiftieth 
Congress Mr. Chandler spoke on the 
tariff, on the fishery treaty with Great 
Britain, on instituting a department 
of agriculture, on the work of the 
civil service commission, on naval 
affairs, and on the irregularities oc- 
curring at the election of the legisla- 
ture in the state of Louisiana. 

His speeches were listened to by 
his brother senators, and were read 
by thoughtful men in ever}' section of 
the country. They were words of 
wisdom, strong in common-seuse, 
appealing to the judgment, convinc- 
ing the reason, understood by all. 
He addressed a home audience of 
over sixty million people. His politi- 
cal oppouents found iu him a fair if a 
bold and aggressive antagonist- His 
incisive speeches would sometimes 
cut them like a knife, but all recog- 
nized his conscientiousness and his 

Every patriotic American, especial- 
ly every New Euglander, if he has 
not already done so, should read Mr. 
Chandler's speech on the fishery 
treaty. To him was largely due the 
rejection by the senate of a treaty 
which would have been a disgrace to 
the great American people. 

The resolutions, introduced into 
the senate by Mr. Chandler, de- 
manding an inquiry into election 
methods in Louisiana, and his 
clear and ringing speech exposing 
frauds asrainst American suffrage in 
that commonwealth, influenced the 
north and in no small measure con- 
tributed to marshalling' the Northern 
states in an almost unbroken phalanx 
to offset and counteract the iniquitous 

Early History of Lebanon. 


methods adopted in some of the 
Southern states to carry an election. 

Mr. Chandler is credited by his 
political opponents with having se- 
cured the election of Rutherford B. 
Haves to the presidency. He cer- 
tainly took no inconspicuous part in 
those days in maintaining that the 
right should prevail. His friends 
claim that iudirectly during the last 
election he was no inconsiderable fac- 
tor in the great victory achieved by 
his party. He did not hesitate to 
** wave the bloody shirt." So long 
as an American citizen, white or 
black, is deprived of his right to cast 
his ballot, or is robbed of the right to 
have that ballot fairly counted, so 
long will Mr. Chandler boldly and 
openly oppose such crimes against 
the suffrage. 

From his first entry upon his sena- 
torial duties Mr. Chandler took a 
broad and statesmanlike view of all 
subjects which came up for consider- 

ation in the senate. Faithful in small 
things, in matters of great import 
Mr. Chandler has been equally faith- 
ful. Seeking always the best inter- 
ests of the country, he is staunch and 
stalwart in his allegiance to the great 
political party which he helped to or- 
ganize, and which by his counsel and 
advice for a quarter of a century he 
has wisely led. 

In ability, in political experience, 
in sagacity, and in statesmanship 
which comprehends our complicated 
foreigu relations, as well as the needs, 
demands, and necessities of every 
section of our country, and the wants 
and rights of every citizen, Mr. 
Chandler is the peer of Hale and 
Frye of Maine, Edmunds and Mor- 
rill of Vermont, Hoar and Dawes of 
Massachusetts, Evarts of New York, 
Sherman of Ohio, Ingalls of Kansas, 
and of all those great men whose pub- 
lic services render so distinguished 
the senate of the United States. 


August 10, 1772. Voted, to build 
a meetinghouse on the east end of 
Mr. Hill's pasture, nearMaj. Slapp's. 
Voted, that the former committee 
appointed to build near Mr. Turner's, 
build said meetinghouse at the east 
end of Mr. Hill's pasture, aforesaid, 
48 ft. in length, 34 broad, and 10 or 
12 ft. posts. Voted, to disannul and 
make void all former votes passed in 
said town respecting a meetinghouse, 
excepting the timber heretofore pro- 
cured for that purpose. 

March, 1773. After the election 
of the town otlicers, voted to raUe 40 

pounds to make and repair highways, 
and 20 pounds for the support of a 
school, and submitted the laying out 
of a road from Masquama bridge 
through Jon\ Dana's and Maj. Slapp's 
laud to the meetinghouse, to the dis- 
cretion of the selectmen. It would 
be proper, for a better understanding 
of the location, to state that said road 
is the one now travelled from the said 
bridge (called the Hubbard bridge) 
to West Lebanon, on the south side 
of which, about half way between the 
Luther Allen house and the cottage 
of Richard Kimball, stood the wan- 


Ea rly Histo r y of L cb anon. 

dering and metamorphosed meetmg- 

At a meeting Sept. 7, 1773, Jede- 
diah Hebbard and Jonathan Dana 
were chosen Grand Jurymen. The 
first elected in towu. Voted, that 
Jury boxes be procured by the se- 
lectmen, and that the said selectmen 
get a plan of the meetinghouse and 
la}' it before the town in order to 
erect pews and seat in said house. 

March, 1774. town officers chosen. 
Raised 40 pounds for roads and 

May 30, 1774, made choice of Ne- 
hemiah Estabrooks Grand Juror, to 
serve at the Hon. Superior Court at 
Plymouth. Query, "Whether the 
town will do anything to finish the 
meetinghouse. Resolved in the neg- 

Sept. 4, 1774. Chose Sam 1 Payne 
and John Hyde Grand Jurymen for 
the year ensuing. 

Jan- V 5, 1775. Voted to build a 
Grist mill and chose a committee to 
look out a place and make report. Congress. 
Voted the sum of 30 pounds for the July 17 
support of schools, and chose a com- 
mittee to divide the town into dis- 
tricts for school purposes. The Com- 
mittee reported four districts, and 
gave to the first £11-18-6 : 2. £9-1 G-6 : 

erator ; Dea. Nehemiah Estabrooks, 
John Wheat ley. Esq ., and Lt. John 
Griswold, Selectmen ; Silas Water- 
man. Town Clerk and Treasurer; 
Azariah Bliss, Constable ; Charles 
Saxtou, John Lyman, Abiel Willis, 
and Nath' Porter, Jr., Tytheiug men : 
Henry Woodard, Lt. Samuel Payne, 
Nath 1 Porter, Jr., and Zacheus Down- 
er, Highway Surveyors ; Lt. John 
Griswold, Joseph Martin, and Ensign 
W ,n Dana, Fence viewers ; Capt. 
Bela Turner, Sealer; Joseph Wood, 
James Jones, Samuel Bailey, Abel 
Wright, and Charles Hill, Haywards ; 
Nath 1 Storrs, Silas WatermnG, Eben- 
ezer Bliss, and Jesse Cook, School 
Collectors ; Bela Turner, John Wheat- 
ley, Levi Hyde, John Griswold, and 
John Slapp, School Committee. Voted 
£6 to defray town debts, and £40 
lawful money for repairing highways 
and bridges. Also voted £2 to de- 
fray the expenses of the committee 
appoiuted by the Province of New 
Hampshire to attend the Continental 

1775, chose Nchemiah 
Estabrooks, Maj. John Griswold, 
John Wheatley, John Slapp, Silas 
Waterman, Jedediah Hebbard, and 
Azariah Bliss, a Committee of Safety. 
Voted, that in case it is not conven- 

3 d , £5-S-G ; 4 th , £2-lC-G ; making £o0. ient for all to meet, any number, not 
Said report signed by John Wheatley, less than three, may be empowered 
John Slapp, John Griswold. Bela to act, and that any one of the corn- 
Turner, and Jedediah Hebbard. mittee may be empowered to issue a 
March 1 14, 1775, being the com- warrant in case of necessity, or dep- 

mencement of a new era in the history 
of the country, the names of the 
town officers elected will be given 
(viz.), Nehemiah Estabrooks, Mod- 

utize an officer if occasion shall re- 
quire it. Voted, that said committee 
be directed to confer with the com- 
mittees of the neighboring towns, 

1 The proceedings of the town-meeting following from March 14, 1775, to 1783, were of so much interest 
that we have given them entire as copied by the late (.'. C. Benton, from whose writings the foregoing 
statement-" ol town-meeting doings have been gathered.— Ed. 

Early History of Lebanon, 


that there may be a plan of uniformity 
in their proceedings. 

Feb. 1, 1776, Resolved, to pursue 
the present plan proposed for a re- 
dress of grievances, and chose Dea. 
Estabrooks, John Wheatley, and 
John Griswold to act as said Com- 
mittee, and to correspond on that 
subject with other towns. 

March 12, 1776, chose Dea. Esta- 
brooks, Moderator, Silas Waterman, 
Town Clerk and Treasurer, and the 
remainder of the usual town officers. 

March 31, 1776, Dea. Estabrooks 
moderator. Query — whether the town 
of Lebanon will procure a town stock 
of ammunition for the use of said 
town. Resolved in the affirmative. 
Whether the town will direct the 
selectmen to procure one hundred 
pounds of powder, four hundred 
pounds of lead, six hundred rliuts. to 
be deposited in some proper place in 
said town, and under the direction 
of the selectmen as a town stock of 
ammunition for said town, and also 
to see if the town will agree to pur- 
chase a like quantity of powder &c, 
to be disposed of by said town to the 
inhabitants thereof, at a reasonable 
price, in order to accommodate them 
for the ensuing muster in May next. 
Resolved in the affirmative. 

March 11, 1777, chose the usual 
town officers, and elected Maj. Slapp, 
Lieut. Tick nor, Dea. Dana, a com- 
mittee of safety. Voted to the sol- 
diers from this town, in the Royaltou 
company in proportion with Hanover, 
said to be eight men at 10 each. In 
regard to the small pox, voted that 
the people of Lebanon who are dis- 
posed to be inoculated, shall have 
preeminence before the people of 
other towns, and in case there is suf- 

ficient room, the doctor may take 
some from other towns, but under 
very stringent rules. Voted, the 
committee of safety appoint as many 
meet persons as they shall judge 
necessary to accommodate the public 
as tavern keepers in the town the 
current year, under such restrictions 
and regulations as they shall judge 
most conducive to the peace and 
good order of the town, and the pub- 
lic generally. Voted, that Charles 
Sexton and Zacheus Downer be in- 
spectors of public houses in this 
town the current year. 

April 14, 1777, voted not to choose 
a county register. 

November 26. 1777, voted not to 
direct the selectmen to pursue the 
warrant sent to them by the assembly 
at Exeter, for the choice of coun- 
sellor and representative the ensuing 
year. Voted, that the town will vin- 
dicate the selectmen in their non- 
compliance with the aforesaid war- 

Town meeting December 24, 1777, 
Voted, to choose a committee of three 
men to examine into the cases of 
-those persons who neglected their 
duty, when draughted into the pub- 
lic service the current year. Maj. 
Slapp, Joseph Wood, and Lemuel 
Hough were chosen said committee. 
Voted, that the aforesaid committee 
be and are hereby authorized and 
empowered to detain such delinquents 
as aforesaid before them, and to 
make strict inquiry into the cause of 
their neglect ; and if said committee 
shall judge their reasons sufficient 
they shall acquit them or him. If 
otherwise, said committee shall exact 
a fine not exceeding ten pounds, of 
each delinquent for every defect as 


Early History of Lebanon. 

aforesaid. And said committee are 
hereby empowered, in case of non- 
compliance, to issue forth a warrant 
for the collecting said fine out of the 
estate of such delinquents as shall 
refuse to pay as aforesaid, said fines 
to be improved for the benefit or 
encouragement of such of the inhab- 
itants of said Lebanon as have gone 
or hereafter shall go into the public 

March 10, 1778. After election 
of town officers, voted that all taxes 
that may be granted the current year 
shall be raised upon the dollar by an 
•equal distribution, according to the 
number of polls in town, and that the 
assessors shall assess the inhabitants 
of this town, aud if any shall refuse 
to pay, who is liable, or is suspected 
of not giving in a true account of his 
interest, and refuses to take his oath, 
then the assessors shall assess them 
according to their best judgment, in 
such sums as to them appears equit- 
able in such a case. 

March 31, 1778, voted that Amos 
Robinsou, and any other person dis- 
posed to attend public worship in 
this town, have full liberty therefor 
as they shall think proper. Voted, 
Azariah P>liss and Jesse Cook be 
tavern keepers the current year. 

Voted, that the committee of safe- 
ty and selectmen exert their author- 
ity to suppress tippling-houses in 
this town the current year. Voted, 
to raise the sum of £291-17-6 as a 
Continental tax, to be paid in Con- 
tinental bills into the town treasury 
by the first day of October next. 

Voted, that the public tax of £200, 
granted February 3, 1778, be paid in 
Continental bills, and bills emitted by 
the state of New Hampshire. 

A pamphlet containing the Con- 
stitution of Vermont being read in 
the meeting, voted, unanimously, to 
accept it with the several articles of 
alteration, proposed to be made 
thereof by the convention of commit- 
tees from a considerable number of 
towns on the grants east of Con- 
necticut river, aud concur with such 
towns as are disposed on said easterly 
grants, in the proposed union with 
the State of Vermont." Voted, that 
Dea. Estabrooks and John Wheatley 
be a committee to represent the town 
of Lebanon in the proposed conven- 
tion of committees from a number of 
towns on the grants east of Connecti- 
cut river, to be held in said Lebanon 
in May next. 

June 26, 1778, Voted, the sum of 
£8-0-0, being the proportion of said 
Lebanon, of the public expense aris- 
ing from the complication of the 
union with the State of Vermont. 
Voted, a tax of £37-15-2 to discharge 
the debts of the town. Voted, that 
Mr. Waters, Mr. Jones, Joseph Til- 
den, and Martin Dewey be released 
from a fine laid upon them for delin- 
quency in public service. Voted, that 
Maj. Slapp procure a copy of an act 
passed by the state of Vermont, for 
regulating taverns and preventing 
tippling houses. 

July 7, 1778, Voted, that an 
average, with respect to the public 
service, be made amongst the inhab- 
itants of said Lebanon upon polls 
and estate, and that the selectmen 
be a committee to join the military 
officers in making said average. 

December 1, 1778, Voted, that we. 
approve of the conduct of our repre- 
sentatives and others, members of 
the Assembly of the State of Ver- 

Early History of Lebanon, 


mont (held at Windsor in said State, 
in October last), who dissented from 
said Assembly, excluding the sixteen 
towns east of Connecticut river (tbat 
had entered into a union with said 
State) from any privilege whatsoever, 
that might, and in justice ought, to 
accrue to said town, by virtue of 
their aforesaid union with said State. 
Chose Dea. Estabrooks and John 
TVheatley to represent the town of 
Lebanon, in a proposed convention 
of the towns upon the grants east and 
west of Connecticut river, to be held 
at Cornish in this month. 

Annual meeting March 9, 1779, 
chose town officers, and also chose 
Dea. Estabrooks, John AVheotley, 
Eiihu Hyde, Silas Waterman, and 
Edmuud Freeman, a committee of 
safety. Adjourned to April 20, 

Voted, that all monies received for 
taxes and from other sources, and all 
payments shall be made equal in 
value to what it was in 1774. Voted, 
a tax of £20 to pay town debts. 
Voted, to build a bridge over the 
river Mascoma, near the house of 
Jesse Cook, as soon as public affairs 
will admit, and chose a committee to 
examine and select the most proper 
spot and report. Voted, £40 for 
repair of highway, aud that labor 
should be three shillings per day at 
the rate of wheat at six shilliugs per 
bushel. Adjourned to May 3, 1779, 
at the house of Azariah Bliss, inn- 
holder. Voted, to erect a cart bridge 
over the river Mascoma, near the 
house formerly occupied by Jesse 
Cook and voted a tax of £11 for 
said purpose, accounting wheat 6/ — 
Rye 4/ — Indian corn 3/ — per bushel. 
Voted £2-12-0 to James Jones for 

the journey of his horse to Saratoga, 
and 3/ — for the loss of his bridle. 

July 16, 1779, voted, to choose 
agents to attend a convention to be 
held at Dresden [now Hanover Plain], 
and made choice of Dea. Estabrooks 
and Capt. Turner, July 28. Voted, 
to accept said committee's report, 
and concur with the late conven- 
tion at Dresden in their further 
proceedings. Voted, that the town 
provide three gallons of rum, for 
those who assist in raising the bridge 
over the river near Capt. Turner's. 

December 22, 1779. Voted, to 
raise the sum of £200, for defraying 
the charges of an agent or agents to 
represent the circumstances of the 
people upon the New Hampshire 
grants, before the Hon. the Conti- 
nental Congress, the Grst day of Feb- 
ruary next. Voted, that the con- 
stable shall not demand any part of 
the above tax of £200, of any of the 
inhabitants of this town who have 
put themselves under the protection 
of the State of New Hampshire. 

January 2G, 1780, voted, that the 
company officers of the militia in 
this town, select six men for a scout- 
ing party in conjunction with other 
towns, in order to make discovery of 
the enemy, if auy there be, and give 
timely notice to the inhabitants. 

Voted, also, to recommend it to 
the said officers to equip fifty-six 
men, to be ready at a minute's warn- 
ing, to march against the enemy in 
case of an invasion, and to be put in 
the best condition to resist a general 
attack. Voted, that the. six men for 
scouting be engaged till the first day 
of April next, unless sooner dis- 
charged, and also that each man re- 
ceive forty shillings per month for the 


Early History of Lebanon. 

time being as money passed in 1774, 
and also that the town provide each 
man with a blanket and a pair of 
snow-shoes, to be returned to said 
town. Voted, that in ease Lieut. 
Ticknor should fail to go with said 
scouts — that they choose any one they 
please to take his place. Voted, 
that the authority of this town stop 
the transporting of all kinds of pro- 
visions that may be attempted to be 
carried away, from or through this 
town, till the danger of the enemy be* 
over, excepting such as are purchased 
for the use of the Continental army. 
Voted, that the authorities of the 
town, and all others be directed to 
examine all strangers suspected to be 
spies, and if need be to detain them, 
as the exigency of the case may re- 
quire. February 4, 1780, at a special 
meeting, voted, to raise four men in 
addition to the six men already 
raised for a scouting party, and be 
furnished with blankets and snow- 
shoes on the same conditions, and 
paid the same. 

Annual meeting March 14, 1780. 
After the election of town officers 
they chose Dea. Estabrooks, Elihu 
Hyde, and Elisha Lathrop, commit- 
tee of safety, then voted that the ex- 
ecutive authority of the town shall 
proceed in their several departments 
to pursue and conform themselves to 
the rules prescribed in the laws of 
Connecticut, especially those acts 
that more immediately refer to the 
peace and good order of towns, &c. 
Voted, £35 to pay indebtedness, £40 
for repairs of highways, and £20 for 
cutting roads, as money went in 1774. 
Voted, that the authorities pursue the 
rules of the Connecticut laws, so far 
as thev may be consistent with the 

present political state of the town of 

Voted, That one half of the town 
meetings be held in future at the 
dwelling-house of Zalmon Aspen wall 
and at Henry Woodward's. Voted 
to raise £10, accounting wheat at 
6/ per bushel, forthwith to be paid 
to Cap ,n Payne as a bounty for raising 
five men for scouting northward for 
six months unless sooner discharged. 
xVlso voted that the town will assist 
the militia officers in raising twelve 
men for one month, and to pay each 
man serving as aforesaid ten bushels 
of wheat or money equivalent by the 
20 th of January next, and that the 
selectmen provide for the support of 
said twelve men for one mouth at the 
expense of the town, and that they 
supply them with ammunition in case 
they are not supplied from the public 

Nov r 9, 1780. Voted to keep a 
guard upon the public roads as long 
as it shall be thought necessary, and 
to request the military officers to 
class such men in town under their 
command, as are fit for duty, to at- 
tend upon guarding as aforesaid, and 
in case of delinquency, after due no- 
tice, shall be liable to a fine of one 
bushel of wheat or the equivalent in 
money. They also chose Elihu 
Hyde, Simeon Peck, Nath 1 . Storrs 
and Theopholus Huntington to be a 
committee to adjust the accounts of 
provisions expended in the late alarm, 
and also the wages and provision of 
the twelve men — and also directed the 
selectmen to purchase one barrel of 
powder and lead and flints in propor- 
tion, and to render an account thereof 
to the town. Then voted a tax of 
£82-0-6 to defray the expenses of the 

Ea rl i ' I list o ry of L eb anon. 


town caused by the late alarm— and 
also the wages and rations of the said 
twelve men raised for their services 
ou the frontier, and also appointed 
Hnckin Storrs to remove the provi- 
sions from Strafford to Royalton in 
case said men are ordered to that 
town. Voted a tax of £1 14-19-7 to 
defray the expenses of the town. 
And voted to Stephen Bliss £2-18-9 
for sundries paid soldiers in Col. 
Chase's, Col. Bellows' and Col. Ellis' 
Regiments ; and voted, that the town 
is willing to pay their proportion of 
thirteen gal 9 , of rum, delivered out of 
Col. Chase's store in said Lebanon by 
order of Capt Payne and Col. Chas:-. 
to the soldiers when passing through 
in the late alarm. 

Dec. 25, 1780. Voted that Elihu 
Hyde be a delegate to attend the con- 
vention at Charlestovvn according to 
a proposition from the County of 
Cheshire. Voted to raise £25 to pro- 
cure one hundred pounds of powder 
-and lead and flints in proportion. 

March 2, 1781. By request. Voted 
to raise six men for a scouting party, 
to give each man eight bushels of 
wheat pr mouth, and to provide for 
the said men, l^ lbi . flour, one pound 
of pork and one gill rum pr day — 
and that the militia officers see to 
raising said men. 

March 13, 1781, chose Elihu Hyde 
moderator, John Wheatley, towu 
clerk, Nath 1 . Storrs, Hezekiah Wa- 
ters and Edmund Freeman, selectmen, 
Elihu Hyde, Dea. Estabrook and 
Maj. Lathrop, Committee of Safety, 
Constant Storrs, Constable, Nath 1 
Wheatley and Wm. Dana, Grand Ju- 
rors. Voted £40 for repairing high- 
ways — and the several articles of un- 
ion agreed upon by the Assembly 

Committee of the State of Vermont 
and the committee of convention from 
the County of Cheshire and Grafton 
&c. being read in said meeting, was 
ageed to Xem con, and voted Col. 
Elisha Payne and Lt. Elihu llyda 
represent the town of Lebanon in the 
Assembly of Vermont, to be holden 
at Windsor on the first day of April 
next. Voted that all monies raised 
by taxes on appropriated lands in 
town be applied for the support of 
schools in Lebanon. 

Ap 1 . 30, 1781. Voted to pay Col. 
Payne for his services in the late con- 
vention at Cornish. Also to pay £43 
for expenses in the late alarm at New- 
bury. Voted that •S'ath 1 Bosworth be 
a brander of horses. Voted to pay 
each man that will engage in the ser- 
vice for this town, twenty shillings 
per month from the time of their en- 
listment until discharged, aud that 
they shall be free from bearing any 
part in the payment of said bounty. 
Voted to build a Pound near Esq r . 
Hyde's, and that Henry Woodward 
be pound keeper. Also voted that 
the selectmen procure barrels iu which 
to secure provisions, and that each 
man provide his own salt according 
to his quota of provisions assigned 
him according to his list. The select- 
men made a committee to look out a 
proper place to erect a bridge over 
the river Mascoma, near Gov 1 " Payne's 
Mill (which was at East Lebanon). 

Annual March meeting, 1782. 
Town officers chosen. Voted to 
raise ten hard dollars immediately 
to bear the expense of an Agent, 
now going to the Assembly of New 
Hampshire. Voted that the Select- 
men take into their care, the money 
of the Vermont emission now in the 


Early History of Lebanon, 

treasury, and make the best use of it 
for the benefit of the town. 

May 10, 1782. Nathaniel Storrs 
was added to the committee for ex- 
amining into the expenditures of the 
town in the contest with Great Brit- 
ain. The selectmen were directed to 
furnish plank to cover the bridge 
lately raised over the Mascoma river 
near Simeon Peck's interval [which 
stood about 70 or SO rods below the 
present one at the Scythe Factory]. 

Aug*. 12, 1782. Met at the dwell- 
ing house of Zalmon As pin wall. 
Query, "Whether the town will raise 
nine men, sent for by the State of 
New Hampshire, to join the Conti- 
nental army. Resolved in the nega- 
tive. Whether they will raise one 
man for the defence of the Frontier 
to serve as a soldier till November. 
Resolv d in theNegative. Whetherthey 
will raise the sum of £9 14-1 3-4 de- 
manded by the State of New Hamp- 
shire. Resolv d in the negative. 
Whether they will choose one or two 
men to set in Convention at Concord 
in the aforesaid State to assist in 
forming a Constitution for said State 
of New Hampshire. Resolved, in the 
affirmative. Chose John Wheatley 
to represent the town of Lebanon in 
said Convention for the purpose 

Sept. 24, 1782. Voted to recall 
the said Representative chosen to at- 
tend the Convention at Concord. Ad- 
journed to the fourth day of Oct r , 
and voted to reconsider the vote 
passed in said meeting, Sept. 24, 
1782, for recalling their Represen- 
tative elected to a seat in said con- 

Nov. 12, 1782. Voted to postpone 
the Consideration of the Constitution 

framed for the State of New Hamp- 
shire for the present — and appoiuted 
Col. Payne, Maj. Oris wold, Esq 1 ". 
Hyde, Lt. Ilebbard and W m . Chaplin 
a committee to examine said Consti- 
tution, and make report to the town. 

Nov. 26. Voted to recall their 
Representative who joined the Con- 
vention at Concord, and voted that 
the above vote to loithdraw be sent 
to said Convention, to be entered 
upon the files thereof. A committee 
was appointed to examine into the 
matter represented to the town by 
Col. Payne and others, respecting 
their being set off in a district from 
the town. From Feb- V 24, 1783, to 
March 14, 178G (being about three 
years) the record is missing. 

The first male child born in the 
town was Thomas Waterman, July 
11, 17G6, though on the records is 
found k " Roger Hebbard, son of Jede- 
diah Hebbard, born August 13, 
17G4." This is to be explained by 
the fact that Roger was born in Con- 
necticut just previous to the migra- 
tion of his parents, and hence his 
birth was recorded here. In 1768 a 
horse road, or properly a cart road, 
was completed through to Charles- 
town, and in the following year a 
grist-mill was built, upon the site, 
it is said, now occupied by the mill 
of Thomas P. Waterman. 

In the War for Independence the 
people of Lebanon took an active 
part. Every male inhabitant signed 
what is known as the kt test ; " and 
the return was made July 4, 1776. 
Many of the inhabitants were found 
in the army doing valiant services for 
their country. Luther Wheatley fell, 
mortally wounded. 

William Downer was one of the 

Earlv History of Lebanon . 


first settlers in Lebanon. He came 
from Lebanon, Conn., about the year 
1763. Having purchased the right of 
land, containing five hundred acres, 
which was reserved in the charter of 
Lebanon, in the Province of New 
Hampshire, to the Hon. Benning 
Went worth, governor of said Prov- 
ince, he made arrangements to re- 
move from the old to the new Leba- 
non, and soon left with his family. 
Their small collection of furniture 
aud other goods was packed, carried 
to the Connecticut river, put on board 
of two canoes, and, with the assist- 
ance of two men, commenced their 
journey up the river. On the eighth 
day from their departure they land- 
ed on the said Wentworth's tract 
of land, one of the most choice loca- 
tions in town. It was situated iu the 
extreme south-west corner of the town 
bordering on the west bank of the 
Connecticut river and on the north 
line of Plaiufield, and lying, as it 
does, in a graceful bend of the river, 
and so well proportioned with mead- 
ow and upland, that it has always been 
celebrated as a desirable property, 
and well known as the Downer farm, 
the same which is now owned and oc- 
cupied by Mr. Bradley True. Mr. 
Downer lived on the farm up to the 
time of his decease in 1734, aged 55 

Among their children was William, 
Jr., who was born in Lebanon, Conn., 
in 1753, and came to Lebanon, X. 
H., when he was ten years of age. 
He married twice. The name of his 
last wife was Anna Wilson. In the 
two families were thirteen children. 
William was a peculiar sort of a man, 
and was guilty of a breach of good 
faith with his father. The old gen- 

tleman made his purchase of the gov- 
ernor on a credit, and gave a mort- 
gage for security. Not being able to 
meet his engagements, he sent his 
son, William, Jr., to his excel- 
lency the governor, to arrange for 
an extension of time. William, Jr., 
attended to the business without de- 
lay, but ignored his father's instruc- 
tions and secured to himself the title 
to the farm, and left his father with- 
out a claim, thus causing much un- 
happiness in the family. His mother 
said that such a fraud upon his father 
would be followed by a punishraeut 
from an All-Wise power, and that he 
would never prosper on his journey 
through life. And the mother's 
prophecy proved true, for poverty 
became his handmaid while he lived. 
Among his thirteen children there 
was another William, Jr., who never 
married. He was called "Bill" 
Downer, and, according to the words 
of his cousin, Elisha L)owner, ct he 
was filled with the devil," and noth- 
ing could restrain him in his wild ca- 
reer. He became a sailor and fol- 
lowed the seas for some years. At 
last he was unfortunate, got caught 
in bad company, was taken into Liv- 
erpool, England, by a British man-of- 
war, where, with his comrades, he re- 
ceived the penalty for crimes com- 
mitted on the high seas. This proved 
the last wreck in his voyage of life. 

Another son of William Downer,, 
senior, was Joseph, who was born in 
1759, and came to Lebanon with his 
father when he was four years old. 
He married Mary Aldrich, sister of 
Richard Aldrich, about 1785. He 
commenced his first settlement on 
the north side of the brook opposite 
the old homestead, where his brother,, 


Dr. Phtnchas Parkhurst. 

William, Jr., lived, who succeeded 
his father, and lived there many 
years, until after the decease of Will- 
iam, Jr., after which a change iu the 

house was built on this road ; and it 
remained there until bridges changed 
the travel and new roads were made. 
Then the old house was removed to 

property took place, with Elisha on the same spot where Mr. Millers 

the same old farm up to the time of his 
death, Aug 1 . 24, 1841, aged 82 years. 
His wife Mary lived to the advanced 
age of 90 years. Their children were 

Hannah, born Dec. 1. 17S7. 

Martha, born June 23, 1760. 

Mary, born June 2, 1791. 

Joseph, Jr., born May 21, 1793. 

John Colburn came from Connecti- 
cut at an early day and settled on the 
land which is now owned by John 
Miller. His house was built on the 
meadow near the present bank of the 
river, and about twenty rods easterly 
from the north end of the foot-bridge 
which crosses from the Agricultural 
Manufactory to the north side of the 
Mascoma river. The first road that 
was laid out from the Connecticut up 
the valley of the Mascoma river was 
located the whole distance on the 
north side, as there were no bridges 
for some vears, and Mr. Colburn's 

brick house now stands, which re- 
mained there until destroyed by tire 
about the year 1830. The writer re- 
members seeing the old cellar after 
the house was removed, but there is 
no appearance of it at the present 
time. He was also present at the 
burning of the house. 

John, Jr., the oldest son, came 
from Connecticut with his father and 
mother, and was married August 25, 
1785, to Theody Dunham, and lived 
on the same farm with the old folks, 
or rather the old folks lived with him. 
Their children were 

Luther, who died young. 

John, Jr., born July 21, 17S7. 

Permelia. born Dec. 24, 1790. 

Roxana, born Oct. 18, 1788. 

Theody, born June 11, 1792. 

Luther, born Nov. 4, 1793. 

Dan, born Oct. 8, 1795. 

George & Giles, twins, Nov. 16, 1797. 

Jerusha, born Auej. 10, 1799. 


A brief history of one of the early settlers hi Lebanon, including a sketch of his father's 


By C. C. Benton. 

Tilly Parkhurst, the father of Dr. 
Parkhurst, was born in Plainfield T 
Conn., in 1729, and died in Royalton, 
July 11, 1802. He married the widow 
of Elias Stevens, whose maiden name 
was Sarah Shepherd, and was born in 
Conn, in 1730, and died in Royalton 
December 12, 1816, aged 86. 

She had a young son, named Elias, 

Jr., who was adopted a member of 
the Parkhurst family. They con- 
tinued their residence in Connecticut 
several years after their marriage — 
even until the birth of all their chil- 
dren. At an early day, however, 
they left their old home and removed 
to Royalton, Vt, where they located 
a new one, and settled in the vallev 

Dr. Phi in: has Parkhurst, 


of White River about two miles below 
South Royalton. Their home was 
established there several years pre- 
vious to the charter of the town, 
which was granted in the year 1779. 

The children of Tilly and Sarah 
Parkhurst were Jabez, Ebenezer, Mol- 
ly, and Phiuehas. 

The father was active, energetic, 
and persevering, and, with the assist- 
ance of his boys, opened his new 
farm in the wilderness, erected house 
and barns, raised a fair stock, and 
was successful in his business until 
that unfortunate raid of the Indians 
at the burning of Royalton in 1780. 
At that time the torch was applied to 
his house, as it was to all others in 
the vicinity, and a great conflagration 
extended up and down the White 
River valley in Royalton. The de- 
struction of his property was com- 
plete, excepting a portion of the 
bucket which contaiued a quantity 
of maple sugar that the Indians prob- 
abl}- overlooked. The family suc- 
ceeded in escaping upon a very short 
notice. Ebenezer was chased into 
the woods, and hid himself under a 
fallen tree ; and other members of the 
family escaped in different ways, 
which will be noticed hereafter. 
Thinking that some of the incidents 
given in the history of that interest- 
ing event might be agreeable to the 
reader, and having in view their im- 
mediate connection with the wonder- 
ful escape of Dr. Parkhurst with his 
life, and their influence in moulding 
his occupation as a physician, the 
writer proposes to relate some of the 
most interesting facts appertaining to 
that savage incursion. 

The first settlers in Royalton were 
an industrious class of men, and bad 

succeeded well in farm improvements, 
and were living in fancied security, 
enjoying the fruits of their labor, 
until the 10th day of October in the 
year 1780, at which time they were 
surprised by the appearance of about 
300 Indians. They entered the town 
before daylight. First took John II. 
and Abijah Hutchinson prisoners. 
Next went to the house of Robert 
Havens, who, in pursuit of some 
sheep, was on a hill in sight of his 
house when he heard the Indians and 
saw them entering the door of his 
dwelling. Knowing that he could 
not give his family any assistance, 
he secreted himself under a log, and 
remained there until the danger was 
passed. Two young men, by name 
Pemberton and Burton, were killed in 
attempting to escape. At the house 
of Joseph Kneeland they found, be- 
side himself aud his father, Giles 
Gibbs and Jonathan Brown, and 
made them prisoners. Next, they 
entered the house of Elias Curtis, 
whom they took, with John Kent and 
Peter Mason. Mrs. Curtis had just 
awaked, and was dressing, when a 
savage entered the room and seized 
her by the neck with knife in hand, 
and just at that moment he dis- 
covered a string of gold beads, which 
he secured with great avidity, and 
left Mrs. C. unharmed. 

Gen. Elias Stevens, step-son of 
Tilly Parkhurst, who resided in the 
first house on the river above the 
mouth of the branch, was at work 
some distance down the river. While 
there engaged, a man bareheaded, 
with ii is horse upon the run, seeing 
Gen. Stevens in the field, cried out, — 
* : For God's sake turn out your oxen 
for the Indians are at the mill." The 


Dr. Phinehas ParMurst. 

general immediately unyoked his 
oxen, mounted bis horse, and started 
for home, and on his way met Capt. 
Joseph Parkhurst, who informed him 
that the Indians were in hot pursuit 
near by, and, knowing that he could 
not render any assistance to his wife 
and children, he endeavored to assist 
his neighbors, and, when arriving at 
the house of Dea. Daniel Rix, he 
found Mrs. Rix ard two children 
whom he took with him on his horse, 
and with Dea. Rix and several others 
on foot hastened down the river. 

The general not having seen any 
Indians, concluded to leave his 
neighbors, Mrs. Rix and- children, 
with a Mr. Burroughs, and return 
for his family, hoping to find them 
safe, but discovered the Indians a 
short distance from him. He quickly 
returned and told all to run for the 
woods. Those on foot were soon out 
of sight of the Indians and safe, as 
the savages were intent upon secur- 
ing him. He soon reached the house 
of his father-in-law, Tilly Parkhurst. 
when seeing his half sister Molly 
engaged in milking, he told her to 
"run, or the Indians would have 
her." He rode to the house and told 
all the family to run for their lives, 
and continued warning others until 
the road was full of men, women, and 
children, and the Indians near by. The 
horrid yells of the savages frightened 
the women and children, and Gen. 
Stevens used all his exertions to get 
them into the woods, but most of 
them kept the road as far as Capt. E. 
Parkhurst's in Sharon, where they 
baited a few minutes — the Indians 
having stopped to plunder, but they 
were soon in sight — when the gen- 
eral put his mother and half sister on 

to the horse. Capt. Joseph Parkhurst 
put Mrs. Rix and three of her chil- 
dren upon another horse without a 
bridle. The wife of Capt. E. Park- 
hurst was left with six small children 
without any protector, her husband 
being absent from home. The In- 
dians took her oldest son and ordered 
the rest to leave. Soon after Gen. 
Stevens started, his dog came in his 
way, causing him to stumble, and he 
was obliged to flee to the woods, 
leaving the women and children, who 
were pursued, and those on foot were 
overtaken. They took Garduer, son 
of Dea. Rix, a boy fourteen years of 
age, and still pursued as far as the 
house of Mr. Benedict, where Mr. 
B. saved himself by hiding under a 
log. At last they took a young man 
by the name of Avery, and then gave 
up the chase. On the east side of 
the river, they went down as far as 
Capt. Gilbert's in Sharon, then com- 
menced a return, destroying every- 
thing on their retreat, burning houses 
and barns, killiug horses and cattle, 
and in one yard killed 14 fat oxen. 
Thus ended this terrible Indian raid, 
and the savages with their prisoners 
and plunder pursued their trail 
through the wilderness to Montreal, 
and there reported their brave ex- 
ploits over a few defenceless men, 
women, and children, and no doubt 
received a handsome reward from 
the officers of a Christian govern- 

The foregoing incidents relating to 
the burning of Royalton are some of 
the most interesting in the history of 
that unhappy event. The writer has 
learned, and would add, that Gardner 
Rix, the boy fourteen years of age, 
who was taken bv the Indians from 

Dr. Ph inch as Parkhurst, 


his mother in Royalton and carried 
to Canada, remained there about 
eighteen mouths. The government 
gave him his choice, to remain io 
prison or labor among the inhabitants, 
and he chose the latter. After his 
discharge as a prisoner, he came back 
to Royalton, grew up to manhood in 
his native town, got married, raised 
a family of children, and one among 
them is our worthy townsman Hemari 
Rix, who married Betsey, the young- 
est daughter of Dea. Baruabas Fay, 
and they are now living on Hanover 
street in this village. 

The writer will now introduce a 
brief history of Dr. Phinehas Park- 
burst and his descendants. 

Phinehas was the secoud son of 
Tilly Parkhurst, of Plainfield, Conn., 
and was born in that town Jan. 6, 
1760. He went to Royalton, VU m 
with his father, when a vouth, and 
labored on the farm like other boys 
until that day of terrors in 1780, 
when the Indians commenced the 
work of destruction in the "White 
River valley. 

The evening previous to that event 
Phinehas was absent from home, vis- 
iting a family in the north part of the 
town, and near where the Indians 
were first seen, and being so far 
from home, he was easily persuaded 
by the family to remaiu until the next 
day. While at the breakfast-table 
in the morning, he heard the Indian 
war cry, and saw them coming like 
bloodhounds toward the house. He 
quickly passed from the house, caught 
the horse feediug near by and 
mounted instantly, taking the mother 
up in front and the daughter behind 
him, and hastened swiftly down the 
bank of the river to the fording-place, 

crossed safely to the opposite shore, 
and on he rode, warning the inhabit- 
ants of the near approach of the In- 
dians, and still hurried on until he 
reached a place of safety for his 
precious burdens, where he left them 
while he returned to give the alarm, 
and assist others in escaping. When 
arriving on the bank of the river at 
the fording-place opposite to his 
home, he saw a band of Indians at 
his father's door. He realized his 
danger at once, and immediately 
wheeled his horse. At that moment 
the Indians discovered him, and with 
a horrible shout, fired (which was the 
first and only gun discharged during 
the raid), hittiug Phinehas in the 
back, the ball passing through his 
body and lodging beneath the skin in 
front. He grasped the ball between 
his fiugers and urged his jaded horse 
on the road where he hoped to obtain 
the services of a surgeon. Notwith- 
standing the severity of the wound, 
he was enabled to retain his seat on 
the horse for several miles, but grow- 
ing weak and faint, he was obliged 
to dismount for a little rest, and 
while lying almost helpless by the 
road-side a young woman discovered 
him and gave him stimulants, so that 
he was able to regain his seat and 
continue his ride to Lebanon, a dis- 
tance of several miles. He was for- 
tunate in obtaiuing the services of 
Dr. Tiba Hall, who removed the 
ball with safety. The wound at 
first was supposed to be dangerous, 
but it did not prove so, though he 
was confined some time and never 
fully recovered from its effect ; still it 
never disabled him from engaging in 
business, or restrained him from 
active or laborious duties. The ball 


Dr. Ph inch as Parkhurst. 

seemed to have found an easy pas- 
sage through his bodv, avoiding on 
its way every vital part, thus saving 
Phinehas to the world for a long life 
of usefulness. 

It may be truly said that the angel 
of mercy " cast her bread upon the 
waters aud it was returned after many 
days," for in time this young woman 
became a wife, and mother of a large 
family, and Dr. Parkhurst, in kind- 
ness, remembered this good woman 
who helped him when he lay help- 
less by the roadside, and whenever 
his skill and services were required 
by that wife and mother his visits 
were always free. 

This narrow escape, and the ex- 
perience of pain and suffering, gave 
him ample time for meditation, and 
when sufficiently recovered from his 
wound, he had formed a resolution 
to study medicine ; aud not long 
after his decision he became a stu- 
dent of Dr. Hall. Having a nat- 
ural love for the profession, he ap- 
plied himself with an energy which 
was sure to accomplish his purpose 
and give him success. Although 
without a roll of parchment to intro- 
duce him into practice, still his study 
and experience worked together for 
good, and soon crowned him with a 
diploma, giving him an honorable 
position among the physicians of that 
early day. He became a successful 
practitioner, almost by intuition, and 
commenced his medical labors under 
Dr. Hall at once, exhibiting much 
skill and good judgment in his prac- 
tice, and receiving in return the good 
will and worthy praise of all his 

Having obtained his profession and 
established his character as a physi- 

cian, he concluded to establish a 
home and secure a wife to give it 
sunshine. The object of his choice 
was his cousin, Miss Lucy Pierce, 
daughter of Nathaniel Pierce, of Roy- 
al ton, Vt. She was born in Con- 
necticut, December 28. 1762, and 
they were married in 17S3. 

After the wedding ceremony he 
took his young bride upon his horse, 
with all their household goods, and 
bore them safely to their plain and 
simple home in Lebanon, where they 
commenced their married life in a 
log house near where a red house is 
now standing, by Robinson's Ferry, 
so called, on the bank of the Con- 
necticut river, about equal distance 
between the Mascoma Mills and West 
Lebanon. They were poor indeed in 
their earthly possessions, but rich in 
health and strength, and in the hope 
of a prosperous future. The doctor's 
wardrobe was not very extravagant, 
having but two shirts and one cravat, 
which was washed over night. 

Mrs. Parkhurst used to say that 
she spun and wove her wedding dress, 
the material being linen, colored with 
copperas, and that her father gave 
her one cow, one pig, three plates, 
three knives and forks, and three 
cups and saucers, and in six months 
her cow and pig went to pay her hus- 
band's debts, and she took her wed- 
ding dress to make him shirts, and 
also said that .->he replaced the broken 
glass in the windows by pasting on 
paper, and that when her first child 
was born the snow sifted into the 
house between the logs. It was in- 
deed a forlorn home for a young 
wife. Although " home is where the 
heart is," still it is sometimes a little 
darker before day. The doctor's 

Dr. Phinekas Parkhurst. 


experience continued to give confi- 
dence in himself and to the public, 
which increased his business more 
and more until his practice extended 
many miles into Vermont and New 
Hampshire, and was always prompt 
to obey every call for services, and 
ever ready to go far or near, through 
suushiue or shade, to do his duty and 
relieve the sick and suffering ; and 
thus by his industry and devotion to 
his busiuess he secured many of the 
comforts and necessaries of life to 
his household, and gave to his wife 
something more to do, and to both of 
them something more to eujoy. 

His visits were always made on 
horseback at that time, and he was 
often seen with his saddle-bags and 
medicine hurrying from town to 
town and from place to place, in the 
performance of his duties. They lived 
and prospered in the old red house 
until August, 1794, at which time the 
doctor purchased of Isaac Wal bridge 
the premises now owned and occu- 
pied by Mrs. Susan W., widow of the 
late Dea. Luther Alden, being the 
same land given and deeded to John 
Slapp, March 0, 177!), by the pro- 
prietors of the town of Lebanon, 
provided he would erect a dam and 
mills thereon, which condition was 
fully complied with by Mr. Slapp. 
He also erected a house and other 
buildings for the accommodation of 
his family. Dr. Parkhurst, at the 
time of his purchase in 1791, moved 
into the same bouse then on the 
premises, and there established a 
home with his wife and two children. 
Not long after a settlement in his 
new house, he commenced a light 
trade in raising mules for the market. 
The busiuess increased rapidly, and 

by uniting that with his medical prac- 
tice it proved a profitable arrange- 
ment. His success in this, his first 
experience, induced him to pursue 
and systematize that peculiar branch 
of busiuess by purchasing animals 
for the purpose, and distributing 
them in different portions of the coun- 
try, thus establishing the raising, 
buying, and selling of mules, which 
at length became an important busi- 
ness iu the hands of Dr. Parkhurst 
during his active life. 

The appearance of Dr. P. repre- 
sented a man a little less than the 
usual height, thick set — much like the 
Germaus — short ueck, a good sized, 
well balanced head ; on the whole, a 
form that was well fitted to contain an 
iron constitution, a good heart, a 
strong mind, and with great human 
power to perform heavy duties and 
endure the many vicissitudes of a 
long life. 

During the passing years a further 
increase in his family required more 
room, youthful pride desired a bet- 
ter house, and the doctor's success 
in business gave him an opportunity 
to gratify the wishes of all interested, 
and so in the year 1808, when his 
family consisted of his wife, two sons, 
and live daughters, he erected a two- 
story front to the old house, made 
other improvements on the premises, 
and, when completed, it was said to be 
one of the finest establishments in 
Grafton county. The writer remem- 
bers that place in 1812, with its high 
embankment wall, which enclosed the 
front yard and grounds around the 
house, and the long stone stairs with 
an iron railing which led to the front 
door, on which is still standing 
the iron railing, — and from that 


Dr. Pkinekas Parle hurst. 

pleasant location was bad a beautiful 
view of the Mascoraa river winding 
along its deep valley, and of th# 
farms and hills in the distance. 

He purchased the grist-mill at an 
early day, which was situated on the 
same water-power where Mr. A. M. 
Shaw's mill now stands. He built it 
over in 1839, and this was the same 
mill which was destroyed by fire a 
few years ago. 

Dr. Park-hurst's energy and indus- 
try were proverbial, aud his active life 
was a night and day labor almost 
superhuman, and his business capac- 
ity seemed to increase with his years, 
and his desire to improve opportu- 
nities for speculation induced him to 
invest his surplus income in mills and 
landed estate according to his means. 

And so he purchased in early days 
the lands adjoiuiug his homestead, 
the farm and timber lauds called the 
Snow place, now owned by Edwin 
Perley, the Bliss and Downer farms, 
and numerous other farms and lands, 
numbering over sixty deeds in Graf- 
ton county. In the year 1810 he 
purchased the Robert Colburn farm 
in the centre village of Lebanon, and 
other lands of Nath'l "Wheatley and 
Jesse Cook connected therewith, which 
included all the laud between Bank 
street and Maseoma river, and all the 
land south of Bank street to Kendall 
and Kimball's line, nearly to South 
street. He also purchased meadows 
on the north side of the river, and the 
Colburn hill pasture, and these al- 
together eventually constituted his 
home farm and his last abiding- 
place. The first two years after his 
purchase he rented the premises to 
David Whitmore, the next two years, 
from 1812 to 1814, he rented it to 

William Benton, who opeued the 
house for a tavern, being at that 
interesting ttrae wheu the war of 1812 
was in full operation. 

On the 4th of March, 1814, he 
sold the farm to Benjamin Lamphear, 
a gentleman from Boston, who bought 
it for a sheep farm, he being one of 
the first men who introduced Merino 
sheep into town, and it may be truly 
said that he was the greatest benefac- 
tor to the town of Lebanon and 
vicinity, that ever lived iu the 
country ; but like other public-spirited 
men, he commenced the business with 
great liberality, paid five dollars 
apiece for common sheep for crossing 
with the Merinos, and soon became 
embarrassed for want of funds. This 
obliged him to give up his favorite 
object and leave the fruit of his labors 
to be gathered by the farmers and 
others in this community, who at once 
adopting the ideas of Mr. Lamphear, 
commenced an improvement in their 
flocks, and in a short time they had 
good sheep, fine wool, great prices, 
and ready sales, which returned them 
a rich reward. Mr. Lamphear, not 
beiug able to continue the business, 
redeeded the farm to Dr. Parkhurst, 
June 14, 181G, and removed with his 
family to Lexington, Kentucky. 

The doctor continued his residence 
in the pleasant home he fitted up in 
1808, until the spring of 1817, at 
which time he sold the house and 
farm to the Rev. John Foord (having 
sold the water-power and mill prop- 
erty previously to Ahira Hubbard), 
and then removed to the Robert Col- 
burn farm, which was located within 
the precinct of the centre village. 
The house occupied the same spot 
where Henrv W. Carter's residence is 

Dr. Phinehas Parkhurst. 


now standing. The old house was 
among the first built in this part of 
the town. In 1806 Mr. Colburn 
erected a two-story front, and soon 
after the doctor came in possession 
he made another addition, modern- 
ized the whole premises, and made 
it one of the handsomest residences 
in the village. The farm altogether 
was superior to any other in town, 
and the barns, stables, sheds, and 
other outbuildings, for the accommo- 
dation of mules and other stock, re- 
sembled a small town. 

When the doctor commenced his 
trade in mules, he purchased Jacks 
and distributed them among his 
agents in sundry places in Vermont 
and New Hampshire, — the agents 
sometimes owning one half of the 
Jack and receiving one half of the 
profits. The young mules were re- 
turnable at four mouths old and 
valued at twenty-five dollars. The 
doctor kept a portion of the mules in 
his own yard, but the greater share 
were distributed among the farmers 
in different towns. As they were 
not marketable under two years of 
age, it required pasturing, which was 
usually a very unpleasant part of the 
business. Pills and jalap were a 
legal tender for keeping mules. The 
yearlings were always peaceable in 
the summer pastures unless a two 
year old happened to get in with 
them. Like young school children, 
they always behave well until an older 
scholar sets a bad example. Josh 
Billings told one truth about mules 
when he said that " If you wish to 
keep a mule in a certain pasture you 
must turn him into the one next to it, 
and he will surety jump into the right 
one." Wherever mules were kept they 

were the source of much trouble be- 
tween neighbors, and often caused a 
spasmodic slip of the tongue even 
among sober men. The mules were 
easily managed in droves ; a man on 
horseback to lead the way, and one in 
the rear to drive up the stragglers, 
were all that were necessary to take 
them on journeys of a thousand miles. 
They were often driven to the coal fields 
in Pennsylvania, to Richmond, Va., 
Charleston, S. C, Kentucky, Georgia, 
&c ; and also sold to parties in Bos- 
ton, New York, New London, Conn., 
and New Haven, and transported to 
the West India Islands and sold there 
in exchange for the produce of those 
islands. Dr. P. used to ship them to 
sundry places on his own account, 
and receive in return, rice, cotton, 
indigo, and tobacco, which articles 
opened a heavy trade between him 
and the country merchants in the 
adjoining towns. 

Ou the return of the doctor from 
Boston, where he had been to sell 
mules, he was witness to a war of 
words among the stage proprietors 
about the stockiug and settlement of 
the way-bills. In conversation with 
a neighbor he said, — "By Judas! it 
made me think of Priest Foord, and 
I don't know but I have as good an 
opinion of an honest minister as any- 
body else, but if Priest Foord is to 
pilot us on the highway to the king- 
dom of God, I believe he would steal 
the money and keep back the way- 

The doctor, having sold a lot of 
mules in Boston and settled his busi- 
ness, thought he would treat himself 
to a boat ride in the harbor. During 
a short voyage a violent storm arose 
causing sea-sickness, which prostrated. 


Dr. Phinekas Parkhurst. 

him in the bottom of the boat, causing 
the exclamation, — "I wish I was safe 
on shore !'' The captain, to calm his 
feelings, told him the story of the old 
negro who was anxious to go to sea 
with his master, and was permitted, 
but the poor fellow repented during 
a storm and asked the captain to 
pray for him, and was told that " he 
must pray for himself," when the old 
fellow fell upon his knees, saying, — 
"0 dear, great, Massa God, if you will 
only carry me safely back to my good 
Massas's door-stone, you will never 
catch dis nigger here again." The 
doctor in agony said, that "the 
negro spoke his mind exactly." 

The doctor always kept an old 
Jack in a barn located where John 
Burnham's house now stands. His 
stable was on the south side, and iui 
it was a window just large enuugh to 
admit his head, giving the old fellow 
a full view of the public travel, in 
which he always seemed very much 
interested. His long ears and cotton 
colored head and open mouth, as he 
brayed a most unearthly salute to the 
passing teams, presented a more 
interesting and comical picture than 
could be imitated by an eminent 
artist. Many a time in the old meet- 
iug-house on the common, during 
church service, his voice has rever- 
berated within its walls, awaking the 
sleepers from their dreams, making 
them think that the angel Gabriel 
was sounding his last trumpet. But 
the most amusing exhibition of his 
science in music was occasionally 
given just after reading a hymn, when 
the choir arose and " pitched the 
tune." He often caught the first 
sound and ran his voice up and down 
the octave, grinding out the tones 

and semitones with about the same 
harmony that is expressed in the 
rise and fall of an old-fashioned saw- 
mill gate. 

The doctor was a firm Democrat, 
and belonged to that class who claimed 
the right of free speech, and always 
expressed his views on political sub- 
jects with freedom ; and as he in- 
creased in age, his mind often skipped 
back to those early days in our Revo- 
lution which tried men's souls when 
we had to fight the British and Tories 

The doctor remembered those times 
better than the recent past, and often, 
as he expressed it, had a "tale to 
tell" about that " torified possy," who 
were traitors to the country. He had 
a string of names well established 
in his memory, among them were 
"Shem Kenfield, Zadock Wright, 
Ben. West, Josiah Dunham, and the 
Devil." But he gave good credit to 
the ministers who fought well the 
battles of our country, and in his old 
age he used to say, — "There was our 
good Priest Potter of this town, and 
his brother who preached at Norwich, 
with other ministers of the same 
faith, shouldered their muskets and 
fought well at the taking of Bur- 
goyne and other times, but after the 
final success of our armies, peace 
declared, and the constitution adopt- 
ed, giving to every person the lib- 
erty of worshipping God according 
to their own free will," then, he said, 
"there was an earthquake among 
them." Notwithstanding this change 
in the disposition of some of the 
clergy at that time the doctor and 
Priest Potter and their families, 
being near neighbors, were always 
intimate and trood friends during life. 

Modes of Burial. 


By Fred Myron Colby. 

The natural tenderness felt by man- 
kind for the bodies of those who are 
dear to them, as well as the necessity 
of removing from sight or contact ob- 
jects which rapidly become offensive, 
has in all ages led to some disposition 
of the dead by whi^h it was thought 
these ends could best be effected. 
Funeral rites, too, have in all ages 
been interwoven with and consecrated 
by the ceremonies of religion. Por- 
tions of these rites have often survived 
the people and the religion to which 
they owed their origin, and the three- 
fold sprinkling with earth with which 
the Christian is consigned to the tomb 
is handed down to us from the pagan 
Greeks and Romans. The affection of 
the living for departed friends appears 
in all the various methods of disposing 
of corpses which have been practised 
by different nations. Whether the body 
is reduced to dust by fire or by decay, 
the commemorative urn or tomb is es- 
teemed sacred, and is guarded with 
pious care. Sometimes the vain osten- 
tatiou and lavish wealth of men have 
enabled them to conspicuously honor 
the dead bodies of their friends by 
funeral rites of the most gorgeous 
description. Costly hecatombs have 
been burned with the bodies of valiant 
heroes; magnificent mausoleums and 
stupendous pyramids have been raised 
for the tombs of kings. Rivers have 
been turned from their courses, and, 
wrapped in silk and gold, and pre- 
cious woods and gems, with all the 
attributes of potent royalty about 
their cold and pulseless forms, the 
bodies of conquerors laid to rest in 

the chaunel. and the waters again 
allowed to rush on. Yet sleep no 
easier Patroclus or Hector, or Mau- 
solaus or Cheops, or the bloody 
Goth, Alaric, than humbler men. To 
them as well the simple grave be- 
neath some stately pine or drooping 
willow, where the shadows love to 
linger, or a resting-place underneath 
the ocean's billows, as the hecatomb 
of slaughtered beeves, or pyramid, 
or rush of mighty river. Yet the 
spirit that prompted all this lavish 
outlay and garish show has its par- 
allel in modern times. It is too true 
that the custom of burial nearly 
everywhere is but little removed from 
an abuse. Funeral pomp and the 
splendor of burial service are things 
which hold on to the very soul of 

The duty imposed on us to impov- 
erish the living that the dead may 
be put into the grave with a certain 
etatage of nodding plumes, sleek 
horses, and strange men draped in 
floating black, seems to some of us 
inalienable to the decency of civil- 
ization ; to others, remnants of the 
barbaric emphasis with which savage 
chiefs and Indian braves conclude 
their lives. If we believed the the- 
ory that the ghosts of the dead were 
soothed by our display, why we 
should then have some kind of rea- 
son for the action, more or less 
sound. But we have not even this 
to impel us : only the tyranny of a 
despotic custom. So we go on put- 
ting the poor, pale dead in coflins of 
oak bossed with silver and lined with 



Modes of Burial. 

satin, dissipating the bread of the 
widow and children, because we are 
civilized, and show is a greater thing 
than substance. 

The cemetery is a costly luxury 
indeed. The funeral too often im- 
poverishes those of slender means, 
and altogether too much money is 
expended in giviug what is recog- 
nized as '* first-class Christian bur- 
ial " to the departed. 

Three methods chiefly, at various 
times and in different countries, have 
been employed for the disposition of 
the dead — mummification, incinera- 
tion, and interment. 

Mummification was practised by 
the ancient Egyptians, who used 
every art to preserve the relics of 
the dead. They embalmed not only 
human corpses, but those of all the 
sacred animals. Dead Egypt may be 
seen to-day in her tombs and pyra- 
mids, though her stupendous temples 
and palaces have crumbled, and the 
statue of Memnon no longer mingles 
its music with the Nile's. This pres- 
ervation of the bodies of the dead 
through a long series of ages created 
an enormous multiplication of mum- 

"All this," said an Arab to a French 
6avant, showing from the summit 
of the great pyramid the immense 
plain which, for the space of fifty 
square leagues, extends about its 
base, — "all this is mummy." This 
was indeed the great cemetery of the 
Egyptians, and is still called the 
Plain of Mummies. Here lie the 
embalmed remains of the citizens 
of Memphis and Heiiopolis, among 
countless mummies of ibises and 
cats. The kings and priestly nobles, 
however, were buried on the hills in 

pyramids of brick or stone. The 
low Libyan hills, that separate the 
grass land from the glaring western 
sands, are fringed along their tops, 
as far as the eye can reach, with 
pyramids of all sizes — the burial 
places of men who once owned the 
plain. The fields and gardens of the 
living, like life itself, are bounded by 
the tombs, and beyond lies the silent, 
pathless desert. 

The pyramids of Ghizeh were built 
as tombs for some of the early kings, 
and they can be taken as a measure 
of their pride. Each of these moun- 
tains of stone was to cover the body 
of one weak man, and to keep it 
after embalming till the day of his 
resurrection, which, without this care, 
he feared he might lose. 

On the walls of the Egyptian tem- 
ples are carved representations of 
funeral processions by water, where 
the mummy of the dead man is lying 
in a boat, and is followed by other 
boats, full of mourning friends and 
kinsmen ; while in other places some 
of his friends are pictured throwing 
dust upon their heads in token of 
grief. Hence the Greeks afterwards 
borrowed their river Styx, the lake 
of Acheron, Charon's boat, with oth- 
er notions about the souls of the 

The burial-places in the sides of 
the Theban hills are wide and lofty 
rooms, with their roofs upheld by 
columns, and their walls covered with 
paintings, which can be seen only by 
the light of the torch. These were 
meant to keep the embalmed bodies 
safe and undisturbed till the day of 
judgment. And while the slight mud 
and wooden huts which sheltered the 
living reminded them of the short- 

3 f odes of Burial. 


ness of human life, these massive 
buildings well deserved the names of 
their lasting abodes. The mummies 
which were buried in them have long 
since been broken to pieces in the 
search for gold and precious stones, 
which were often wrapped up in the 
same bandages with the body. "With 
the mummy were sometimes buried 
not only the treasures which the mau 
valued when alive, but farming tools 
and seed-corn for his use when he 
should come to life again. 

The Hebrews, Babylonians, and 
Persians buried their dead in gen- 
eral. In no instance, save that of 
Saul and his sons, were the bodies 
burnt; and even then the bones were 
interred, and reexhumed for solemn 
entombment. All of these nations 
had their public burial-grounds, con- 
secrated by laws and religion, from 
the remotest times, aud the Jews, in 
particular, used much care in select- 
ing plots for sepulture. Every city- 
had its public cemetery outside of its 
walls, that of Jerusalem being in the 
valley of the Cedrou. Tombs were 
also in use among them. The cave 
of Machpelah was used as a place of 
sepulture by Abraham and the patri- 
archs, and there their bodies have lain 
for thirty-seven hundred years. David 
and the princes of the royal line of 
Judah were not laid to rest in the 
valley with the artisans and mer- 
chants, but consigned to loftier buri- 
al in the sepulchre of the kings in 
the city of David. 

It has been much the fashion to 
look to Egypt for the prototype of 
every form of Jewish art, but cer- 
tainly as regards their forms of bur- 
ial service there must be allowed an 
absolute antagonism between the two 

natious. From the burial of Sarah 
in the cave of Machpelah to the fu- 
neral rites prepared for Dorcas, there 
is no mention of any sarcophagus, or 
even coffin, in any Jewish burial. 
Still less were the rites of the Jews 
like those of the Pelasgi or Etrus- 
cans. They were marked with the 
same simplicity that characterized all 
their religious observances. It was 
the office of the next of kin to per- 
form and preside over the whole fu- 
neral office ; but a company of public 
buriers, originating in an exceptional 
necessity, had become, it seems, cus- 
tomary in the times of Christ. The 
bier, the word for which in the Old 
Testament is the same as that ren- 
dered * 4 bed," was borne by the near- 
est relatives. The grave-clothes were 
probably of the fashion worn in life, 
but swathed and fastened with ban- 
dages, and the head covered sepa- 
rately. Sepulchres were marked 
sometimes by pillars, as that of 
Rachel, or by pyramids, as those of 
the Asmoneans at Modin. Such as 
were not otherwise noticeable were 
scrupulously u whited " once a year, 
after the rains before the passover, 
to warn passers-by of defilement. 

Amoug the Greeks, in historical 
times, both cremation and inhumation 
were practised, and the same word is 
used for either method of burial. 
When the body was not burned, it 
was placed in a coffin made com- 
monly of baked clay or earthen- 
ware, and buried without the walls 
of the town. Intramural interment 
was forbidden, from the superstition 
that the presence of the dead brought 
pollution to the living. After they 
adopted the Phrygian custom of burn- 
ing their dead, the body was placed 


Modes of Burial. 

upon a pvre built of wood, to which 
fire was communicated in the pres~ 
ence of those who attended the fu- 
neral. After the flames were extin- 
guished, the bones were carefully col- 
lected by the friends of the deceased 
and placed in urns made of various 
materials. These were preserved in 
tombs, built commonly on the road- 
sides without the city gates, though 
in Athens the honored dead were 
buried in the temples, or beneath mon- 
uments of splendid workmanship. 
Sometimes whole avenues were lined 
with statues, and the porticos of tem- 
ples and theatres illustrated with 
bronze figures of renowned Atheni- 
ans. To the eye of the traveller this 
colossal picture-gallery was most in- 
teresting. Here could be seen war- 
riors, — Conon, Thucydides ; the com- 
manding forms of Cimon, Miltiades, 
and Phocian. Lawgivers were there, 
such as Solon, Themistocles, Demos- 
thenes, and Pericles. Well was it said 
of Athens by Petronius, that it was 
then easier to find in it an idol than 
a man. The burial of the dead by 
the nearest surviving relatives was a 
sacred duty in Greece, and its neg- 
lect exposed them to grave accusa- 
tions. After the funeral, the family 
of the deceased assembled at the 
house of the nearest friend and par- 
took of a feast; and at Athens the 
period of mourning continued thirty 
days, duriug which other feasts and 
sacrifices were celebrated. 

In the olden times of the Republic 
the Romans generally buried the 
dead, though sometimes they iuurned 
the ashes of their noblest heroes. 
Sylla appears to have been the first 
of the Cornelian family who was burn- 
ed. Under the Empire, however. 

cremation aud urn burial were al- 
most universally practised. In those 
ages of unrivalled pomp and show the 
burning of a dead body was a splen- 
did spectacle. The corpse, anointed, 
and dressed in its richest robes, was 
placed upon a pile of wood, built 
commonly in the form of an altar. 
The bark was usually left on the 
wood, and the four sides of the pile 
were covered or festooned with pen- 
dent leaves of dark hue. The body 
was often decorated with flowers, and 
branches of cypress placed before the 
funeral pyre. The nearest relative, 
with an inverted torch and an averted 
face, ignited the pile. While the 
body burned, frankincense and spices 
were scattered over the pyre, filling 
the air with perfume, aud oils were 
poured upon it, giving the flashing 
flames the colors of the rainbow, and 
producing a picture at once poetical, 
picturesque, and awe-inspiring. 

These pyres were frequently erected 
on hills, high places, or on headlands 
overlooking the sea. The funeral 
always occurred at night. When the 
burning was concluded the ashes were 
gathered and preserved in an urn. 
The urns were of various forms, and 
were made of gold, silver, alabaster, 
marble, or terra cotta, according to 
the wealth or station of the deceased. 
They were deposited for safe keeping 
in monuments made for the purpose, 
called columbarium. These recepta- 
cles for funeral urns lined all the 
roads leading out from Rome, and 
the Appian Way was walled for miles 
with sepulchres and tombs. 

The burning of the dead was com- 
mon amongst the Celts and the old 
German uations. and was practised 
bv the Druids. 

Modes of Burial. 


The Hindoos generally consume 
the bodies of their dead by fire, ex- 
cept those of the religious orders, 
which are buried in a sitting posture, 
with their legs crossed, as we see 
those of the idols. It is considered 
very unfortunate to die in a house, 
therefore when a man draws near his 
end, he is always carried out of doors 
and laid on a bed of grass, usually 
on the banks of a stream, the Ganges 
being always preferred if within 
reach. The funeral rites are per- 
formed immediately after death, and 
the ashes scattered to the wind. 

The suttee, or immolation of wid- 
ows, was formerly a very prevalent 
practice among the Hindoo people, 
but was not universal, as has been 
supposed, and the victim generally 
acted by her own free will, often in 
opposition to the wishes of her own 
relatives. But this was not always 
the case, especially among the fami- 
lies of princes and great Brahmins, 
who were often desirous of augment- 
ing the solemnity of the obsequies by 
a suttee, and would even employ 
force to accomplish their object. The 
British government has done much 
toward the abolition of this barba- 
rous custom , and the humane en- 
deavor to suppress it entirely has 
long been warmly supported by the 
most enlightened portion of the na- 
tive population. But in some parts 
of the country, where the ancient su- 
perstitions still prevail in all their 
original force, a suttee is even now 
heard of occasionally. 

The Karens, Siamese, and other 
populous nations of the East also 
practise cremation. It would seem 
as though death, instead of larking 
in every flower and leaf, had been 

banished from these sunny countries 
of perennial vegetation ; for here are 
no cemeteries, and, except the stately 
mausoleum, no tombs. The funeral 
pyres are perfumed with spices and 
fed with oils, and sandal-wood is not 
uufrequently used to give fragrance 
to the fire. 

In China they bury the dead. The 
burial-places are always at some dis- 
tance from the towns, and very gen- 
erally on the side of a hill, which is 
cut into terraces, one above another, 
covered with monuments of the dead. 
The coffins are not put into the 
ground, but laid upon it, and cov- 
ered with a tomb, which is more or 
less handsome, according to the cir- 
cumstances of the relatives, some 
being only mounds of earth, while 
others are of stone, having in front a 
slab of black marble, bearing an in- 
scription in letters of gold ; and they 
present altogether a picturesque ap- 
pearance amid the trees and shrubs 
which are planted about them. 

Among the sacred customs observed 
by the Chiuese is that of visiting the 
tombs of their departed relatives 
twice a year, to make sacrifices, 
sweep the tombstones, and clear 
away the weeds that may have grown 
near them. At the performance of 
these commemorative rites all the 
male population of the village repair 
to the place of interment, carrying 
with them wine and meats, sticks of 
imcense and paper offerings, to burn 
at the tombs. When the ceremonies 
are concluded, each individual sets up 
a long streamer of white or crimson 
paper, which is fastened to a stick 
fixed in the ground, as a token that 
lie has performed his duties to his de- 
ceased kindred. These rites to the 

1 68 

Modes of Burial. 

dead are always followed by feasting 
and merry-making, for it is consid- 
ered rather a joyful than a mournful 
occasion, as the visitors suppose that 
they have been holding communion 
with their departed friends, and min- 
istering to their wants by offerings 
of food and raiment. Every rich 
family in China has, moreover, a 
temple or large building, called the 
Hall of Ancestors, in which are placed 
tablets of stone or wood, bearing the 
names and ages of all deceased rela- 
tives, with dates of the days on which 
they died, and the occupation each 
had followed in this world. Here, at 
certain times of the year, all the male 
members of the family assemble to 
show their respect for the memory of 
the deceased by prostrating them- 
selves, and placing wine and meat 
and incense before the tablets. Those 
who cannot afford to have a distinct 
building for this purpose, hang up 
the memorials in some room of their 
house, where they perform the cus- 
tomary ceremonies. There is, in 
fact, no country in the world where 
so much respect is paid to the mem- 
ory of the dead, or where they 
are held so long in remembrance. 
A son would sometimes keep the 
body of a parent iu his house for 
years, enclosed in a varnished coffin, 
usually very richly ornamented, which 
was placed in the best apartment, and 
on all particular occasions candles 
were lighted aud incense was burned 
before it, the room being: hung with 
white, which is the color appropriated 
bv the Chinese for mourning, and is 
worn as such by all classes of people. 
Among the North American In- 
dians different modes of burial pre- 
vailed with different tiibes. Some 

laid the body on the ground, and 
erected over it a little house covered 
with bark, or dug a grave in the earth, 
in which they placed the corpse iu a 
sitting posture. Other nations de- 
posited the body in a kind of coffin 
on a high scaffold, or left it hanging 
from a tree. The Indian wished ev- 
erything that he valued in life to be 
buried with him, that it might be 
ready for his use on entering the 
spirit laud. His tomahawk and knife, 
his bow and arrows, were placed by 
his side. This custom is still pre- 
served anions the remaining tribes. 
His medals and other tokens of dis- 
tinction are often laid in the hand of 
the deceased chief, and his favorite 
dog and horse are killed to bear him 

Among civilized nations, since the 
Christian religion has obtained the 
ascendancy, the mode of disposing 
of the dead has generally been by in- 
terment. Cemeteries and abbeys con- 
tain to-day the dust of the dead of 
all Christian nations. Iu the ceme- 
teries, under the broad, glorious can- 
opy of heaven, the bones of the hum- 
ble have crumbled away. In West- 
minster and St. Deuis, beneath costly 
tombs aud effigies, underneath the 
gorgeous domes of art, rest all that 
is mortal of poets and priests and 

At a very early period it became 
customary to bury the dead in the 
immediate neighborhood of churches, 
in grounds consecrated for the pur- 
pose. Often the tombs invaded the 
church itself, which was undermined 
by crypts like a city by catacombs. 
In the earlier Middle Ages the ceme- 
etery was the churchyard, and relics 
of this usa^e are still seen in the 

Modes of Burial. 


graves which surround old churches 
in cities, and in the common juxtapo- 
sition of the church and burial-ground 
in small villages. With the increase 
of population, however, it became 
uecessary to establish large public 
-cemeteries without the city walls, and 
this practice has become general in 
modern times. 

Not a few modern cemeteries have 
acquired quite a mlebrity, either for 
the beauty of their surroundings, or 
for being the burial-places of famous 
men. Pere la Chaise and the Campo 
Santo in Europe, and Mount Auburn 
and Laurel Hill in America, are among 
these, and divide with the cathedral 
of the old countries the honor of be- 
iug men's last resting-place. 

The subject of the mode of dispos- 
ing of the body after death is just 
now one of the muddles into which 
the unquiet spirit of the age has got- 
ten us. The question of substituting 
cremation for inhumation is a rising; 
one, and certainly from both an aes- 
thetic and sanitary point of view is 
worthy of the advocacy of all think- 
ing persons. Sir Henry Thompson 
has discussed, with force, clearness, 
and spirit, this question of cremation 
and urn burial. The arguments in 
favor of such a disposal of the dead 
carcases of men seem to us rationally 
unanswerable. There is absolutely 
nothing to be said against it. and 
there is little present likelihood of 
argument doing much for the cause. 
It is a case for example, which would 
be of much more effect than precept. 
No doubt there is nothing but preju- 
dice, and an ignorant misinterpreta- 
tion of certain texts, which can be ad- 
vanced against cremation as a means 
of disposal of the dead. But there 

is a rooted sentiment which is op- 
posed to it. It is ignorant ; it is old- 
fashioned ; it is contrary to the laws 
and economies of nature, and to the 
interests and almost the proprieties of 
civilization. But there it is, and noth- 
ing short of the initiation of a society 
of incremators will produce any effect. 
If a few hundred men of notable char- 
acter, ability, and respectability were 
to agree to commit their bodies to the 
flames after death, and make suitable 
arrangements, they would probably 
soon be imitated by thousands, and 
so the foul practice of committing a 
rotting body to the ground, there to 
poison the soil which it encumbers, 
would be replaced by the more rea- 
sonable and cleanly reduction of the 
body to ashes by the speedy agency 
of flame. 

The main objections to cremation 
rest on sentiment and custom. The 
Christian world was shocked when 
Lord Byron and his friends burned 
the body of Shelley amid spicery and 
clouds of frankincense, on the deso- 
late beach of the Mediterranean. The 
burning was in accordance with the 
rules of the quarantine, the poet's 
body having drifted ashore. The 
ceremonies and the associations were 
solemn and imposing ; but it was con- 
trary to Christian usage, and there- 
fore disapproved by the Christian 
world. But all this should be over- 
looked when it is remembered what 
the definition of burial is. Burial 
means two things : First, a safe dis- 
position of a dead body. But an in- 
terred body is not safely disposed of. 
It is not beyond the reach of " body- 
snatchers." It is not safely disposed 
of as to the living. Six feet of earth 
will not keep in disease and the foul 


Colon/a/ jLazu vs. Freeman } s Oath. 

odors of decomposition. How much 
cholera, small-pox, and disease of 
every kind we annually drink and 
breathe is hard to tell. It is very 
plain that burning would be a safer 
disposition of a dead body than bur- 
ial. Secondly, burial means a natu- 
ral return of a human body to the 
source whence it sprung. ''Earth to 
earth, dust to dust," is the idea. This 

is compensatory and poetical, a truly 
beautiful economy. But nature ab- 
sorbs only by chemical action. The 
body is not a part of earth or nature 
until it is decomposed and assimilated 
— a tedious and disgusting process. 
"Why not help nature assert her sover- 
eignty, and make a short and cleanly 
job of it? Why not burn, and finish 
the picture with 41 ashes to ashes"? 

By C. S. SfAULnixG. 

The law requiring all persons in- 
tending to exercise the rights of free- 
man, before taking the oath, to be- 
come members of the church, thus 
making church-membership a qualifi- 
cation as a voter, was passed into a 
law by the Colonial court of Massa- 
chusetts, under date of May, 1631. 
The justification of the measure has 
been transmitted to us in the lan- 
guage of the act itself, — " To the 
end that the Body of the Commons 
may be preserved by honest and good 

As an excuse they sought to check 
intruders by prescribing some safe- 
guard in exercising the right of suf- 
frage. Viewed in the light of the 
more liberal policy of later years, the 
action of our Puritan forefathers 
would be severely criticized, and char- 
acterized as the growth of intoler- 
ance. "Union of church and state — 
this bigoted exclusiveness ! " 

It is apparent that the main cause 
which led to the establishment of this 
law was that the colonial charter, as 

granted by the crowned heads of Eng- 
land, was well-nigh a pure democra- 
cy ; and under it every freeman of the 
colony had a right to take a part in the 
choice of officers, in making laws, and 
in administering justice in popular as- 
semblies where all came together and 
acted by majorities. 

The people had left many active 
and determined enemies at home, 
ready to seize upon any pretence for 
depriving them of their free charter. 
The government, in the hands of their 
enemies, they did not consider safe a 
moment ; and the purposes for which 
they came here would be defeated, 
etc. ; hence this law was passed, it is 
said, at the instigation of Rev. John 
Cotton, D.D. 

A very large proportion of the male 
population of the early settlers of 
Massachusetts, and also the ancestors 
of the people who settled in southern 
New Hampshire, took the freeman's 
oath, to enable them to become good 
citizens, and also to have a voice in 
the affairs of government. 

Plea J "or JYczv Hampshire Men 


Extract fbom the Argument of Hon. Frank B. Sanborn, March 1-i, 1SS9. 

If the Massachusetts legislature 
should pass a law forbidding iusanity 
to be cured in our hospitals unless 
the patient had a domicile in Massa- 
chusetts, and if every other state but 
New Hampshire ?■ ~mld be brought 
under that cruel, unjust rule, I appre- 
hend, gentlemen, that something in 
the memory of mankind, in the rec- 
ord of history, in the deeds of the 
past, would prevent the people of 
Massachusetts from enforcing that 
edict against the people of New 
Hampshire. Bear with me while I 
recount some of the reasons, not 
drawn from the stingy folds of the 
pocket-book, but from the tablets of 
the heart, why little New Hampshire 
must not be shut out from any pro- 
vision which her sister states make 
for their own advantage. ? Tis a lit- 
tle state with a great history. She 
has seen and borne arms in ten wars, 
but no foreign soldier ever set foot 
on her soil save as a captive or a 
guest. She was the bulwark of your 
safety against Indian ferocity ; and 
hardly a New Hampshire man lives 
who had not some ancestor hacked in 
pieces or shot down from ambush 
while defending your forefathers 
from attack. My ancestors, five or 
six of them, suffered that death. 

She rose against Randolph aud the 
minions of the Stuarts six years be- 
fore Massachusetts imprisoned An- 
dros. When New England sailed to 
capture the great French fortress 
at Louisburg in 1745, it was a 
New Hampshire volunteer, William 

Vaughan, who took the royal battery 
with 400 men, and with 13 men pre- 
vented its recapture. In the French 
aud Indian war of 1755, Stark and 
Rogers, of New Hampshire, with 
their forest rangers, made victory 
possible, and secured their country- 
men from the worst evils of defeat 
among the woods of Ticonderoga. 
New Hampshire was the first prov- 
ince to banish its royal governor, Sir 
John Went worth, generous aud be- 
loved, but the foeman of liberty. 
Her Sullivan and her Langdon cap- 
tured the first British fort in 177-1, 
and from its magazine of powder 
supplied the ammunition of Bunker 
Hill. Her Stark and her Reid led to 
that battlefield 1,200 New Hampshire 
yeomen, — more than half the whole 
American force which fought on that 
day of glory. 

Let me give you an incident scarce- 
ly worthy of notice in New Hamp- 
shire, where every man expects to go 
to the front in time of action, but 
which drew the attention of eye-wit- 
nesses from Massachusetts. Stark, 
with his regiment of 1,000 men, and 
MeCIary, his Scotch-Irish major, was 
ordered in the afternoon of June 17th 
to move from Somerville, and oppose 
tne British army landing from their 
boats at Charlestown point. He 
marched quickly to Charlestown 
Neck, where another New Hampshire 
regiment, under Reid, of Fitzwilliam, 
joined him. The British men-of-war 
and iloating batteries were sweeping 
the narrow pass with their deadly fire. 


Pica, for JVew Hampshire J fen. 

Two regiments, earlier on the march, 
were halting for fear of the canon- 
ade. McClarv went forward from 
Stark's side, and said to the col- 
onels, — " If you are not going to move 
forward, I wish you to open ranks 
and let our regiments pass," which 
they immediately did. and Stark's 
men repulsed the flow of the invad- 
ing army, until Prescott and his men 
in the redoubt could withdraw from 
the fight. Then tne men of New 
Hampshire covered the retreat of 
their comrades, bringing with them 
the body of McClary, slain in the 
front rank. 

Again the historian finds Stark at 
Trenton, where Washington made his 
desperate venture against the Hes- 
sians of Cornwallis. Six weeks after 
that brilliant action, Sullivan, who 
led the vanguard under Washington's 
eye, wrote to the governor of New 
Hampshire, — " No men fight better 
or write worse than our Yankees. 
General Washington made no scruple 
to say publicly, "the remains of the 
eastern regiment were the strength of 
his array ; — he calls thera to the front 
when the enemy are there ; he sends 
them to the rear when the enemy 
threatens that way. Believe me, sir, 
the Yankees took Trenton before the 
other troops knew anything of the 
matter ; more than that, there was an 
engagement." These Yankees were 
600 men from New Hampshire, the 
remnant of four regiments. 

Belittling Stark's gallant conduct 
and his seniority of rank, a congres- 
sional cabal promoted his junior, and 
the veteran threw up his commission. 
New Hampshire men are not always 
submissive. But hardly had he 
reached his farm on the Merrimack 

when Burgoyne's threatening advance 
roused the whole state to arms. Its 
treasury was empty, its hero had 
been insulted, but its neighbors in 
New Y'ork and Vermont cried out for 
aid. Langdon, its wealthiest mer- 
chant, laid his whole fortune at the 
feet of Stark : "Take this and equip 
your men, — command them yourself. 
If we win, I may be repaid ; if we 
lose, this property will be worthless." 
At this summons of his friend, Stark 
sprang to the saddle. Soldiers vol- 
unteered by the hundred to go with 
him, and the contest was which should 
march first. It was Buuker Hill over 
again. Y^ou know the story. Should 
you forget it, look in yonder senate 
chamber, where the trophies of Ben- 
nington have hung in honor for more 
than a century. The men of New 
Hampshire marched fifty miles be- 
yond that town, as when they came 
to your rescue after the Concord fight. 
They scaled the Hessian breast- 
works, — they fought two battles iu 
one day, and their valor in a single 
afternoon broke the right arm of Bur- 
goyne and saved the country. I 
doubt not the grandfather of Hiram 
Lynch was a soldier of Stark, for in 
New Hampshire every man's grand- 
father fought in that war. I had a 
friend, now dead, Colonel Montgom- 
ery, of Kansas, both of whose grand- 
fathers marched from New Hamp- 
shire and fought in the battle of Bun- 
ker Hill, his father's father, and his 
mother's father. 

The Athenian orator said, "To 
famous men the whole earth is a sep- 
ulchre." With literal truth I might 
say, "To New Hampshire men the 
whole nation is a sepulchre," for their 
blood has watered the soil of every 

Jfrs. Mary JR. P. Hatch, 


state but their own, and their dust is 
mouldering by every great river and 
in every mountain pass from Maine 
to Georgia, from the Charles to the 
Rio Grande and the Red River of the 
North. They died beside Warren at 
Bunker Hill, before Washington at 
Yorktown, under the eye of Jackson 
at New Orleans. They were thrown 
in their hammock-shroud from the 
bloody decks of Paul Jones, and Law- 
rence, and Decatur, and Farragut. 
They marched with Sherman, they 
charged with Sheridan, they con- 
quered with Thomas, they fought it 
out on his own line with Grant. But 
no soldier of my native state ever fell 
in battle on his own soil, or was 
buried in his dear native earth, unless 
the restless ocean cast his body on 
its narrow seacoast, or the loving 
care of parent, or brother, or child, 
restored to their sorrow and pride the 
corpse that had fallen a thousand 
miles from home. Nor could this 
always or often be done. Gentle- 
men, my own near kiusmen, for whom 
was named that poor boy who died 
the other day, was slaiu in defence 

of Minnesota against Indian mas- 
sacre, the only officer killed in the 
engagement, and he lies in that dis- 
tant land, one of the ten thousand 
witnesses to what New Hampshire 
has done for her sister states, — 

"And all for love, and nothing for reward." 

Do you now tell me that Maine will 
refuse the charity of her hospitals to 
the descendants of Anthony Brackett, 
who fell at Falmouth fighting against 
Indians? or that Minnesota will re- 
fuse it to the kinsmen of Leavitt, 
who died like his ancestor in a sim- 
ilar encounter? or that New York 
will refuse it to the state that made 
Saratoga a victory? or New Jersey 
to the children of Stark and Sullivan? 
or Virginia to the compatriots of 
Scammel, who fell in the trenches of 
Yorktown? Perhaps they may; but 
of this I am sure, that Massachusetts 
will never deny to New Hampshire 
the rights of brotherhood so long as 
that shaft of Bunker Hill rises 
towards heaven, or the gifts of Stark 
hang beside the weapons of Lexing- 
ton in vour hall of debate. 

By Y. B. Twitchell. 

Mrs. Mary R. P. Hatch, daugh- 
ter of Charles G. and Mary (Blake) 
Piatt, was born in Stratford, N. H., 
and her life as a farmer's daugh- 
ter and farmer's wife has been spent 
on intervale farms in the pictur- 
esque and fertile valley of the Con- 
necticut river. As a child she was 
quiet and sensitive, with, scholarly 

tastes, writiug little stories and po- 
ems before she was twelve years old. 
She attended the common district 
school until about fifteen years of 
age, and at that time entered into 
advanced classes in Lancaster acade- 
my, where she took high rank in 
mathematics, French, and rhetoric. 
Here it was that her ability as a 


Mrs. Mary 7?. P. Hatch. 

writer was first recognized. The 
weekly compositions, her contribu- 
tions to the lyceuui papers, and an 
occasional article in the county pa- 
pers were favorably commented upon, 
and her pen name of u Mabel Perry " 
was soon known to the readers of the 
Portland Transcript, Saturday Even- 
ing Post, Peterson's Magazine, and 
other periodicals'. 

At the close of her school life she 
married Antipas M. Hatch, and is 
the mother of two bright little boys. 

She has contributed several excel- 
lent poems, which have been widely 
copied, among them an 4i Ode to J. 
G. Blaine," which brought her a let- 
ter of thanks. 

Being a farmer's wife, and lining 
on a large farm, her writings have 
been her recreation, and she has ac- 
customed herself to write while chil- 
dren were chattering and playing 
about her during the few waiting mo- 
ments of domestic life. 

If she lays claim to auything, it is 
to versatility, being able to do some- 
thing in various departments of liter- 
ature ; for iustance, at the same time 
she was engaged in writing IC The 
Bank Tragedy," a biographical sketch 
for The Writer, and a series of dia- 
lect papers. 

It is a mystery to her acquaint- 
ances how much she accomplishes by 
her perseverence, contributing stories 
for the Transcript, Mountaineer, Fire- 
side Companion, Chicago Ledger, 
Frank Leslie 1 s Illustrated Newspa- 
per, Springfield Republican, Granite 
Monthly, The Writer, and several 
magazines. Among her most note- 
worthy stories are her " Upland Mys- 
tery" and tk The Bank Tragedy," both 
of which appeared in the Transcript, 

and gained for her many favorable 
comments from the American press, 
that of her " Upland Mystery " being 
afterwards put in book form, aud re- 
ceiving an immense sale. 

A portrait and sketch of Mrs. 
Hatch, with selections from her po- 
ems, is to appear in an early number 
of the new quarterly Magazine of Po- 
etry (Buffalo, N. Y.). Poems, with 
;a biographical note, may also be seen 
in New Hampshire Poets, published 
in 1883. 

Though sensational in form," Mrs. 
Hatch's books claim to have a pur- 
pose. "The Upland Mystery" 
taught that when a person becomes 
a murderer he arrays the whole world 
against him. The detective says, — 

" I have seen apparent impossibil- 
ities group themselves about a crime, 
and point toward it instead of from 
it. It fs a rendering of the old say- 
ing that ' murder will out.' Nature's 
(forces cast out evidence, the move- 
ment of a muscle betrays it, a foot 
S-s caught tripping that never tripped 
Ibefore, aud leaves a proof behind. I 
tell you, if I had the disposition to 
tcommit crime of this nature I should 
mot dare, from what I know of the im- 
possibility of eluding penalty, which is 
ai life for a life." 

In t; Quicksands " the key-note is 
simbition and other " sins which do 
so easily beset." In " The Bank 
Tragedy" it is inherited sin. Warren, 
ii/n his confession, is made to say, — 

' ; I am what I am through the force 
of inherited traits. If I might preach 
inn yonder pulpit I would say, ; See to 
iir that your deeds and thoughts are 
what they should be, for they will 
strike root somewhere. If not in 
yourself, then in the person of your 

Mrs. Mary R. P. Hatch. 


s*--*-- ~ 



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children or your children's children.' 
... I once heard an idiotic preacher 
say that the soul of every child was 
like a fair white sheet of paper, on 
which 3'ou could trace what characters 
you liked. I wanted to shout out a 
denial. I wanted to say that the pa- 
per was already written over, laced 
and interlaced, as ladies write their 
letters, by the thoughts and deeds of 
a million ancestors. The childhood 
and training of my brother and I were 
precisely the same ; but Joseph was 
honest and straight-forward, while I 
looked at everything from an oblique 

standpoint." On the other hand, 
Jessie says, — "True, he inherited 
the traits that worked his ruin ; but 
who is perfect? It was his part to 
root out his besetting sins and fly 
from temptation instead of playing 
with them as though they were toys 
instead of thunderbolts which might 
nt anytime strike him." 

We publish the above sketch and 
portrait from meagre facts gathered 
from an outside source, but would 
much rather have had her personal 
assistance had not her modesty of 
self-praise forbade it. 

176 The Old Man of the Mountax 

By Moody Currier. 

Thy home is on the mountain's brow, 

Where clouds hang thick, and tempests blow. 

Unnumbered years, with silent tread. 

Have passed above thy rocky head ; 

Whilst round these heights the beating storm 

Has worn, with rage, thy deathless form : 

And yet thou sit'st, unmoved, alone, 

Upon this ancient mountain home. 

Long as these towering peaks shall stand, 

So wondrous great, so nobly grand, 

Serene, on high, that face of thine, 

Shall mock the wasting hand of time, 

"Whilst all that live shall pass away, 

Aud all the tribes of earth decay. 

Old Man ! thy face of rock sublime 

Looks back, through years, to ancient time, 

When first the forming hanct 'divine 

Reared up this rocky home of thine. 

And from the lowest depths of earth 

These mountain forms had first their birth; 

When on these shaggy heights imprest, 

Thy changeless form was doomed to rest. 

Then tell me, man of siilent tongue, 
How first the heavens and earth begun ; 
If all this bright and shining frame, 
With all these worlds, from nothing came ; 
If all these starry orbs of light, 
That glitter on the robers of night, 
And fill creation's vast expanse. 
Began at once their mystic dance ; 
Or, if from mists that dimly shine, 
Worlds spring to light by power divine, 
Till all the radiant fiekteafar 
Shall beam with light of sun and star. 
And tell me where, in depths profound, 
The primal germs of earth were found, 
Which, rising up from realms of death, 
Instinct with life and vital breath, 
Have formed this wondrous orb we see 
Of hill and plain and wjiste of sea. 
Where busy life, with forming power, 
Unfolds itself in plant and flower, 
And upward still, with widening plan, 
Kindles the pulse of beast and man. 
And tell me whence, from earth or heaven, 
That living spark to man was given, 
Which shines in God's eternal day, 
When all things else shall pass away. 





An Old-time. Story. 

By Mary R. P. Hatch. 

I vras born in Pomfret, Connect- 
icut, and lived there until I was four- 
teen in a little yellow house, lighted 
by scores of tiny windows. I mind 
me how they twinkled when the sun 
shone in. Mother used to fret some- 
times because father did not fix up 
the house, but he would say that 
'* Shoemakers' children went bare- 
footed, and a carpenter's family 
should not expect to live in a fine 
house." Yes. father was a house 
carpenter, but the neighbors were 
'most all farmers. 

Major Putnam (he was a colonel, 
but we always called him major) 
lived next to us on a large farm, and 
he and father were great cronies. 
We used often to sit of an evening, 
both families, and hear the major 
tell stories of the French and Indian 
war. He was a good officer, and very 
brave I've heard say. Once he was 
taken captive by the Indians, and 
tortured till he was almost dead, and 
afterwards would have been killed by 
a French officer, only the gun missed 

Often after I went to bed I would 
lie awake and think I could hear the 
yell of the savages coming to tom- 
ahawk us, though it was years since 
they had been troublesome ; only you 
see with hearing so many of the 
major's stories I got nervous. 

He told Hugh and me once how he 
shot an old wolf in a cave, that had 
killed a great many sheep and goats — 
seventy of them, I believe. He said 


it was hard telling which was the 
fiercest, a wolf at bay or an Indiau 
on the war-path. 

Major Putnam was a warm-hearted 
man, but very impulsive, and he often 
did and said things that shocked our 
good old Parson Stillwater, and others 
too. He had a son Schuyler, named 
after his old friend Peter Schuyler, 
an officer in the French and Indian 
war. One Sabbath day we were 
sitting in the meeting-house, listen- 
ing to Parson Stillwater. There was 
a sounding-board up behind him that 
shook every time he thumped the 
desk to wake up old Deacon Ridley. 
I was just wonderiug whether if it 
fell down it would hurt the minister 
much, when, all at once Major Put- 
nam started up as if shot, and he 
cried, — 

■'Run, Schuyler, run like the devil, 
the cows are in the corn." 1 

The major had a nice piece of corn 
right in sight of the meeting-house, 
and the cows had broken in and were 
treading and eating it up. I daresay 
he forgot that he was in meeting. 

All the schooling I ever had I got 
in Pomfret. I learned reading and 
writing, how to reckon accounts, and 
how to sew ; besides, of course, I 
learned the church catechism. I 
never liked books over much, so that 
what I did not learn never troubled 
me as much as what I did. But I 
could hunt and trap and fish and 
snare partridges as well ' as Hugh, 
and it was a deal more to my liking, 

i 7 3 

Ensign jYabbv. 

In the year seventeen hundred and 
seventy-three we moved to Charles- 
town, and lived in a house near the 
bridge. Work was scarce in Pom- 
fret and times hard, so mother's re- 
lation wrote to father to come to 
Boston. He found plenty of work, 
and took a number of apprentices. 
They were bound till they were 
twenty-one to learn the trade, and 
were to have their board and a suit 
of clothes once a year. 

We had rich connections in Boston 
who took considerable notice of us, 
so that I got quite set up, and began 
to look down on father's calling, and 
I would hardly speak to a 'preutice. 

Mother often chid me for my pride, 
but I liked best what father once said 
to me, and I minded it: tw Nabby, 
don't make yourself too cheap." I 
thought myself a deal of consequence 
in those days. 

But among all the apprentices there 
was not a really clever one, unless it 
might be Peleg Jones. He was well 
looking enough, but he never looked 
one square in the face as an honest 
man should, and I disliked him while 
I only looked down upon the others. 
So, you see, it vexed instead of 
pleasing me when one day he told me 
my eyes were bright. "The better 
to watch you, Peleg Jones, " I 
answered, something as did the wolf 
to little Red Riding Hood; but he 
took it as a compliment. 

Roger was different. He came to 
live with us about this time. I mind 
me how I treated him the first time 
I saw him. Father was going over 
to Boston to sign the indentures with 
old Mr. Hamstead, and mother and I 
went along to make some calls. I 
had on a new quilted petticoat with a 

tunic over it, a yellow mantle, and a 
headgear that had on it three ostrich 
feathers, that nodded gaily every 
time I stepped in my high-heeled 
shoes. Father was doing well now 
as need be, and I had ou my best that 
day, for we were to call on some 
grand people. I was an only daugh- 
ter too, and that accounts some for 
my fine clothes. Ah, I mind me the 
day, the yellow sunlight so like my 
mantle, and the breeze that played 
with my curls and feathers. 

It was near sundown when father 
and Roger joined us, and we all 
walked home together. I looked 
sideways at the young man and 
thought he would be handsome if he 
were not a 'prentice, and he carried 
himself like an English soldier. 

When we came to the bridge, says 
father to Roger, — 

"Give your arm to Nabby, lad," 
and he walked on with mother. 

How vexed I was to be told to 
walk with a 'prentice ! He stepped 
forward and politely offered his arm, 
but I gave him one look as though it 
was the first time I had seen him. 

••Lor', pa." said I, "where did 
you pick him up?" and took father's 
other arm and left the young man to 
follow. I looked over my shoulder 
to see how he took it. aud he was 
smiling to himself. That vexed me 
the more. 

Comiug from the country made me 
love the town very much, and I loved 
to ramble about. Often of a Sabbath 
afternoon, or whenever father had 
time, he took us to the Common, and 
we would sit under the shadow of the 
great elm, and watch the children 
frolicking on the grass, the sweet- 
hearts walking bv themselves, seeinG: 

Ensign JVabby. 


no one, and the older people come 
from church, some of them with 
prayer-books and sprigs of fennel 
still in their hands. I loved to visit 
the shops aud the market-places. One 
day a curious thing happened. I 
went into Henry Knox's book store 
to buy a book of poems, written by a 
colored girl, Phillis Wheatley. Every- 
one was reading it. 

Henry Knox was a fine, handsome 
man, and he spoke to me pleasantly. 
I had seen him at my aunt's. There 
were some grand looking Frenchmen 
talking in their language. I listened 
a moment, for I knew French a little 
(two of our 'prentices were French), 
when one of them said to me, — 

"Pardounez moi, mademoiselle, mais 
parlez vous Francaise ? " 

"Oui, monsieur," said I. 

They looked frightened at that, 
and called Mr. Knox to them, aud 
Mr. Knox begged me to say nothing 
of what I had heard. I promised to 
be secret, as well I might, for it was 
little I understood to tell, but I was 
at that age when I loved power, and 
it pleased me to have them think I 
knew their secret. I saw the one 
that spoke to me afterwards, and he 
placed his finger on his lips as he 
bowed, in token of silence. It was 
just before the revolt of the colonies, 
and I never saw him again for a year 
or two, and then he wore the uniform 
of a Continental oltjcer. 

But I saw Mr. Knox quite often. 
He married about this time Miss 
Lucy Flucker, the daughter of the 
Secretary of the Provinces. Her 
father was set against the match, 
and did not forgive her for a long 
time. Henry Knox was afterwards 
General Knox of the Revolution. 

We used to take the Boston Post, 
and I used to go to the Heart aud 
Crown in Cornhill after it every 
week. The Fleets were nice men, 
and in time I came to know the 
family well, and to run in and romp 
with the children, and hear Mrs. 
Goose, their grandmother, tell them 
riddles and songs. They were sweet 
children, and she was a dear old 
lady. She would say rhymes for 
hours : 

" Dickery, dickery dock, 
The mou=e ran up the clock"— 


"Hey, diddle diddle, 

The cat 's in the fiddle, 
The cow jumped over the moon"— 

and all such nonsense that chil- 
dren love so well. I said them to 
my children afterwards, and many a 
mother has since, for Mr. Thomas 
Fleet made them into a book, all the 
rhymes she made up aud remembered 
hearing in England, and printed it. 
He called it Mother Goose's Melo- 

Father was a Whig ever after the 
landing of the taxed tea in Boston. 
Before that he was loyal to the king, 
and spoke well of parliament. I 
well remember the day father brought 
home the news. It was early, and 
supper was not ready. 

" There's father coming," says I 
to mother. 

" Make haste, then," says mother, 
"and lay the table. He will think 
supper is most ready." 

So I did, and she got on the tea to 
steep just as he came in. He did 
not seem to see the table, but he 
looked hard at the urn dancing on 
the hob. 

"Nancy," said he, "how much 
tea have vou 20t?" 

i So 

Ensign Nobby, 

" Only a teaspoonfnl," said she. 

"Tut! in the house, I mean." 

"A quarter of a chest," says 
mother. She looked surprised at 
father, he seemed so strange. 

He brought his fist down on the 
table so that the spoons rattled in 
the bowls. 

14 That quarter of a chest must 
last till England owns us for country- 
men instead of slaves." 

"What do you mean?" asked 
mother. U A quarter of a chest will 
last but so long, whatever England 
owns us for." 

Mother loved her tea, and father 
knew it. 

"Steep it for yourself and Parson 
Quitman when he comes, but as for 
Nabby and me and the lads, we 
will go without, but I will make it up 
to the lads in shillings." 

And then he told us of the resolu- 
tions that had been made not to buy 
or use any of the taxed tea; and, 
says father, ; * I'm with them heart 
and soul, and so are Armstrong and 
Stephens and Ridley." 

" Ridley !" spoke up mother, " and 
they have only a bit of tea in the 
house. I heard Patience say so yes- 
terday, and Patience is nothing with- 
out her tea." 

" And nothing with it either," 
spoke up father, " nor any other 
woman that loves tea better than 

"It's a pity the tax couldn't 'a 
been on something else," said mother 
— "snuff, tobacco, or brandy." 

"My dear Nancy," said father, 
takiug mother's hand, "parliament 
has thought to show its wisdom by 
levying a tax on an article so dear to 
women. It thinks women have no 

patriotism ; that they will have their 
tea though men refuse to buy it. I 
hope our countrywomen will show 
parliament its mistake, and help to 
make this country of ours honored 
and respected by refusing to use the 
accursed stuff; for this is a crisis, 
Nancy, which we must heed, or forge 
our chains anew." 

I felt proud of father, and nodded 
to my brother Hugh. He jumped up 
and went and stood by father. 

" I'm with you heart and hand," 
said he ; and Roger shook his hand 
too as he said, ,k I want no shillings, 
Master Dunton, for my tea." 

Mother had been looking sober for 
a long time. At last she broke out — 

" Sage and sassafras ! " 

I looked at father, and he burst 
into a hearty laugh. 

"Yes, yes, Nancy, sage and sas- 
safras do make good tea. I've heard 
my mother say so." 

li I don't think Patience Ridley 
would use it, but she can have our 
tea," said mother as she left the 

"Bless her!" said father, "she is 
the kind of woman that's to show 
what the country is made of." 

Then we all sat down to supper. 
Father and mother had rye cakes and 
dried beef, but we younger ones ate 
mush and milk. Father had a mug 
of beer, and mother drank her tea, 
but in a queer way, trying to make it 
seem that she did not like it. 

Peleg Jones looked as if he thought 
it a great ado about nothing, but 
Roger looked almost as stern as 
father. I thought everything father 
did was right, and so from that time 
I liked Roger, and asked little favors 
of him about mv work, and he often 


E?isign JVabby 


brought coe a rose, and sometimes 
walked with us ou tiie Common. 
When he told me my eves were bright, 
I smiled a little and blushed, and 
then he told me my face was like a 
rose. At that I said smartly, — ''That 
will do. Master Roger, for once." 

The evening of the day we heard 
the news about the tea, father and 
Hugh and Roger were out till morn- 
ing a'most AVhen T swept up the 
floor where their boots had set, I 
took up a good half cup of Bohea 
tea, and put it away and kept it many 
a long year, for I knew how it got 
there when the news came out that a 
shipload of tea was thrown overboard 
that night in Boston Harbor. 

Mother made a tea-party that 
afternoon, and asked in the womeu 
of the neighborhood. They talked 
over the tea question, and most of 
them declared they would not taste 
another cup of tea till the tax was 
lifted. Relief Wadsworth said if she 
did she hoped it would choice her. 
But Patience Ridley spoke up, and 
says she, — 

" I won't give up my tea for no 
man, and so I told Ebenezer, country 
nor no country, king nor parlia- 

k * So I thought," said mother, "and 
we have a quarter of a chest that 
you may have. Patience. Hugh shall 
carry it over for you, and then it 
cannot be .said that the wife of 
Ebenezer Ridley used tea that bore 
the stamp of slavery." 

Patience looked a little vexed, but 
she took the tea for all that, and 
sage and sassafras was drank at our 
house for many a month, even by 
Pardon Quitman. Good old man ! 
His prayers were just as long and 

fervent when he came, and he argued 
ou predestination with father just as 
earnestly ; but he did not come quite 
so often, while he took tea oftener 
with Patience Ridley till mother's 
chest of tea was gone. 

Speaking of him reminds me of 
something that happened to Hugh a 
year or two before. 

Father had sent down to him from 
Pomfret every year a haunch of ven- 
ison, and oftentimes a lamb and some 
poultry, — it was cheaper so, — and 
when he did he always sent a part of 
it to Parson Quitman. Hugh always 
carried it, and sometimes the minis- 
ter forgot to thank him for fetching 
it. One day he took to the house a 
quarter of mutton. 

" Father sends his duty to you and 
this piece of mutton,' 5 said Hugh, 
without taking off his hat or making 
a bow. 

"My lad," said the minister, "I 
will teach you how to make a present. 
Sit you in my arm chair, and I will 
come in with the mutton." 

So he takes the mutton and goes 
out. Presently there is a rap at the 

"Come iu," says Hugh. 

He came in, took off his hat and 
made a low bow. 

" Mr. Quitman," said he, " my 
father sends you his respectful duty, 
and begs you to accept this piece of 

%k Thank you, my lad, for bringing 
it, and your father for sending it," 
said Hugh. 

The minister laughed at the jest, 
and asked Hugh's pardon for his im- 
politeness, and Hugh was as fond of 
him after that as need be. 

[to be continued.] 


Sheffard Ho mans 


There is no man for whom the life 
underwriters of this country have a 
kindlier feeling, greater respect, or 
higher regard than for Sheppard Ho- 
maus, the distinguished mathema- 
tician and eminent actuary, who, as 
president of the Provident Savings 
Life, has originated, formulated, and 
popularized the now celebrated re- 
newable term assurance. 

As an actuary (and it is as such, 
that we know him best) he has made 
all life insurance and all policy-hold- 
ers, past, present, and prospective, 
his debtors. His labors in this direc- 
tion have been such as would have 
overwhelmed one possessed of less 
energy, skill, and perseverance. As 
an astronomer and an engineer he is 
also well kuowu. He was yet a stu- 
dent at Harvard University when he 
was commissioned by the government 
to assume charge of an astronomical 
expedition to England, the object 
being to accurately determine the 
longitude of the Cambridge observa- 
tory, as reckoned in that country. 
His thoroughness and efficiency in 
this important work resulted in his 
appointment as an officer on the 
Coast Survey, after which he served 
as astronomer on several exploring 
expeditions to the territories. 

In 1855, and while still engaged 
with the explorers, he was called to 
the actuaryship of the Mutual Life 
of New York, the position then made 
vacant by the death of Professor 
Gill. Unquestionably the eminence 
gained and kept by this great com- 
pany was due in no small measure to 
the intelligence, farsightedness, and 

industry of Mr. Homans. When he 
assumed charge, American companies 
were largely governed by the Eng- 
lish tables of mortality. He, how- 
ever, at once entered upon an inves- 
tigation of the laws of American life, 
the immediate result being the mor- 
tality experience of the Mutual Life, 
published in 1859. Next came the 
American Experience Table of Mor- 
tality, which met with such general 
favor as to render its author famous, 
and after that appeared Homans's 
Contribution Formula, which became 
so well known that it needs no en- 
dorsement here. 

As a representative of the Mutual 
and of American life insurance at 
large, he was twice sent to Europe. 
4i The last of these trips," said a con- 
temporary, several years since, t% was 
undertaken in 18C0, for the especial 
purpose of being present at the statis- 
tical congress assembled at the Hague. 
The reception then extended to him, 
though undemonstrative in its char- 
acter, gave full assurance of the ap- 
preciation in which his labors in the 
cause of life insurance were held. 
The interchange of his ideas with 
those of leading European actuaries 
was another step towards breaking 
down that barrier of self-sufliciency 
which leads every nation to regard 
its own policy as the best, and was 
another step, too. in openiug up the 
way for life insurance on either side 
of the water to measure its defects, 
and proflt by the experience gained 
on the other." 

It was in 1871, we think, that Mr. 
Homans retired from the active act- 

Shcppard Ho mans. 


uaryship of the Mutual Life, contin- 
uing as consulting actuary for that 
company, and for as many others as 
desired his services — and they were 
so many that he was constantly en- 

In 1S75 he organized the Provi- 
dent Savings Life Assurance Society 
of New York, became its president, 
and introduced the renewable term 
assurance, hereinbefore mentioned. 
The plan (not the company, or its 
guiding spirit) was criticised at the 
outset, but figures are in evidence 
that it has since become very popu- 
lar, and is evidently growing in favor 
every day, the decided progress real- 
ized in 18SS having already received 
attention in these columns. Briefly 
stated, term assurance, being written 
for a short time under a renewable 
policy, " gives the maximum amount 

of protection for the premium paid." 
thus affording, as the company puts 
it, il the maximum of security and 
the minimum of cost." The Provi- 
dent Savings has well established 
agencies throughout the country, the 
agents being conspicuous for their 

Probably no man in the business 
bas a larger or more intimate personal 
acquaintance among the people. Par- 
ticularly in the West is he well known, 
and withal so favorably that many 
are the receptions, banquets, and 
private dinners which our hospitable 
Western folks have, from time to 
time, given in his honor. Of him 
personally it has been written, — " He 
is genial and cultivated in his ad- 
dress, and by the absence of all os- 
tentation exhibits the surest marks of 
his scholarly attainments." — Argus, 


In years past we have called the 
attention of our readers to Boar's 
Head and to Col. S. H. Dumas' 
famous hotel, located on that cel- 
ebrated headland. The coming sum- 
mer bids fair to be hot and dusty in 
inland cities, and in looking about for 
a seaside resort none will be found 
combining more attractions than 
Boar's Head hotel. To the many old 
patrons of the house it is only neces- 
sary to state that the hotel coutinues 
under Col. Dumas' management. To 
strangers we would say that the whole 

Atlantic coast offers no fairer site for 
a hotel than this famous promontory. 
Imagine a grassy plateau, arly one 
hundred feet above the ocean, extend- 
ing out into the sea so far that the 
breakers are visible from every room. 
The hotel, with over one hundred 
rooms, is homelike and attractive. 
Surf bathing is safe, as there is no 
undertow. The drives in the town of 
Hampton are very pleasant. 

Write early to secure accommoda- 
tions. The address is Hampton, N. 
H. Col.^S. H. Dumas, proprietor. 

i8 4 

Concord Business Houses, 


The Tramp at Home, by Lee Meri- 
wether, a 12mo vol. of 296 pages, 
published by Harper & Brothers, is 
full of all kinds of information, polit- 
ical essays, curious deductions, and 
yet is of much interest to the general 
reader. It is a study from life of 
the laboring classes of the United 

Our English, by Adams Sherman 
Hill, Boylston Professor of Rhetoric 
and Oratory in Harvard University, is 
a 12mo vol. of 245 pages, published 
by Harper & Brothers. It contains 
five papers, which originally appeared 
in Harper's Magazine. Scribncrs, and 
in the Christian Register. No scholar 
can read this book without benefit. 
Its hints would be of service to every 
writer. Every teacher should be fa- 
miliar with it. 

The Mouse-Trap, and Other 

Farces ; The Garroters, Five O'Clock 
Tea, and A Likely Story ; by W". D. 
Howells, published by Harper & 
Brothers, New York, is a 12mo vol- 
ume of 184 pages. 

These short sketches by Mr. How- 
ells are charming. Coming from the 
pen of the leading American novelist, 
the book will be eagerly welcomed. 

Fairy Tales in Prose and Verse. 
Selected from early and recent litera- 
ture. Edited by William J. Rolfe. 
Forms one of the series of English 
classics for school reading published 
by Harper & Brothers, New York. 
The volume is a 12mo of 18S pages, 
and contains selections from the writ- 
ings of MissMuloch, Lord Tennysou, 
T. Hood, Shakespeare, Buchanan, 
Lover, and several other writers. It 
is interesting reading for the home as 
well as for the school-room. 



The loaning of Eastern money to 
develop the resources of the great 
"West has been a leading factor in 
the growth and prosperity of the 
agricultural regions in the valley of 
the Mississippi, and on the rolling 
prairies which extend towards the 
Rocky Mountains. One of the first 
firms in the field was that of Crippen, 
Lawrence & Co., of which Henry J. 
Crippen is the active representative 
in the East. For seventeen years 
they have been forwarding the accu- 
mulations of Eastern capital to build 

up Western cities and improve West- 
ern farms, sending out over ten mill- 
ions of dollars ; and they have the 
proud record of never having lost a 
dollar of their investments. Interest 
and principal have invariably been 
paid the day on which due. Such 
leading and conservative financiers 
as Hon. John Kimball, Samuel S. 
Kimball, and William M. Chase are 
trustees for the bond-holders. 

For nine years cashier of the State 
Capital Bank, Mr. Crippen resigned 
that position in 1881 to give his 
whole time to the care of the great 

Co n co rd B u sin ess Ho uses . 


wealth entrusted to him for invest- 

Mr. Crippen is thoroughly reliable, 
safe, and conservative, possessing 
excellent business qualities, good 
judgment, and sound common-sense. 
In business matters he takes broad, 
comprehensive views, while his prac- 
tical acquaintance with banking is of 
the greatest assistance to him. 

Their Debenture Bonds are secured 
by first mortgages ou productive real 
estate, worth at least three times the 
amount loaned, deposited with trus- 
tees, and the mortgages are accepted 
only after the most careful examina- 
tion and approval. 


The dry goods merchants of Con- 
cord have long had an enviable repu- 
tation among the ladies of New 
Hampshire for the discriminating 
judgment which they exercise in the 
selection of their stock. Of no firm 
in Concord is this more universally 
true than that of Harry I). Hammond 
& Co. From long experience they 
are familiar with the wants, demands. 
and tastes of the ladies of the state, 
and scrupulously and judiciously en- 
deavor to satisfy all requirements. 
both as to quality and price. They 
have a large and choice selection 
of all kinds of dry goods, buying 
for cash from first hands,, and the 
casual customer as well as their 
regular patrons may depend implicitly 
upon representations made by the 
firm. A long and honorable business 
career recommends them to the con- 
fidence of the community. They do 
not indulge in glaring advertisements 
offering to give one dollar's worth of 
goods for fifty cents. They have 
ou their shelves and counters the 

latest productions of the most famous 
manufacturers, expect to make a 
small and fair profit for handling the 
goods, and give their patrons the 
advantage of their judgment and 
familiarity with the business. One 
feature of this firm is their large 
stock of dress goods, which is always 
complete at all seasons of the year. 
Also they have manufactured for 
them, by one of the largest and best 
New York houses, all the garments 
which they carry, both spring and 
fall, and they attribute their large 
sales to being able to offer goods 
from this house that has the reputa- 
tion of manufacturing the best styles 
and qualities. 

We cannot do this firm justice in 
the short space we have, but we 
cheerfully say, to any and all who 
are in want of goods in their line, 
that no one can treat them better 
in style, quality, and price. Their 
gentlemanly treatment to all has 
placed them foremost in our city. 


The firm of J. M. Stewart & Sons, 
dealers in furniture, carpets, curtains, 
crockery, glass-ware, wall-paper, and 
house furnishing goods, at 126 North 
Main street, occupying the basement 
and three stories of what was for- 
merly three large stores in the block 
on Main street facing the state-house, 
besides a large store-house in the 
rear in the Dow block. The two 
stores to the south have been con- 
verted into one by the removal of the 
partition, and there are displayed 
some of the richest and choicest fur- 
niture, beautiful curtains, and dainty 
china. The north store connected is 
devoted to carpets, a large hall in the 
rear affordimz a most convenient 

1 86 


Concord Business Houses, 

place for their display. An elevator 
— the only passenger elevator in Con- 
cord — will carry the visitor to the 
two upper stories where are stored a 
great variety of all kiuds of furni- 

The firm consists of Jonathan M. 
Stewart, and his two sons, Arthur 
C. and Elmer M. Stewart. The 
senior is a native of Allenstown, 
sixty-two years of age. After ten 
years' experience in -loston he went 
into business in Andover. He settled 
in Concord in 1863. Tbe sons were 
born in Andover, and are young men 
of good business ability, and to their 
energy is largely due the growth and 
development of the business. 

The father has been in business on 
the street since 1880, when the pres- 
ent firm was organized. The mem- 
bers of this firm are conscientious and 
honorable gentlemen, who by their 
enterprise, industry, and fair dealing, 
have from a small beginning built up 
a very large business. From their 
large stock they can furnish the hum- 
ble cottage or the largest mausion, 
the way-side inn or the monster 
hotel ; and their patrons, oue and all, 
may depend on their representations. 
Every stranger visiting Concord 
should surely give their establishment 
a call before leaving the city. Every 
one is sure of a cordial and polite 
welcome, and courteous treatment. 
They especially desire that their stock 
of goods may be seen and the prices 


The firm of Richardson & Adams 

needs no introduction to the people 
of Concord and immediate vicinity. 
The friends of the firm are scattered 
over New Hampshire. To those who 
are not acquainted with Messrs. 
Richardson and Adams we would 
cordially recommend them as a firm 
of the highest standing in the busi- 
ness circles of Concord, conspicuous 
for their fair and honorable dealing, 
noted for their enterprise, and re- 
spected by all. 

The senior member of the firm, 
Mr. Loren S. Richardson, was born 
in Waitsfield, Vt., August 10, 1843, 
received a business education, served 
from 1863 to the close of the war in 
the Second Regiment United States 
Sharp Shooters kuown as Berdan's, 
was shot through the body at Cold 
Harbor, settled in Concord soon after 
tthe close of the war, and has been 
conducting a successful business ever 
since 1867. lie is urged by his friends 
for the office of Pension agent at Con- 
cord, and has a host of well-wishers. 

The junior member of the firm, 
Henry O. Adams, is also a native of 
Vermont, hailing from St. Albans. 
He was born August 15, 1854. The 
partnership was formed in 1878. 

The firm have one of the largest, 
most convenient, and most attractive 
stores to be found outside of the me- 
tropolis. They carry a very large 
sad full stock, noted in their adver- 
tisement, and their rule is not to 
make any misrepresentations to their 
customers. For a dollar expended 
in their store one is sure to obtain the 
full value of his monev. 

"u ~ -, } r l M \ fir j .-- 




^i^@ ■•":-;. - $m*^m 

The most delightful Seaside ftcscrt on the Atlantic toast 

-Opens June 46, 4889.. 
&ery facility for jBafag, Tiding, Sailing, T{idina, etc 

Telegraph and Telephone in l/je ftousc. Modern Honvenu 

Six Trains <Daily each wav. 


rop r. 



\ T 







With special pride we call attention to our superb collection of 


selected with the greatest care, and which we are now showing 
for the Spring and Summer season. 

The very best productions of the following manufacturers of world-wide 

reputation are now open in our Custom Department: 
SCHNABEL BROS., Huckeswagen. 

JOHN ERCKENS'S SONS, Aix-ia-Chapelle. 
' Wir J> CKOMBIE & SONS, Aberdeen, Scotland 

B. VICKERMAN & SONS, Hudd rsfield. 

J. T. CLAY & SOI -trick, England. 

CHAS. BOCKHACKER, Huckeswagen. 

F. & II. World Renowned Fabrics, &c, &c. 

With largely increased facilities in our Custom Department, we are en- 
abled to offer advantages to gentlemen who appreciate the highest grade of 
manufacturing skill, unequalled in Boston. 

° Ur Cust0ra De Partment is , the largest branches of our business 

and we solicit a careful ex ,, lete stock for the gpri 

and Bummer season. 

Sam P ,ea sent ' "Ponapplic any address, with estimates of costs, 

garments of every description. 



Cor Washington and Boylston Streets, 

L XU- 




• - 


t ' ' 


IWI *\\ ::>fc1rW-^JUl |i raM-H 

... .,- - , 


. . . . 

fc&Qfeb io HferurF, I?i % enb i rogrpss. 


Gen. Albert S. Twitchet.l, ...... 

Penacook in* the War for the Union — John C. Linehan. 

A Picture— Helen Mar Bean, . 

Rev Israel Evans — George L. Porter. 

The Bailey Family, 

The Shaw Family, .... 

In The Night — Laura Garland Ca 

Ensign Nabby (Concluded)— Mary R. P. I 

'The Girl Soldiers, 

Loneliness — Laura Garland C 

My Lord Bangs — By the author of Widow Wys< 

John Park's Ride — C. Jennie Swain, 

The History of New Hampshire, 


JOH?{ ?{. "fcCLINTOCK. 
btican \ Concord, |1. JO 


■ - . . . • 




2 '7 


HAl I k AM^ 

are the leading 

- " . • : I :' . 

in Concord, N. H. 
They sell Men's, Boys', and Children's 


They can show you the ILargest and Best Selected 
STOCK in New Hampshire. 

They will give you more for your money than any 
other CLOTHING HOUSE in the state. 

They can show you the Handsomest Line of 


You ever saw. They carry tlie Largest Line of all the 


to be found in tin- market. You can save Money, and wear 
the best of Clothing, if you remember these 
• facts as above stated, and visit 



THE '•" 


'Devoted to Literature, 'Biography, History, and State Progress. 

Vol. II 

Vol. XII. 

(New Series.) 

JULY, I T ™ 
AUGUST, \ Ib8 9- 

Nos. 7, 8, 


The Androscoggin river has its 
source in the lakes amid tiie high- 
lauds of western Maine. The waters, 
in their descent to the ocean, cross 
the state line and enter northern 
New Hampshire, go coursing and 
rushing through wild gorges, deep 
valleys, and ancient forests, through 
Errol, Duminer, Milan, Berlin, Gor- 
ham, and Shelburne, when they again 
flow into Maine, through Gilead, 
Bethel, and Oxford county, on their 
way to join the Kennebec and the sea. 

G or ham, a township embracing lof- 
ty mountains, precipitous cliffs, dense 
woods, and the most varied scenery, 
has its village spread out on the in- 
tervale of the Androscoggin valley, 
amid a perfect amphitheatre of hills 
and mountains. The Grand Trunk 
Railway connects the valley with the 
rest of the world. The village is the 
home of the sprightly Mountaineer, 
whose fame has gone beyond the town- 
ship and county, and even the state. 

One of the leading citizens of this 
beautiful village is Gen. Albert S. 
Twitchell, sou of Joseph A. and 
Oriuda L. Twitchell, who was born 
in Bethel, Maine, September 1G, 
IS 10. He was prepared for col- 
lege at Gould's academy, Bethel, 

before he was 16, under the instruc- 
tion of that celebrated educator, Dr. 
N. T. True. He then engaged in 
teaehiug, and for four years was an 
extremely popular and successful 
instructor. Choosing the law as his 
business in life, he became a student 
in the office of S. F. Gibson, at Beth- 
el. In the spring of 1863 he was ap- 
pointed enrolling officer of those sub- 
ject to draft in the district contain- 
ing Bethel ; and after concluding the 
duties of that office, enlisted, in De- 
cember, 1863, in the 7th Maine Light 
Battery. "When the battery was or- 
ganized he was made quartermaster- 
sergeant, and held this position until 
detailed, in February, 1865, by Gen. 
Grant, for duty at City Point, Va., 
where he remained until after the 
close of the war, rejoining his battery 
at Augusta, Maine, on the day of its 
muster out, June 21, 1865. 

He returned to Maine and his law 
studies, was admitted to practice in 
the court of Maine, in December, 
1865, and the next year, in Novem- 
ber, was admitted to practice at the 
New Hampshire bar. He removed to 
Gorham, opened an office, and has 
since been actively engaged in prac- 
tice. He is an energetic, busy, hon- 

1 88 

Gen. Albert S. TzvitchelL 

orable lawyer : his standard of pro- 
fessional morality is high, and he has 
a large clientage. He has been much 
in official positions. In 1872, when 
but 32 years of age, he was elected 
by the Republicans railroad commis- 
sioner of New Hampshire, and held 
the office three years. In 1S75 and 
1876 he was colonel on the staff of 
Gov. P. C. Cheney. In September, 
1877, he was appointed post-master of 
Gorham, and held the. office nearly 
nine years, resigning in July, 18SG. 
He has taken great interest in the 
G. A. R., has served two years as 
judge-advocate of the New Hamp- 
shire department of this organization, 
two years upon the council of admin- 
istration, and was a delegate to the 
national encampment at Denver, Col., 
in 1885. He was elected president of 
the New Hampshire Veterans' Asso- 
ciation at their annual reunion in Au- 
gust, 1886, and was unanimously re- 
elected in August, 1887. In June, 
1887, lie was elected commissary- 
general of the state by the New 
Hampshire legislature, and as such 
held the rank of general on Gov. 
Sawyer's staff. 

Gen. Twitch ell has always taken a 
high position in favor of everything 
tending to the elevation and better- 
ment of mankind, and has beeu a 
zealous temperance worker. He was 
a delegate from the New Hampshire 
Grand Lodge of I. O. G. T. to the 
R. AY. Grand Lodge of the World, 
which met at Saratoga in May, 1887. 
He is a member of Gorham Lodge 
F. A. M., of which he has been Mas- 
ter, and of Glen Lodge I. O. 0. F., 
of which he has been the Noble 
Grand. He is also a member of 
Bramhall Lodge K. of P., of Port- 
land, Me. He has enthusiastically 

aided in the development of the 
material interests of Gorham. He 
erected the fine block that bears his 
name, and in many ways has labored 
to build up the financial and moral 
prosperity of the town, and, perhaps 
more than any other citizen of the 
place, is interested in the educational, 
brotherhood, and literary interests of 
the community. He is generous to a 
fault, and responds liberally to all 
appeals for help. 

He married, April 7, 1869, Emma A., 
daughter of Parker Howland. They 
had Harold P., who died at the age of 
8 years, and Rita May, their only 
child now living, born May 16, 1889. 

A Republican in politics, General 
Twitchell has always been a zealous 
worker in the party, never faltering 
in his duty, and spending freely of 
his means in the support of its prin- 
ciples. As chairman of the county 
convention through several campaigns 
he has done excellent service, always 
working against great odds in the 
Democratic section in which he lives, 
but steadily reducing their majority 
until the county has become so close 
as to be debatable ground. He has 
always run ahead of the party ticket 
when nominated for any office, and 
at the last Republican convention se- 
cured the support of the delegates 
from his county as the candidate for 
governor, a positiou, however, which 
he does not seek. As a veteran he is 
very popular, not only at home but 
throughout the state, having alwavs 
been true to them in all their inter- 
ests, and being one with them in all 
their associations. He is now receiv- 
ing their strong support as their can- 
didate for naval officer at the port of 
Boston, to which he aspires, and 
which he would ably fill. 



At a meeting of the Post, in Octo- 
ber, 1888, I was requested to write a 
paper on the men who went from 
Penacook, — or, as it was known in 
1861, Fisherville,— to the War of the 
Rebellion, and who lost their lives in 
battle, or from the effects of wounds 
or disease. 

The object of the Post in making 
this request was two-fold. — (1) to pre- 
serve from oblivion the memory of 
those whose loss brought honor and 
mourning to our community, and (2) 
to close the observance of Memorial 
Day in a manner befitting the sacred- 
ness of such an occasion. 

This could not help being a sad duty 
for me, as it recalled to remembrance 
the features of many with whom I was 
associated in the school-room, mill, 
or shop ; but it was also a pleasure, iu 
a certain sense, as I was thus enabled 
to pay this tribute to their patriotism. 

When the news of the attack on 
Sumter, in April, 1861, reached Pen- 
acook, quickly followed by the attack 
in Baltimore of the secession mob oa 
the 6th Massachusetts, the feeling in 
our village was similar to that in all 
manufacturing communities. The 
most intense loyalty to the Union 
manifested itself, first, in the hanging 
out of the stars and stripes, and 
again, when the government called for 
troops, in being among the first to 
furnish volunteers. 

At that time the Washington House 
was kept by Major J. S. Durgin. He 
had two sons at work in Boston. The 

youngest, Hiram, was well known to 
the old residents as a stout, good- 
natured boy, full of life, and a great 
lover of the sports common in those 
days, especially the old-fashioned 
game of base-ball as it was played 
then. He enlisted when the first 
three-months regiment was organiz- 
ed, but with his brother Abner was 
transferred to the company command- 
ed by Capt. Leonard Drown, in the 
second three years regiment. In this 
command he served up to the second 
Bull Run, fought in July, 1862 ; and 
here, not far from where he first met 
the enemy on the same field but one 
year before, he met a soldier's death, 
falling with a sergeant's stripes on his 
arm. and lies buried in an unknown 
grave. His company commander, 
Captain Leonard Drown, was one of 
the best known men in Penacook for 
ten years before the war began. He 
was foreman of the Pioneer Fire 
Company for some years — a man of 
striking appearance, and one of the 
best line officers in a regiment second 
to none in the service. I saw him 
last at Bladensburgh, Md., in Octo- 
ber, 1861, during a visit made to his 
quarters by some of the Third New 
Hampshire, to which I was attached. 
At the severely contested battle of 
Williamsburgh, Va., during the for- 
ward movement of McClellan's army 
in March, 1862, he fell at the head of 
his company, shot through the head. 
He was the first commissioned officer 
from New Hampshire killed in tiiat 


Pcnacooh in tJic War, 

war. His remains rest in our ceme- 
tery, aud his grave was decorated to- 
day by the loving hands of comrades, 
many of whom never knew him, but 
closely connected by ties stronger than 
blood. He left a widow, one sou, 
and two daughters. The son died ; 
his widow and older daughter reside in 
Boston ; the other daughter is married 
to Mr. B. F. Drake, of Lake Village. 

John Muzzey was an employe at 
the Axle works — a young man of a 
quiet, retiring disposition, and a rela- 
tive, I think a brother, of those of the 
same name in the village. He was a 
recruit for the Second regiment, and 
was killed at the first Bull Run, 
where his ashes, like those of his com- 
rade Hiram Durgin, repose in an un- 
known grave. 

Stephen Cooney was the youngest 
son of the widow Cooney, who died 
about three years ago. When only 
seventeen years old he enlisted in the 
first three-months regiment, and on 
his discharge reenlisted in the third X. 
H. Volunteers for three years. With 
that regiment he served up to Febru- 
ary, 1864, when he was severely 
wounded at Drury's Bluff, Va., dying 
shortly afterwards. He is buried in 
the National Cemetery at Hampton, 
Va. He was a brave soldier. He re- 
ceived a painful wound in the first 
engagement in which his regiment 
participated, at Secessionville, on 
James Island, June 16, 1862. He 
was born in Ireland. 

George Damon was a spinner in 
Harris's Woollen Mill — a bright, 
genial young man, and a general fa- 
vorite. He was one of the best 
looking and neatest dressed men 
in the village. He enlisted in com- 
pany B, Second regiment New 

Hampshire Volunteers, and met his 
death at the battle of Fair Oaks, in 
June, 1862. Like so many others, he 
lies in an unknown grave. He left 
no relatives here to my knowledge, 
being unmarried. 

Francis Keenan was a brother of 
Andrew Keenan, and for some years 
before the war was in the employ of 
the Rolfe Brothers. He enlisted in 
Captain Sturtevant's compan}- of the 
Fifth N. H., and was severely wound- 
ed at the battle of Fair Oaks, dying 
the same night. Like the others 
mentioned, his last resting-place is 
unknown. He was a brave soldier, 
a good type of his race, witty and 
energetic. He was a native of Ire- 
land, and came here about five years 
before the war. He was unmarried. 

Lucius Feeny was also an employe 
of the Rolfe Brothers, and enlisted in 
the same company as Keenan in the 
Fifth N. II. He met his death at 
Gettysburg, where he was killed by a 
solid shot, in July, 1863. His remains 
are interred in the New Hampshire 
lot in the National Cemetery on that 
renowned battlefield, but marked 
unknown. The identity of most of 
the men killed in that engagement was 
lost, no mark to designate who they 
were being found, — simply the letters 
N. H. on their caps, or their position 
in line where they fell. He left a 
widow, sister of Mr. Thomas Igo, a 
former resident of Penacook, and two 
children. One of the latter, Rev. G. 
II. Feeny, is a Catholic clergyman in 
YValpole, N. II. ; the other, a daugh- 
ter, is married and lives in Florida. 
He was also a native of Ireland. 

Curtis Flanders was a brother of 
Mr. Winthrop Flanders. He was one 
of the best known meu in the village 

Penacook in the War. 


in his day, of an easy, jovial disposi- 
tion, with not an enemy in the world, 
lie served in the first three-months 
regiment, afterwards reenlisted in the 
Sixth X. H., and was killed by a solid 
shot at Camden, X. C, the first to 
meet a violent death in his regiment, 
in the spring of 136*2. He was un- 
married, and quite a young man. 

Joseph Farrand was a brother of 
Robert Farrand, our well known blind 
comrade. He was an operative in the 
Penacook Mill when the war broke 
out, and enlisted with his brother 
Robert in Captain Durgin's company 
of the Seventh X. H. He was killed 
at Olustee, Florida, in the spring of 
18G4, and in the same engagement 
his brother received the wound that 
rendered him sightless forever. Ed- 
mund, auother brother, enlisted in 
the third N. H., and died from the 
effect of his service shortly after his 
discharge. His body rests in Wood- 
lawn. The family came here from 

Alexauder L. Stevens was an em- 
ploye of the Axle works, I believe, 
and was orderly-sergeant of Captain 
Durgin's company of the Seventh X. 
H. He entered Wagner in that awful 
charge where his gallant Colonel met 
his death, and was never seen after- 
wards. Xo relatives here. 

Sergeant Eben Daggett came here 
from Attleboro\ Mass. He enlisted 
in Captain Durgin's company, and 
like sergeant Stevens was killed in 
the terrible charge on Wagner. He 
was a brother of the late Mrs. David 
A. Brown, and a fine type 'of the Xew 
England soldier, God-fearing and 
brave. I saw him at Hilton Head in 
July, 1862, and there is no question, if 
Ins life had been spared, but what his 

abilities would have secured him high 

Johnnie Clancy was a little doffer 
in the Penacook Mill. He was the son 
of a Mrs. Clancy, well known to some 
of our oldest residents. He enlisted 
in Captain Durgin's company of the 
Seventh, went into that fatal charge 
on Wagner, and of him the same 
story can be told. He was never seen 
again. He was a bright-faced boy, 
with laughing eyes, and was beloved 
by all his associates, who grieved over 
his early death, for he was hardly 17 
years old. 

Patrick Clancy, John's brother, two 
years younger, enlisted in the Xinth 
X. H., but was taken sick, and died in 
the hospital in Xew York city. They 
were their mother's only sous, and a 
desolate home was the consequence. 

Richard Xolan was also an opera- 
tive in the Penacook Mill, of about 
the same age as John Clancy, and a 
half brother to Mrs. James Kelly. He 
enlisted in Captain Durgin's company 
in the fall of 18G1, and like a hero 
met his fate at Wagner where his 
laughing face disappeared forever. 

Captain Henry H. Aver recruited a 
part of the men in Captain Plymp- 
ton's company E of the Third X. H. 
He was appointed First Lieutenant, 
aud promoted to Captain. He had 
the reputation of being one of the 
bravest men in that gallant regiment, 
as he was one of the most daring. 
He was severely wounded on Morris 
Island during the siege of Charleston, 
but recovered, and returning to his 
command was killed at Drury's Bluff 
in 18G4. His body was brought to 
Penacook, and his ashes rest in Wood- 
lawn cemetery. A married daughter 
survives him, in Somerville, Mass. 


Pen a cook in the War. 

He was a man quick and energetic, 
but genial and happy in his disposi- 
tion. He was well known to many 
of us who served with him in the 

Lieut. Charles H. Emery was a 
brother of Mrs. Timothy C. Rolfe, an 
employe' of the Rolfe Brothers, and 
well known in Penacook. He enlist- 
ed in the Twelfth N. H. in the sum- 
mer of. 18G2, and was severely wound- 
ed at Cold Harbor, dying of his 
wounds shortly after. His body lies 
in our cemetery. He was a man of a 
gentle, retiring nature, and greatly 
esteemed by all who knew him. He 
left a widow who resides in Canter- 

William Haley, one of the first to 
enlist in Captain Drown's company of 
the Second N. H., was in the employ 
of the Rolfe Brothers when the war 
broke out. He served with his com- 
pany and regiment up to March, 18G3, 
when he returned with the regiment 
on furlough, and, while staying here 
on a visit with his uncle, died sudden- 
ly of heart disease, and was buried 
in Woodlawn cemetery. He was a 
native of Ireland, and for some years 
before coming to this country was a 
member of the celebrated Dubliu 
police force. No relatives of his re- 
side here now. Mrs. Luke Garvey, a 
former resideut of Penacook, widow 
of a soldier of the Fifth N. H., who 
was killed at Mine Run, Va., in 
18G4, was his sister. She now lives 
in Lowell, Mass., with her family. 

Thomas Haley was a weaver in the 
Penacook Mill for some years before 
the war, and a brother of William 
Haley. He enlisted in Captain Dur- 
gin's company of the Seventh N. II., 
which was mainly made up of Pena- 

cook men, or of those recruited in its 
immediate vicinity. He participated 
in the battles in which his regiment 
was engaged during the siege of 
Charleston, and was one of the few 
who came out of the charge on Wag- 
ner unhurt, only to meet his fate at 
Olustee, where he was killed beside 
his former room-mate in the mill, 
Joseph Farraud. His widow and two 
daughters resided here until 1879, 
when they removed to Manchester, 
where they still live. A little son of 
his was drowned in the canal back of 
the store of W. II. Bell, in the sum- 
mer of 18G4. Like so many of his 
comrades, his last resting-place is un- 
known. He was born in Ireland. I 
was lately told by comrade George 
W.Abbott that just as the recall was 
sounded and the brigade ordered to 
fall back, he heard his name called, 
and looking back towards the direc- 
tion of the voice, saw poor Haley half 
lying half sitting at the base of a 
tree. A piece of shell had struck him 
in the middle, literally disembowelling 
him, and presenting a most horrifying 
spectacle. In piteous tones he beg- 
ged for a drink of water. Comrade 
Abbott, with a bullet in his shoulder, 
and at the risk of capture, as the regi- 
ment was rapidly disappearing, stoop- 
ed and gave him all there was in his 
canteen. He drank every drop; 
whereupou Abbott said, — ''Tom, I 
will try and fill my canteen and leave 
it with you." " It is no use, George," 
said Haley, " you will only be made 
a prisoner, and it will do me no good, 
as an hour will finish me. God bless 
you !" — and so they parted forever. 

Hubert McEvilly was an employe 
of H. H. & J. S. Brown, and a resi- 
dent of Penacook since 1853. He was 

Pcnacook in the War. 


the son of a widow who lived for a 
good many years in the house now 
occupied by Cornelius O'Brien, near 
the Axle works. While visiting 
friends in the Green Mountain state 
in the spring of 18G2, he enlisted in 
the Tenth Vermont. He was severely 
wounded at the battle of the Wilder- 
ness, in 1864, being shot through the 
breast, the ball barely grazing his 
heart. He was home on furlough the 
greater part of the fall and winter of 
1864, and was offered his discharge 
but would not accept it. He return- 
ed to his regiment, and at the battle 
of Five Forks, five days after his time 
was out, he was shot dead while act- 
ing as one of the color guard. A 
more touching tribute was never paid 
the memory of a brave man than when 
his Captain wrote to his afflicted 
mother of the death of her ouly son. 
He was buried where he fell. His 
mother and two sisters live in Illinois. 
He was a native of Ireland. 

Louis B. Elliott was the oldest son 
of Theodore Elliott, the well known 
wheelwright at the Borough. He en- 
listed in Company E, Sixteenth N.H., 
in the winter of 1862. Although this 
regiment was not engaged in any 
battles of note, the loss of life was 
terrible on account of being located 
in the swamps and bayous of Louisi- 
ana, where malarial fevers and dysen- 
tery almost decimated its ranks. He 
was among the many who lost their 
lives in this manner. He left a widow, 
Mrs. Roxauna Elliott, and two daugh- 
ters, Mrs. Edward Prescott and Mrs. 
Mary Clark, all of whom reside here 

Major William I. Brown was the 
oldest son of Mr. John S. Brown. 
He had but just graduated from 

Brown University, and was on the 
point of being ordained when the 
war broke out. He enlisted in the 
Ninth N. H., in July, 1862, and was 
commissioned first lieutenant, and 
appointed adjutant. With the Ninth 
he participated in many bloody bat- 
tles, and in the fall of 1864 was pro- 
moted to major, and transferred to 
the Eighteenth N. H., in which resn- 
ment he served until March, 1S65, 
when he was killed at Fort Steadman 
just on the eve of the dissolution of 
the Southern Confederacy and the 
close of the war. His remains were 
buried in our cemetery. He was the 
last commissioned officer killed in 
actiou in that war from our state, as 
his uncle, Captain Drown of the 
Second, was the first, and their bodies 
rest side by side in Woodlawn cem- 
etery. He was small in stature, 
and, as I remember him, had a kindly 
eye, a gentle disposition, and a res- 
olute will. Among the many in both 
regiments who lost their lives for 
their country, none were lamented by 
their comrades more than Major 
Brown, as he was looked upon as one 
of the most reliable as he was one of 
the bravest men iu the service. When 
our Graud Army Post was instituted, 
in the winter of 1874, his name was 
the one selected, and I am sure my 
comrades will agree with me when I 
say that in showing this respect for 
his memory we honored ourselves and 
paid a deserved tribute to his worth. 

Nathan Hardy was a son of the 
late Josiah Hardy. He enlisted in 
the Thirteenth New Hampshire, lived 
to return, and died soon after. His 
body lies in the family cemetery, near 
his late home. 

William Maher, well known to the 

i 9 4 

Penacook in the War. 

boys of 1861, is a son of John Malier, 
of Boscawen. He enlisted in Captain 
Durgiu's company of the Seventh, 
served his time out, and returned. 
He is now in Washington, D. C. 

John Maher, a brother of William, 
was a member of the same company 
and regiment as his brother. He 
also came out of the struggle safely, 
and is now a resident of Boston. 

James K. Brickett was a well 
known business man here for some 
years before the war, being engaged 
in the manufacture of shoes, in the 
building formerly occupied as a store 
byH. H. &J. S. Brown. He enlist- 
ed in Captain Durgiu's Company of 
the Seventh, and died of yellow-fever 
while on the way from Florida tc 
New York. His body found a rest- 
ing-place in the ocean. He left a wid- 
ow, who now resides in East Con- 
cord, and a son and daughter. The 
former was an assistant surgeon dur- 
ing the war, in the navy. The daugh- 
ter was the wife of a well known law- 
yer here, before the war. Mr. Brick- 
ett was advanced in years when he 
enlisted, and was unable to endure 
the hardships of the campaign along 
the malarial coast of the Carolinas 
and Floridas. 

John Savage was an employe' of 
Kolfe Brothers, and when the war 
broke out went to New York and 
enlisted in Corcoran's 69th Volun- 
teers. He was killed at the first bat- 
tle of Bull Bun. He left no relatives 
here, as he came on a visit, in 1857, 
and, liking the place, remained until 
1861, when he went, as stated, to 
New York to enlist in an Irish reg- 
iment, some of the officers of which he 
knew. He was a native of Ireland. 

John K. Flanders was another, 

well known in Penacook before the 
war, as he lived there, boy and man, 
up to the time he enlisted. His fa- 
ther owned and lived in the house on 
Canal street, opposite the i bulkhead. 
He was bright and active, and promi- 
nent in amateur theatricals and lyce- 
ums. He enlisted in the Third N. H., 
Co. A, with his brother William, and 
died of yellow-fever, at Hilton Head, 
S. C, in 1863. He left a widow, 
who afterwards married Mr. Freeman 
Tucker of this place. No relatives 
now live here. His brother, who 
served through the war, now lives in 
Illinois, and another is a resident of 
Franklin Falls. 

George W. Gage was the son of Mr. 
Jacob Gage, whom some of the older 
people will remember as a clerk for 
Mr. Luther Gage when in the old 
store, near the hotel on the Boscawen 
side. He enlisted in the Ninth New 
Hampshire, Co. K, and was killed at 
Bolivar, Kentucky, in 1863. I think 
no relatives now reside here. Like 
so many others, his bones lie far 
from where he was born. 

Moses Jones was oue of three 
brothers, who volunteered in response 
to the president's call for troops in 
1861. He enlisted in the Fourteenth 
Infantry of the regular array, and 
served faithfully with his regiment up 
to the time of the terrible campaign of 
the Wilderness, where he received his 
death wound, dying shortly after- 
wards in the hospital in Philadelphia, 
in which city his body was buried. 

Daniel Jones enlisted in Captain 
Durgin's company of the Seventh regi- 
ment in the fall of 1861, and, with the 
comrades of that noble regiment, 
took part in the long siege of Charles- 
ton. He was spared in the charge at 

Pen a co oh in the War. 


"Wagner, but, like so many of his com- 
rades, fell at Olnstee, Florida, his 
body falling into the possession of the 
enemy, and receiving burial at their 
hands. Both were brothers of our 
present post commander, David E. 
Jones, and were but boys when they 
received their death wounds. They 
were true types of the thousands who 
went to the front in 1861, with no 
incentive to enlist but a love of 
country and a desire to save the 
Union, for it was before bounties were 
offered as an inducement to enlist. 
It is difficult to realize, thinking of 
these things, that there are those who 
say that men enlisted for the pittance 
of $11 per month, and who grumble 
at the pension paid the mother, who 
contributed three sons in the war to 
save the Union, two of whom she 
never saw again. 

Samuel Wooley was an operative in 
the Penacook Mill. He enlisted in 
Capt. Sturtevant's company of the 
Fifth New Hampshire, in September, 
1861, and died of disease. He was 

Mathew Wooley was a brother of 
Samuel, and was also an operative 
in the Penacook mill. He enlisted 
in Capt. Durgin's company of the 
Seventh New Hampshire, and died of 
yellow-fever, at Fort Jefferson, Flori- 
da. He left one son, James Wooley, 
who resides here at the present time. 
Both were natives of Eugland. 

Thomas Ward was in the employ of 
John A. Coburn when he enlisted, 
joining the first company of sharp- 
shooters of Berdan's regiment. He 
was killed at the battle of Fair Oaks, 
in June, 18G2. He left a widow and 
one daughter. The latter married 
John Rand, who for some years 

worked in the cabinet shop. Both 
mother and daughter are dead. Mr. 
Ward was a native of England. 

William Simpson was a native of 
Scotland, and was in the employ of 
Amsden & Merriam, in the tin busi- 
ness, some years before the war. He 
went to New York and enlisted in the 
Seventy-ninth Highlanders, and was 
killed in one of the many battles in 
which the regiment took part. While 
here he was a general favorite, a 
member of the lyceum, and a fine am- 
ateur actor, as some of the older resi- 
dents of Penacook may recollect. 

Reuben Eastman was a son of the 
widow Judith Eastman, who died last 
year. He was drafted iu 1864, as- 
signed to the Fifth New Hampshire, 
and killed in the first battle engaged, 
Cold Harbor, Va. His only relative 
here at the present time is his broth- 
er, William Eastman. 

Luke Garvey was an employe' of 
Rolfe Bros., and a resident of Pena- 
cook for some eight years before the 
war. He was drafted at the same 
time as Eastman, assigned to the 
same regiment, and killed in the same 
battle. I believe they were the only 
drafted men who went to the front 
from Penacook, substitutes being sent 
by other parties. He left a widow 
and quite a family of young children, 
who now reside iu Lowell, Mass. 
James Garvey is a brother, a veteran 
of the navy himself. 

Cyrus Holmes was an employe of 
Caldwell, Amsden & Co., and a resi- 
dent of Penacook for some years be- 
fore the war. He was one of those 
genial boys whom all liked, with a 
pleasant word for every one whom 
he met. He enlisted in the 1st Mass. 
Cavalry, and died during the war, of 


Pcnacooh in the War. 

disease, at Hilton Head. It was ray 
fortune to meet him there in 1SG2. 
He was a son of the late True 
Holmes. Two of his brothers and 
two sisters now reside here. 

Walter Roby was a son of S. C. 
Roby, well known here. He served 
in the Third N. II., Co. E. and died 
at Hilton Head during the war. 

Roland Taylor, a mule-spinner, was 
an employe of H. H. & J. S. Brown. 
He enlisted in the F ifth New Hamp- 
shire, Co. A, was severely wounded 
during the seven days' fighting before 
Richmond in 1862, and died June 4 
of that year. He left no relatives 
here. He was a native of England. 

Lorenzo F. Connor was a tiusmith, 
who lived here as boy and man, 
working for some time in the store of 
Amsden & Merriam, now occupied 
by J. F. Hastings. He enlisted in the 
Seventh New Hampshire, Durgiu's 
company, and was killed in the charge 
on Wagner, July IS, 1S63. He left a 
sister, wife of Henry Abbott, now a 
resident of Concord. 

James C. Elliott was a brother of 
George B. Elliott, a member of our 
Post. He enlisted in the Sixteenth. 
New Hampshire, Co. E, and died at 
Port Hudson, La., July 27, 1863. His 
brother served in the same regiment. 

Loveland C. French enlisted as a 
drummer in the Third New Hamp- 
shire, and died of disease. His father 
resides here still. 

Daniel Abbott was a brother of 
Dea. Frank A. Abbott. He enlisted 
in Capt. Durgiu's compauy, of the 
Seventh, and participated in the long 
siege of Wagner, where his life was 
spared only to meet his destiny at 
Olustee,. Florida. Here he was capt- 
ured, and died in Andersonville 

prison, which so many entered never 
again to leave alive. 

Freeman Ferrin was the father of 
Lyman Ferrin. He enlisted in the 
Seventh, in Durgiu's company of that 
regiment, and was killed in the charge 
on Wagner. He was of the West 
Concord family of that name. 

James Martin, Jr., was the son of 
James Martin, and served in the same 
company and regiment with his father 
and brother, Michael C, Eighth New 
Hampshire. He was killed at Port 
Hudson on the same day Lieutenant- 
Colonel Lull lost his life. The family 
lived here before the war, the two 
boys working in the mill and the 
father on the railroad. They did not 
return here at the close of the war. 

Captain Nathaniel French was a 
son of the late Richard J. French, 
and a brother of Thomas C. Freuch. 
He was appointed assistaut-surgeon 
of the Thirtieth Massachusetts, and 
died at Port Hudson. His brother re- 
sides here still on Canal street. 

John Price was born in England. 
He was an employe of II . II. & J. S. 
Brown. He enlisted in Capt. Dur- 
gin's company, of the Seventh, and 
died in the service, of disease. 

L. S. Raymond was of the Bos- 
cawen family of that name. He 
worked in the Penacook Mill as a 
boy. lie enlisted in Durgin's com- 
pany, and fell at Wagner. 

Joseph Morrill was the son of Eben 
Morrill, of the Borough. He enlisted 
in the Seventh, and was killed at 

Selwin Reed was son of Deacon 
Reed, for many years the well known 
miller. He died at Beaufort, S. C, 
in 1803, while serving in Capt. Dur- 
gin's company of the Seventh. 

Pcnacook in the War. 

x 97 

Jefferson Searle was a resident of 
Penacook, towards the Mast Yard. 
He enlisted in the fall of 1S61 in Capt. 
Durgin's company, of the Seventh, 
and was killed at Olustee, a battle in 
which so many of the Seventh met 
their death. His widow married 
Joseph Thurber, and resides at Mast 

Samuel P. Keed was son of Deacon 
Reed, and a brother of Selwyn. He 
enlisted in Captain Durgin's company 
of the Seventh, and was killed In 
action at Laurel Hill, Ya., in 1864, 

James M. Dwinnells was a recruit 
for Capt. Durgin's company, Seventh, 
and was killed at Olustee, in 1864. 

Alfred A. Clough was well known 
among the Pisherville boys before the 
war, his father liviug in the house on 
Summer street long occupied by the 
late C. C. Topliff, M. D. He em- 
listed in the Tenth N. II., Co. A, w.-as 
captured at Five Oaks in 1864, ex- 
changed, and died shortly after from 
the hard usage in prison. 

Horace Clough was a brother of 
Alfred, and when he enlisted was 
at work in the cabinet-shop. He was 
a bright, happy boy, and a general 
favorite. He served in Co. E, First 
Heavy Artillery, and died on his re- 
turn. Both brothers were buried In 
Woodlawn cemetery. 

George M. Whidden was the son 
of a Mr. Whidden who owned the 
house on Summer street now occu- 
pied by John A. Coburn. He en- 
listed in Capt. Durgin's company of 
the Seventh, and died of wounds on 
•June 25, 1864. 

In thus presenting a list of the 
men who went to the war from Pena- 
cook, and who lost their lives during 
the struggle, while a momentary 

thought of regret may pass through 
our minds, how little do we think of 
the terrible agony endured by many 
of them, as, torn by shot or shell, 
they lay on the battlefield, praying 
for death to end their sufferings : of 
many more dying a lingering death 
amid the malarial swamps of Louisi- 
ana, some of them but mere boys, 
far from a mother's loving care ; and 
of the thousands literally starved to 
death in the prison pens of the South, 
where, tortured by hunger, swarming 
with vermin, and covered with sores, 
they died rather than accept freedom 
on condition of enlistment in the rebel 
army. Native and foreign alike — 
Americans, Englishmen, Irishmen, 
and Canadians — they volunteered, 
before bounty or inducement was 
offered, in response to the call of 
Abraham Lincoln to save the Union 
of the states ; and whether in camp, 
on the march, in the trench, on the 
battlefield, or iu the hospital, they 
freely divided their last crust, or 
shared alike in the contents of their 
canteens to the last drop, thus laying 
the foundation among those who sur- 
vived for a fraternity so broad and 
deep that neither the fierce parti- 
sanship of a political contest, nor 
the hateful quarrels of religious sects, 
can shatter it. 

Pessimists may deplore the ten- 
dency of the times from their stand- 
point, and look back with longing 
eyes to an imaginary period when 
there was more purity and integrity 
among our public men, and more of 
the love of country among our citi- 
zens ; but there never was a time in 
the history of this nation when better, 
purer, or abler men managed its 
affairs than during that eventful 

1 98 

Pcnacook in the War. 

epoch id our existence, between 1861 
and 1865, when Abraham Lincoln, 
Edwin M. Stanton, Salmon P. Chase, 
William II. Seward, and their asso- 
ciates ruled the destinies of the re- 
public, or more patriotism and true 
love of country manifested than by 
the men who were taught the science 
of war under McClellan, and cou- 
quered the Confederacy under Grant, 
Sherman, and Sheridan. 

The best illustration of the effects 
of Christian civilization on this con- 
tinent, after nearly a century of sep- 
aration from the corrupt, demoral- 
izing, aristosratic governments of 
Europe, was the character of that 
war ; — for, if there is one fact more 
than another made clear by history, 
it is that describing the atrocious out- 
rages committed on the old and the 
young, the weak and the helpless, 
and especially on the women and 
children, by the victorious soldiers of 
former wars. The War of the Revo- 
lution was not exempt from this 
stain ; and the burning of Washing- 
ton in the War of 1312 — brutal and 
needless — proved that that phase of 
barbarism still existed amon^ the 
armies of a nation claiming to be in 
the fore front of civilization. Beauty 
and booty were the words in the 
mouths of Packenham's soldiers at 
New Orleans, and this fact nerved the 
troops of Jackson, and enabled them to 
achieve a glorious victory, and con- 
quer a peace that has existed up to 
the present time. 

But it remained for the soldiers 
of the civil war, Soutli as well as 
North, to set an example such as the 
world had heretofore not seen in its 
great conflicts, — for from the begin- 
ning to the end of that struggle wil- 

ful destruction of property was the 
exception, not the rule, and acts of 
violence towards women were looked 
upon with so much horror that offences 
of that nature, when occurring, which 
was very rare, were sure to meet with 
a just and speedy punishment. The 
character of the great body of volun- 
teers in the Union Army was similar 
to that of the men and boys who left 
our village. They were, in the greater 
part, the sons of God-fearing parents, 
and it was not surprising that the 
lessons taught them at their mothers' 
knees bore such fruit, for never in 
the history of any nation were there 
found better husbands, more faithful 
sons, or braver soldiers than in that 
array towards which Penacook fur- 
nished her full proportion ; and when 
an occasion like the observance of 
to-day recalls to mind the forms of 
those who never came back, one is 
tempted to say of them what Pericles 
said of his comrades who fell in the 
Samian War more than two thousand 
years ago, — u They are become immor- 
tal like the gods, for the gods them- 
selves are not visible to us, but, from 
the honors they receive and the 
happiness they enjoy, we conclude 
they are immortal ; and such should 
these brave men be who die for their 

Of that fierce struggle, which lasted 
four years, it has been truly said, — 
u It was the greatest war of the ceu- 
tury. On the Union side alone, 1 10,070 
men were killed in battle ; while 
240,458 more died from disease, by 
accidents, in military prisons, or from 
other causes. Including both sides, 
over half a million lives were lost." 
It is hard to realize the meaning of 
the figures ;t 110,070 men killed," and 

Pen a co ok in the War. 


that 011 one side only. But on this 
occasion I will dwell only on our own 
state and village. New Hampshire 
sent to the civil war one regiment of 
cavalry, one of heavy artillery, one 
light battery, one battalion of sharp- 
shooters, one three-months infantry 
regiment, two-nine months, thirteen 
three-years, and one, — organized in 
September, 1864, the Eighteenth, — 
served to the close of the war, about 
ten months. 

The total number of men who went 
from New Hampshire was a trifle 
above 35,000. Of that number 2,004 
were killed or died of wounds, and 
2,928 died of disease in prison, by 
accident, or otherwise. Adding the 
Joss in killed, and who died of wounds 
and disease, of the battalion of sharp- 
shooters, which is not included in the 
above figures, and New Hampshire's 
loss foots up in round numbers to 
5,000 men ; or, in other words, one 
man in seven who went to the front 
from this state, between April, 1861, 
and April, 1865, never returned, be- 
ing killed in battle, or dying of 
disease or wounds. An estimate can 
be formed from these figures of the 
number of desolate homes, and the 
thousands of widows, orphans, and 
mourning relatives, found in our 
state, when the surrender of Lee's 
army ended the war. 

Small as our village was at that 
time, it furnished volunteers for the 
1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 
8th, 0th, 10th, 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th, 
16th, and 18th Infantry Regiments; 
1st Cavalry, Light Battery; 1st 
Heavy Artillery; 1st New England 
Cavalry ; Regular Army ; Navy and 
Marine Corps; 69th, 79th, and Fire 
Zouaves of New York, and the 10th 

Vermont. The following is a roll of 
the men who left Penacook, and who 
survived to the end of the war. It is 
made up from memory, largely, and 
must be imperfect. The names en- 
rolled are of men who lived in the 
village, or in its immediate vicinity, 
for it must be remembered that in the 
report of the Adjutant General, the 
majority are credited to Concord, 
Boscawen, and Canterbury, the vil- 
lage being located on the borders of 
those three towns, haviug no identity 
of its own as a town, Penacook beino- 
merely a post-office address. 


Lieut. Isaac N. Vesper, now of 
Blackstone, Mass., resident of Pena- 
cook many years before the war. 

Lieut. Abner F. Durgin, quarter- 
master of the regiment ; one of a 
family of four, who served through 
the war, all dead but him, and his 
intellect is gone. 

Lieut. Joseph H. Wilkinson, a 
native of England, present resi- 
dence unknown. 

Corporal Joseph C. Sweatt, son of 
the late Ira Sweatt, died since the 
war, and is buried in Woodlawn 

James Thompson, unknown. 

Daniel Desmond, a native of Ire- 
land, well known before the war, died 
at Togus, Me., in the Soldiers' Home, 
about five years ago. 

Nicholas Duffy, well known before 
the war, resides in Penacook now. 
He is a native of Ireland. 

Philip C. Eastman, an old resident, 
well known, lives in Concord. 

Hiram S. Goodwin, an old resi- 
dent, now resides in Denver, Colo 


Paw cook in the Wa\ 


Adna S. Currier was a son of Bar- 
ney Currier, nephew of Dr. Steve Cur- 
rier ; died some years since the war. 

James M. Chase was an employe 
of Caldwell & Amsden when he en- 
listed ; now lives in Manchester. 

Joel A. Cushion was in his day 
one of the best known men in Pena- 
cook, keen and witty. He now lives in 

Joseph II. Currier was a brother of 
Dr. Steve Currier, and died some 
two years ago in Concord. 

Fred H. Favor was one of those 
well known, and as well liked, before 
the war ; present residence unknown. 

Edwin Farrand was a brother of 
Robert. He died shortly after the 
war, and is buried in Woodlawn 

Hiram Gage was a brother of the 
late Calvin Gage, and now resides in 

William W. H. Gage is a son of 
Hiram, and also resides iu Kansas. 

Thomas Minnehan was a son of 
Jerry Minnehan, a native of Ireland. 
They could neither kill nor drown 
him during the war, as some of the 
Third boys will remember. 

Martin Spellman is a native of 
Ireland, and employed on the rail- 
road ; residence unknown. 

Jeremiah Sheehan is a native of 
Ireland ; resides in Manchester. He 
also served in the Tenth. 

D. Arthur Brown was the son of 
the late Deacon Henry H. Brown, 
and is at present manager of the 
Concord Axle Works. 

Henry F. Brown is a brother of 
D. Arthur Brown, and at the present 
time treasurer of the Contoocook 
Manufacturing Co. 

Samuel F. Brown is a brother 
of John S. Brown, for many years 
superintendent of the weaving de- 
partment in the cotton mills, and re- 
sides here at the present time. 

Geo. E. Flanders was, before and 
since the war, overseer of the carding 
department in the Harris Woollen 
Mill, and later in the Contoocook 
Cotton Mill. He still lives in Pena- 

Carl Krebs was a native of Ger- 
many, and a noted clarinet player. 
On his return from the war he settled 
in Boston until his health broke 
down, when he went to the celebrated 
water cure at Danville, New York, 
where he died about five years ago. 

John C. Linehan was born in Ire- 
land. Came to Penacook in 1852, 
and still resides here. 

William W. Flanders was a brother 
of John K. Flanders, and served in 
Company A. He returned here at the 
close of the war, but went to the state 
of Illinois, where he now resides. 

Jason R. C. Hoyt was born in the 
Borough, and now resides in Web- 

Loveland W. French was quite a 

small boy when he enlisted as a 

drummer, and died in camp in 

.Concord. His father still resides 


John C. Mitchell was a sou of 
Philip Mitchell, and was well known. 
He died shortly after the close of 
the war. No relatives of his now 
reside here. 

John Outran was in the employ of 
C. W. Webster, but made his home 
in Penacook. He is a native of 
Ireland. He enlisted iu Co. C, Capt. 
Donahoe. He now resides in Bos- 

Penacook in the War 



Sergeant Samuel H. Runnells was 

one of the color sergeants of his 
regiment. He was known to all of 
his comrades as " Lady Washington," 
and as such was known all over the 
state, and those who once heard his 
voice when cheeriug will never forget 
it. He was accidentally killed in 
Manchester a few years ago. 

Michael Cuddy is a native of lie- 
land, and was well known here before 
the war. Wheu last heard from he 
was in Manchester. 

William Brannan was an employ^ 
in the Axle works before the war, 
living in the Halloran house in 4i Cali- 
fornia." He enlisted in the Fourth, 
served out his time, then reenlisted, 
returned here, and with his family 
removed to Nashua, where he died 
some ten years ago. He was born 
in Ireland. 


Sergeant Daniel Gibson was well 
known here before the war ; now re- 
sides in Nashua. 

Corporal Walter W. Eastman was 
an overseer in the Penacook Mill 
when he enlisted. He still resides 

Orris T. Blinn was well known 
to the older residents. He died some 
eight years ago. 

Patrick Brannan is a native of 
Ireland, and now resides in Charles- 
town, Mass. 

Calvin P. Couch, unknown to me. 

Nathan C. Danforth was one of 
our oldest residents. He died last 
year. He had two sons in the service 

Luther C. Copp now lives in Low- 

Svlvanus Danforth was a son of 

Nathan C. Danforth. He now lives 
in West Concord. 

Edwin C. Gilmore was a nephew 
of John A. Coburn. He died just 
after the war, and is buried in 
Woodlawn cemetery. 

Thomas Gahagan was a son of 
John Gahagan, who was the first 
Irishman to locate in Penacook. He 
is at the soldiers' home in Togus, 
Maine. He was half brother to Rich- 
ard Nolan, who was killed at Wag- 

Anthony Gahagan was in his day 
one of the best known men in the vil- 
lage. He was a native of Ireland, 
and accidentally killed in California 
since the war. 

Albert Hunt was an uncle of New- 
ell C. Hunt. He died shortly after 
the war. 

Benjamin F. Morse, the well 
known barber, has been one of our 
best known citizens for the past thir- 
ty-six years. He is known to smile 
occasionally when he hears a good 
thing. He left one of his legs atAn- 
tu.'tam, but works as hard as a man 
with two. As he is very comfortably 
located in this world, he is in no hurry 
to start for the other, and while we 
remain here we want him to stay 
with us. 

Sergeant Charles Riley was a long- 
time resident of Penacook. He was 
a native of Ireland. He died about 
five years ago, and is buried in 
Woodlawn cemetery. He was a mem- 
ber of Win. I. Brown Post31,G. A. R. 

Bernard Thornton was one of the 
old residents. He was born in Ire- 
land. He belonged to W. I. Brown 
Post G. A. R. He died about three 
years ago, and is buried in Woodiawn 


Penacook in the War. 


Andrew J. Simouds, one of our old 
residents, died about two years ago, 
and is buried in Woodlawn cemetery. 


Major J. S. Durgin was for many 
years the landlord of the Washing- 
ton House, and the father of Abuer, 
Hiram, and Scot Durgin, who were all 
in the war. He represented Pena- 
cook in the board of aldermen, Con- 
cord ; was also in the legislature. He 
died shortly after the war, and is 
buried in Woodlawn cemetery. He 
raised a company here for the Seventh 

Rev. J. C. Emerson was chaplain. 
He located in Florida after the war, 
and was drowned there while sailing 
on the St. John's river. He was pas- 
tor of the Methodist church here for 
a time. 

Lieut. Robert Burt worked for John 
A. Cobnrn wheu he enlisted. He now 
resides in San Jose, California, where 
I had the pleasure of meeting him two 
years ago. 

Lieut. Charles B. Wallace was well 
known here before the war. He left 
here on his return, and his present 
residence is unknown. 

Sergeant Charles D. Rowell was 
overseer of the spinning room in Pen- 
acook Mill, for many years before 
the war. On his return, he went to 
Shirley, Mass., I think, where he still 
resides. He was a noted rifle shot. 

Corporal Jonas Foster is a native 
of England. He still resides here, 
and is well known. 

George A. Hoyt lives at Horse Hill. 

Joseph S. Hoyt, brother of George, 
returned, but died shortly after. 

Robert O. Farrand had both eves 
shot out at the battle of Olustee. He 

still lives here, and, like Comrade 
Morse, is one of the most industrious 
men in the village. He was born in 

Geo. W. Abbott is one of our 
well known citizens aud business 
men. He also proposes to stay in 

Oliver B. Abbott was one of the 
old-time boys. He returned from 
the war, but died a few years after, 
and is buried in Woodlawn cemetery. 

Fisher Ames is one of our oldest 
residents, and still resides here. 

James Chadwick was born in Eng- 
land. He still resides in Penacook, 
and is in the employ of the Contoo- 
cook Manufacturing Company. 

Samuel Chandler is a veteran of the 
Mexican as well as of the civil war. 
He is still in Penacook. 

Lyman Cheney was one of our best 
known citizens. He died about ten 
years ago. 

Wm. Duckworth was born in Eng- 
land. He still resides here. 

Edson A. Eastman belonged at 
Horse Hill. He died some years af- 
ter his return. 

Lucian O. Holmes belonged at 
Horse Hill. His present residence is 

David E. Jones is the present Com- 
mander of Wm. I. Brown Post 31, 
G. A. R., and the sole survivor of 
three brothers who went to the war. 

Daniel W. Martin was a son of 
Deacon J. C. Martin. He now re- 
sides at Leominster Mass. 

Thomas Sawyer enlisted in Capt. 
Durgin's company. He married a 
sister of W. W. Whittier. He re- 
turned here after the war, but removed 
elsewhere shortly after. He lost a 
lest at Wagner. 

Pen a co oh in the War. 


George W. Gilman was a son of 
Lieut. John Gil man. He enlisted iu 
the company of Capt. J. S. Durgin. 
He returned here at the close of the 
war, but left a few years later. 

James Hatton was a native of Eng- 
land, an operative in the Penacook 
Mill, and a brother-in-law of James 
Weir. He returned here at the close 
of the war, but moved away shortly 

Samuel TV. Holt was well known 
here before the war. He returned 
here, making it his home until his 
death some years ago. He is buried 
in Woodlawn. 

Peter Howarth was born in Eng- 
land, and was an operative in the 
Penacook Mill. He enlisted in Capt. 
Durgiu's company. He returned at 
the close of the war, but moved to 
New Bedford, where he died some 
years ago. His daughter is the wife 
of John McNiel. 

William S. Roach was a well known 
man before the war, in the merchant 
tailor business. He enlisted in Capt. 
Durgin's company, returning at the 
close of the war. He now resides in 

Samuel McElroy, a native of Scot- 
land, was an operative in the Pena- 
cook Mill before the war. He enlist- 
ed in Capt. Durgin's company, served 
out his time, and returned safely. He 
is now a resident of Manchester. 

Samuel Cheney was a veteran of 
the Mexican War. He enlisted in 
Co. E. His present whereabouts are 

William S. Hutchinson enlisted in 
Co. E, and returned here, where he 
still resides. 

William R. Wadleigh was a son of 
the well known George W. Wadleigh, 

now of Concord. He eulisted in Capt. 
Durgin's Co., returned here, and died 
about twelve years ago. His body is 
in Woodlawn. 


Michael Griftin was born iu Ire- 
land. He has made his home here 
since his return. 

James Martin was born in Ireland. 
He did not return here when the war 

Michael Martin was also born in 
Ireland, and has not been here since 
the war. He was the son of James 


John II. Brown was a son of John 
F. Brown. He died shortly after his 

Patrick McQuade returned, reen- 
listed in the regular service, and was 
killed in one of the battles with the 
Indians on the plains. He was born 
in Ireland. 

William Kidder, unknown to the 
writer. He served in Co. E. 


Edward C. Jameson was a son of 
the late Josiah Jameson. He enlisted 
as a drummer, and died shortly after 
his return from the war. 

Charlie K. Manning was a sonof 
Elisha R. Manning, a bright-faced, 
handsome boy. He returned here at 
the close of the war, but his present 
residence is unknown. 

Ross C. Goodwin was a grandson 
of the late Reuben Goodwin. He died 
some years after the war, and his body 
lies in the West Concord cemetery. 


TVilliam II. Moody is one of our 
well known residents, having lived 
here since the close of the war. 


Penacook in the War. 


Moody J. Boyce was tbe son of 
Milton Boyce, who resides on the Can- 
terbury side of the Merrimack river. 
He was an employe of Rolfe Brothers, 
and enlisted in Co. G. He now lives 
in the northern part of the state. 


Lt. Albert IT. Drown, quartermas- 
ter, was a brother of Capt. Leonard 
Drown of the Second. He was prom- 
inent in village affairs for years before 
the war, but since his return has 
made his home in Massachusetts. 

Sergt. David D. Smith was com- 
missary sergeant of the Sixteenth. 
His present residence is in Philadel- 
phia, where he is a professor in the 
dental college. 

Samuel N. Brown was a son of John 
S. Brawn, and a brother of Major W. 
I. Brown of the Eighteenth regiment. 
He has made his home here since 
the close of the war, aud is at 
the present time superintendent of 
the Contoocook Mfg. Co. He also 
served in the Eighteenth as quarter- 

George H. Cushion was a son of 
Joel A. Cushion. He returned here 
after the war, but went away shortly 

Hall F. Elliott returned with the 
regiment, but died shortly afterward. 
He was of the Borough family of that 
name, and was the father of Alonzo 
Elliott, the carriage manufacturer. 

John H. Elliott was the son of 
Hall Elliott. He returned with and 
died about the same time as his 
father. Both were buried in Wood- 
lawn cemetery. 

Alfred Elliott has lived here since 

the war, and at present is in the em- 
ploy of the Contoocook Co. 

Hanson D. Emerson returned here 
after the war, but later on removed 
to Hopkinton where he now lives. 

Asa Emery was a son of William 
Emery. He also served some years 
in the navy. He has made his home 
here since the war, but is out of the 
state at present. 

Geo. B. Elliott, brother of James, 
who died at Port Hudson, lives in 

Isaac C. Evans lived here for a 
time after his return, but for a num- 
ber of years resided in Boston, where 
he died about two years ago. 

Peter O. Shepard returned at the 
close of the war, but died a few years 
later. The two latter are buried in 

John Heath now lives in West Par- 


Corp. J. Scott Durgiu was the 
youngest sou of Major J. S. Durgin- 
He died a few years after his return. 
He was buried in Woodlawn. 

William E. Jameson was for years 
a resident of Penacook before the 
war. Since his return he has lived in 
Haverhill, Mass. 

James M. Shepard, since his return, 
lived here until about three years ago, 
when he moved to Haverhill, N. H., 
where he now resides. 

George H. Gleason enlisted in Co. 
A. He returned here, and for some 
years resided on the Boscawen side, 
near the place of David E. Jones. 

Frank Stevens was an employe' of 
Caldwell & Amsden. He came here 
from Salisbury, and returned there 
after the war. 

Penacook in the War 


William Barnett was a son of Geo. 
Barnett. He left here some years 
after bis return. He is now in New 
Bedford, Mass. 

Nathaniel E. Baker was unknown 
to the writer. 

Frank S. Hunt was a son of Albert 
Hunt, of the Fifth. He died shortly 
after his return. 

Nathaniel 0. Kimball and William 
F. Wallace were unknown to the 


Henry Pearson was a native of 
England. He returned here at the 
close of the war, but shortly after 
moved away. 

Henry A. Flint — unknown. 


William H. Caldwell was a son of 
the late B. F. Caldwell. He was in 
Andersonville. He is now in Califor- 

Horace H. Danforth was a son of 
Nathan C. Danforth, who served in 
the Fifth. He returned here at the 
close of the war, and died about fif- 
teen years ago. 


Lieut. Isaac Davis served in Com- 
pany E of this regiment. 

Lieut. John H. Oilman enlisted in 
the Sharpshooters. He returned here 
at the close of the war, and was acci- 
dentally killed by the premature ex- 
plosion of a charge of powder while 
at work in a quarry. 

Elisha R. Manning returned here 
after the war, and built the house now 
occupied by W. W. Eastman. He 
moved away shortly after. 

Benjamin Morrison is a brother of 
John C. Morrison. He now resides in 
Lowell, Mass. 

Joseph H. Rolfe is a son of Captain 
Nathaniel Rolfe. He has lived in 
Minneapolis since the war. 

Joseph E. Sanders returned here, 
and made Penacook his home up to 
the time of his death about three 
years ago. 

Charles P. Shepard returned here 
after the war, and for some years was 
a caterer in Manchester and Concord. 
He lives on his farm at present. 

James F. Tyler was in the employ 
of J. A. Coburn. He came back here 
after the war, but did not remain. 


Henry J. Brackett worked in the 
cabinet shop when he enlisted, and 
after his return, but for some years 
has lived in Webster. 

Mark Chase also worked before and 
after his enlistment in the cabinet 
shop, but left shortly after his return. 

Fred W. Durgin was unknown to 
the writer. Pie served in Co. E. 

William H. French was a son of O. 
N. French, one of our well knowu 
citizens. He made his home in Pen- 
acook until his death, about ten years 
ago. He is buried in Woodlawn. 

Oscar F. Freuch was a brother of 
William. He served in the Seventh. 
On his return he kept a barber-shop 
here for some years. He died about 
ten years ago, in Littleton, N. II., 
and is buried in Woodlawn. 

Warren D. Morrill lived in the 
family of Eben Morrill at the Bor- 
ough. He returned here at the close 
of the war, and now lives in Con- 

Lawrence Jernery was a nephew of 
Francis Jemery, a cooper. Residence 

Joseph Jemery was a brother of 


Pen a co ok in the War, 

Lawrence. They left here on their 

George Marsh is the son of David 
Marsh. He now resides here. 

Leroy Sweatt was a nephew of 
Cady Sweatt, and on his return went 
to California. 

Hiram J. Morrill is a past-com- 
mander of W. I. Brown Post 31, and 
still resides here. 

Moses E. Haynes lived on the Can- 
terbury side of the Merrimack. He 
enlisted in Co. E. 

Charles P. Haynes, his brother, 
served in the same company and reg- 
iment. Both reside in Peuacook. 

Robert Lloyd served in Co. K. 


Robert Crowtber was overseer in 
the mule-spinning department of the 
Penacook Mill. He enlisted in July, 
1861, served out his full time, and 
fills the same position in the Pena- 
cook Mill at the present time. He is 
a native of England, and has made 
his home* in Peuacook since 1852. 


George Scales served in Co. G, 
Second Regt. U. S. S. S. He lived 
here for some years after the war. 
but went to Colorado some six years 

Francis Spearman enlisted in the 
Third U. S. Artillery. He was a broth- 
er of Andrew Spearman, and was acci- 
dentally killed in California some ten 
years ago. 

Patrick Gahagau, was a brother 
of Anthony Gahagau. He returned 
here, but shortly after went to Cali- 
ifornia, and was never heard from. 

John Meaghla served in the Seventh 
R. I. He died at the close of the 

war, and is buried at Woodlawn. 
He was born in Ireland. 

James C. Bowen, one of our well 
knowu citizens, served in the Marine 
Corps. He resides here still. 

James Gahagan also served in the 
Marine Corps. He was a brother of 
the late Vincent Gahagan, and for 
many years a section hand in the 
Penacook Mill. He died shortly after 
his return, and is buried in Wood- 
lawn. He was a native of Ireland. 

Thomas Brannau served in the 
Marine Corps. He returned here at 
the close of the war, aud now resides 
at Newmarket. He was born in Ire- 

Philip Ilacket was a native of Ire- 
land, and an employe' of E. S. Harris 
& Co. He returned here at the close 
of the war, but left shortly after. 
He served in the navy. 

Charles Moulton was also an em- 
ploye' of Harris & Co., and has not 
lived here since the war. He served 
in the navy. 

James Garvey was a brother of 
Luke Garvey, who was killed at Mine 
Run. He served in the navy, and 
has made his home here since his 
return. He was born in Ireland. 

Alfred Preston was a native of 
Englaud. He came here a few years 
before the war, and married a sister 
of the late John Thornton. He went 
to New York when the war broke out, 
and enlisted in the Fire Zouaves. 
What became of him is not known, as 
he did not return here. 

George Brown lived at the Borough, 
in a log house, beyond Amos Elliott's 
house. He returned here, and died 
some years ago. 

Weslev Eastman was a brother of 

Pcnacooh in the War, 207 

W. AT. Eastman, who served in the equitably this is distributed, a tabu- 
Fifth. He was a section hand in the lated statement is given, 
weaving department of the Penacook No l ig asse6sed for $11,328 
Mill for some years. He enlisted in ti 2 " 7 500 
the Marine Corps, serving with Bow- 4.34; 7 4qq 
en and Gahagan. He now resides in 4t * u g p)- 


Loren F. Currier was a member of 

the brigade band stationed at Port ti 7 < 4 4 375 

Koyal during the war. He still re- t . § 44 3 505 

sides here. tt 9 „ 3^50 

David A. Brown was a member of 
the Port Koval brigade band, and is 

one of Penacook's oldest musicians, 4i ^ tt 2 400 

as he is one of its most respected cit- " 13 " 2 000 

izens. He is still among us. tt -^ tt I 4395 

James McGuire was a brother of 4t j~ tt j gQQ 

Mrs. Peter McArdle, and was well fct ^g 44 1.750 

kuown here before the war. He went (C ^7 44 } qijq 

to New York, and enlisted in a regi- <.«. ^g 44 1 qqq 

ment from that state. tt 2.y 44 1 qqq 

Oweu McGuire was a brother of 

James, and enlisted in the same lt 21 " 1 450 

regiment. Both lived through the war, tt 92 44 1 220 

and now reside in New York. t4 23 " - 1 200 

In the brief sketches of these tfc 24 " 1,200 

men, but little can be said of their " 25 " 1,150 

character. In responding to their '• 26 " 1,050 

country's call they proved their loy- " 27 " 1,000 

alty and patriotism. Many of them t; 28 " 1,000 

have died since their return, many " 29 " 1,000 
more have found homes in other 

communities, but the quality of those " 31 " 1,000 

who remain with us can be seen " 32 " 900 

by the following figures, taken from 4i 33 " 900 

the assessor's book of Ward 1, Con- " 34 " 900 

cord, for April, 1889. Forty-seven " 35 " 800 

citizens of Penacook— Ward 1, Con- " 36 " 800 

cord — who are honorably discharged " 37 " 800 

soldiers, all but one of whom were " 38 " . 800 

privates or non-commissioned officers, " 39 " 750 

are taxed for real or personal prop- i4 40 " 650 

erty, mainly the former, to the asses- " 41 " 600 

sed value of 899,104. To show how " 42 " 570 



















t '. 










4 4 

. 1 
































































































Pcnacook in the Mar, 

No. 43 


assessed for 


<c 44 



" 45 



» 46 



<c 47 



On the Boscawen side of Pen- 
acook, nine veterans are 
assessed. Estimated value 
$9,600, distributed as fol- 
lows : 
No. 1 is assessed — estimate, $2,000 










































The valuation of the school-district 
in which nearlv all of the foregoing 

v DO 

reside, is, in round d umbers, about 
$600,000, so that the veterans pay 
nearly one sixth of the taxes in the 
district. The bulk of the balance is 
paid by the manufacturers and mer- 

The membership of W. I. Brown 
Post 31, G. A. R., of Penacook, is 
sixty-five, and nearly every veteran 
in the village belongs to it. It will 
be seen from the above, that fifty- 
seven of the number pay more than a 
poll tax. When so much is said about 
pensions, the fact should be borne in 
mind, that, judging from the character 
of the Penacook veterans, no class of 
men have done more, by honest la- 
bor, to accumulate the much talked 
of surplus than the veterans them- 
selves. If anv one doubts this, let 

him take notice for the next three 
months, and, if he is a man whose 
business takes him about the country, 
he will find that there is not an occu- 
pation or profession in the United 
States in which will not be found 
men who are wearing the modest lit- 
tle brouze button of the Grand Army 
of the Republic. They will be found 
on the railroads as section-men, 
brakemen, baggage-masters, conduc- 
tors, firemen, engineers, superintend- 
ents, managers, and presidents , at 
the bar among the most eminent law- 
yers, on the bench, in both houses 
of congress, officers of the highest 
rank in the army and navy, manufac- 
turers and business men, presidents 
of the United States, and governors 
of commonwealths, ministers in evan- 
gelical churches, and priests in Cath- 
olic cathedrals. Many of those who 
never rose above the rank of non- 
commissioned officers are socially the 
equals of many more who wore three 
stars on their shoulders, and in civil 
life are as loyal to the constitution 
and laws of the country as they were 
true to them during the war. The 
great debt, run up between 1861 and 
1865, they have done as much by 
their labor to reduce as any other 
class, and their proportion of the tax- 
es levied for the payment of pensions 
to their wounded or enfeebled com- 
rades is fully as large as that of any 
other. Citizens who are fond of grum- 
bling about the amount paid to the crip- 
pled and unfortunate ought to consid- 
er this, — that every honest, industri- 
ous veteran (and that means all, with 
very few exceptions) whom God has 
blessed with good health has paid 
a double duty to his country, — first, 
by risking his life to save it from 

A Picture. 


disruption, and again, by his honest 
labor, paying his taxes, increasing 
the revenue, and paying the war 
debt. Lecky, in his 4 - History of 
England in the Eighteenth Century," 
has paid them a tribute for their un- 
selfish patriotism which future Amer- 
ican historians will be proud to quote. 
This is the record of the citizens of 
Penacook during the war for the pres- 
ervation of the Federal Union. Be- 
tween 1861 and 1865 two hundred 
and twelve men left our peaceful 
community, serving in almost every 
organization that left the state, in 
the regular army, uavy, and marine 
corps, and in several other state or- 
ganizations. Of that number, fifty- 
four never came back, being killed in 
action, or dying of wounds or disease. 
The average loss from the state dur- 
ing the war was a fraction less than 
one in seven ; from Penacook a frac- 
tion over one in four, or nearly dou- 
ble that of the loss from the state. 
The blood of Penacook men has 
moistened the ground on the great 

battlefields of the war in which the 
Army of the Potomac participated, 
as well as at Wagner, Olustee, Port 
Hudson, and Vicksburg. No charge 
of desertion, or of the commission of 
an unmanly act, is on record against 
one of the number. Every one either 
died the death of a soldier, or received 
an honorable discharge. We have 
especial reason, then, to-day, to be 
thankful to God that in the hour of 
its trial our beloved country found 
in Penacook men some of its truest, 
bravest defenders — men whose death 
proved their manliness, and whose 
daily lives while in the service their 
honor. With such a record as this, 
we ought to bear in grateful remem- 
brance the memories of those who 
lost their lives during the struggle, 
and never forget the debt due the 
volunteers of the civil war for giving 
us a free, united government, uuder 
which it is possible for all to acquire 
an honorable livelihood, protected by 
the flag their bravery saved from dis- 

John C. Linehan. 


Two blue-veined eyelids folded down 
Over two eyes of softest brown, 
A tangled mass of golden curls, 
Two parted lips, disclosing pearls, 
One dimpled arm with careless grace 
Thrown o'er her head, while o'er her face 
A flitting smile did play. 

A quiet spot where naught was heard 
Save the sweet carol of a bird, — 
Except the drowsy hum of bees. 
The air was soft ; the gentle breeze 
Hardly the tall pink clover bent ; 
And in the air there was a scent 
Of new-mown meadow hay. 

Helen Mar Bean. 



JRev. Israel Evans. 


Bridgeport, Connecticut, January 22, 1884. 
Hon. S. W. Hale, 

Governor of New Hampshire, 

Keene, Xew Hampshire. 
Sir : My father, Mr. George Porter, of Pittsburgh, Peim., a short time before his 
death, arranged to have painted, by Mr. Tenney, of Concord, X. II., a portrait of die 
Reverend Israel Evans, a Revolutionary worthy, an early minister of Concord, a 
prominent citizen of Xew Hampshire, and by marriage a family connection of Mr. 

The portrait is novr finished, and in the name of my father I hereby desire to 
present to the state of New Hampshire, through you, its governor, the picture, to 
take its appropriate place in the gallery of the capitol. 
I also mail herewith a brief memoir of Mr. Evans. 
I have the honor to remain, very respectfully, 

Your obed't serv't, 


or THE 



•which is presented to the State of Xew Hampshire, in compliance with the last 

wishes of the late George Porter, Esq., of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 

with the request that this "semblance of the man" maybe placed among the 

portraits of that " Goodly Company of Patriot Heroes" 

which adorn the capitol of the state. 

With these worthies Mr. Evans shared the privations, the fatigues, the defeats, 

and the triumphs of the Continental Army during the 


Dr. Geo. L. Porter. 

Bridgeport, Conn., 1883. 

From Bouton's History of Concord, 
N. H., from other historical writings 
of local and general interest, and 
from family letters and private pa- 
pers, this personal record is collected. 

Rev. Israel Evans was a native of 
Pennsylvania, according to some au- 
thorities, but asserted by others to 
have been bom in New Jersey. 

He was graduated, October, 1772, 
at Princeton college, " Collegii Neo- 
Caesariensis," as the diploma has it 
written, . . . " Camiitatum primum 

in Artibus Gradum," during the presi- 
dency of the respected Jonathan 

His immediate ancestry were edu- 
cated men ; his father and grandfa- 
ther were settled ministers in this 
countrv, his great-grandfather was 
a minister in Wales. Influenced 
by their example and by the tradi- 
tions of the family, he determined to 
■enter the ministry. From Princeton 
he went to Philadelphia, and upon 
the completion of his theological stud- 
ies was ordained a clergyman in 1776. 


Rev. Israel Evans, 


Immediately appointed a chaplain, he 
was assigned to General Poor's brig- 
ade of New Hampshire troops. With 
this command he remained until the 
17th of July, 1781, when Col. Alex- 
ander Scammel organized " a fine 
corps of light infantry, selected from 
the several New England regiments," 
41 intended to march in advance of 
the main army, constantly prepared 
for active and hazardous service." 
With this corps he remained until the 
close of the Revolution. 

Upon December 18, 1777, the day 
appointed by the Continental Con- 
gress for " solemn Thanksgiving and 
Praise," — rather scantily celebrated 
in the huts at Valley Forge, — Mr. 
Evans preached the Thanksgiving 
sermon, and improved the occasion 
to express his personal admiration, 
and the veneration and love enter- 
tained by the New Hampshire troops, 
for their General-in-Chief. A copy 
was sent (mailed) to General Wash- 
ington, February 17, 1778, but was 
not received at head-quarters until 
March 12, 1778. As an evidence of 
Gen. Washington's devout trust in 
the God of battles, and of his appre- 
ciation of Mr. Evans's abilities, the 
following letter is of interest. 

The letter has never been published, 
and is now in the possession of Mrs. 
Abbv R. Kent, widow of Hou. Ed- 
ward Kent, formerly of Bangor, Me. 

The Rev 4 

Israel Evans 

Chaplain to Gen. Poor's 
Head Q rt -, Valley-forge March 13, 
Rev d Sir. 

Your favor of the 17 th ult. inclosing 
the discourse, which you delivered on the 

18 th of December (the day set apart for a 
general thanksgiving) to Gen 1 Poor's 
Brigade, never came to my hands till 

I have read this performance with 
equal attention & pleasure, and at the 
same time that I admire and feel the force 
of the reasoning which you have displayed 
through the whole, it is more especially 
incumbent upon me to thank you for the 
honorable but partial mention you have 
made of my character, and to assure you 
that it will ever be the first wish of my 
heart to aid your pious endeavors to in- 
culcate a due sense of the dependence, we 
ought to place in that All-wise & power- 
ful Being on whom alone our .success de- 
pends r= and to assure you moreover that 
with respect & regard, I am 
Rev. d Sir 

Y r most Obed* Sev' 


This whole letter is in the hand- 
writing of Gen. Washington. 

Upon the 17th of October, 1779, 
at Easton, Penn., Mr. Evans deliv- 
ered an address to the officers and 
soldiers of the Western army, after 
their return from a successful expedi- 
tion against the " Five Nations ; " the 
address was so enthusiastically re- 
ceived, that, by the request and at the 
expense of the general and field ofli- 
cers, it was published for free distri- 
bution among the command. 

General Poor died near Hacken- 
sack, N. J., Sept. 9, 1780, and in the 
grave-yard of that town his body 
was interred Sept. 10. x The funeral 
escort was composed of a regiment of 
light infantry, Lee's regiment of light 
horse, four field-pieces, Gen. Hand 
and his brigade. The corpse was borne 
by four sergeants, the pall supported 
by six general officers. The remains 
were followed bv the officers of the 

Thachcr's Military Jourua.1. 


Rev. Israel Evans. 

New Hampshire brigade, and of the 
brigade of light infantry which he 
had lately commanded. Other officers 
fell in promiscuously, and were fol- 
lowed by Gen. Washington, Gen. 
Lafayette, and other general officers. 
In the presence of this imposing and 
honorable company, an appropriate 
eulogy was pronounced by Mr. Evans, 
but so near was a strong force of the 
enemy at the time of the services that 
the customary salute was not fired 
over the grave. 

October 4, 1781, " while the Rev d 
Mr. Evans, our chaplain, was stand- 
ing near tbe Commander-in-Chief," 
during the siege of Yorktown, " a shot 
struck the ground so near as to cov- 
er his hat with sand. He took it off, 
and said, — " See here, General.' ; Mr. 
Evans,' replied His Excellency, with 
his usual composure, 'you had better 
carry that home, and show it to your 
wife and children.' " l 

Upon the 22d, after the capitula- 
tion of Lord Cornwallis, in the pres- 
ence of Generals Lincoln and Clinton 
and a large number of the victorious 
troops, tv after offering to the Lord 
of Hosts, the God of battles, our 
grateful homage for the preservation 
of our lives through the dangers of 
the siege, and for the important event 
with which Divine Providence has 
seen fit to crown our efforts, Mr. 
Evans preached an excellent and ap- 
propriate sermon." 1 This sermon 
was dedicated to Lafayette. 

Upou December 11, 1783, at the 
close of the war, he preached in New 
York city the Thanksgiving sermon 
for the blessings of independence 
and peace — probably his last public 
service as chaplain of the army. 

Tliachtr's Military Journal. 

Mr. Bouton writes, — " Several ser- 
mons which he preached and pub- 
lished while in the army were distin- 
guished for their patriotic spirit, and 
acquired for him an honorable repu- 
tation through the country." 

Later: " Traditiou affirms that his 
preaching was sometimes attended 
with violent action, so as to make 
the dust fly from the old pulpit cush- 
ion." 2 

"It is related of Mr. Evans, that 
on one occasion, just before the army 
was going into battle, he prayed, — 
4 O Lord of Hosts, lead forth thy 
servants of the American army to 
battle, and give them victory ! — or, if 
this be not according to thy sover- 
eign will, then, we pray Thee, Stand 
neutral, and let flesh and blood decide 
the issue.'' " 

After the close of the war, Mr. 
Evans for some time preached in 
Charlestown, Mass. Here he met 
and married Miss Hulda Kent, sister 
of Col. Wni. A. Kent. To them no 
children were born, but they adopted 
and reared as their own child a niece, 
Mary Kent, who became the third 
wife of Isaac Adams Porter. 

Mrs. Evans, who survived her hus- 
band by nearly forty years, contiuued 
her residence after his death in Con- 
cord, N. H., until her own death in 

Influenced, no doubt, by the friend- 
ships and acquaintances of his army 
life, in 1789 he was settled as minis- 
ter to the First Congregational socie- 
ty in Concord, N. H., with a stipu- 
lated salary for the first year of £105 
with the use of the parsonage, and 
£200 (in materials) for building a 

2 Bouton'3 History of Concord, X. H. 

Rev. Israel Evans 


Rev. Joseph Eekley, of Boston, 
Mass., a classmate, preached the 
installation sermon. He congratu- 
lated the society upon their good 
fortune in securing so able and desir- 
able a minister. 

In 1791, before the authorities of 
the state of New Hampshire, Mr. 
Evans preached the " Election Ser- 
mon," which was printed and widely 
circulated ; copies are now accessi- 
ble in several historical libraries. In 
this sermon, which is of a noble and 
liberal nature, he placed the utmost 
stress upon the importance of the 
education of the whole people, hold- 
ing the trained intelligence of the 
rising generation to be the surest 
safeguard of the liberties of the com- 

In this year he was appointed 
chaplain of the state convention, con- 
vened to revise the laws. 

In 1794 there was some difficulty 
regarding his ministerial salary, — the 
money not always coming promptly 
nor directly. The matter was sett!ed 
in a town-meeting by the adoption of 
certain propositions, drawn up by 
Mr. Evans, specifying the amount 
of salary, and the time, place, and 
manner of payment. 

During his ministry some instru- 
ments of music were introduced iato 
the service. Some persons left the 
'* meeting-house " rather than bear 
u the profaue sounds of the fiddle 
and flute." 

About eight years after his instal- 
lation he announced his intention, of 
resigning to the town their pulpit 
upon July 1, 1797, and after some 
delay his resignation was acceptedL 

In 1793 he was elected a trustee 

* President 

of Dartmouth college, and remained 
in this office until his death. His 
official relation and personal corre- 
spondence with John Wheelock. the 
secoud president of the college, were 
most cordial. In the troubles of the 
college, about 1S06, President Whee- 
lock wrote, — " We begin to please 
ourselves that you will be able to 
favor us with your agreeable com- 
pany and to be present at the meet- 
ing of the board on the approaching 
Commencement. . . . There will 
be some very weighty matters to be 
considered by the board, and we shall 
greatly need your wisdom." 

During his trusteeship Mr. Evans 
was deeply interested in the prosper- 
ity of the college, and tk in his will, 
after making suitable provision for 
his widow, and various legacies, he 
gave property to the amount of seven 
thousand dollars or upwards, in re- 
version, to the trustees of Dartmouth 
college, after the death of his wife, 
as a permanent fund for a professor- 
ship in the college," to be known as 
" The Evans Professorship. " " Al- 
though the income is iuadequate to 
the support of a professor (being 
now about four hundred dollars a 
year), the title is still retained. — 
' Evans Professor of Orator} 7 and 
Belles- Lettres.'" 1 

Mr. Evans died in Concord, N. H., 
March 9, 1807. 

In personal appearance Mr. Evans 
is described as of fine presence and 
of courtly bearing ; noble and hand- 
some of face, mindful of the dignity 
of his calling, and, with a becoming 
pride in his experiences during the 
war for Independence, wearing upon 
all public occasions i; his tri-coruered 


•2I 4 

Rev, Israel Evans. 

hat." He treated his parishioners 
and associates at all times with po- 
liteness and kindness, but ever chal- 
lenged, by his aristocratic lineaments 
and military carriage, more than the 
usual share of deference then paid to 
<k the Minister of the Town." 

At a time when college training 
was limited to a few favored schol- 
ars, he carefully perfected his educa- 
tion in classical and theological stud- 
ies. The years of his early manhood 
he spent in the intimate society and 
companionship of the founders of 
American institutions. During the 
campaigns and encampments of the 
War of the Revolution he was the 
personal friend of Washington, La- 
fayette, Poor, Lee, Scammel, and 
many other leaders, enjoying con- 
stant opportunities for social inter- 
course and common experiences ; and 
in after life, by personal and written 
interchange of courtesies, he strength- 
ened those friendships which were 
cemented by patriotism, self-denial, 
and lofty purpose, and which he was 
so well fitted to appreciate. 

Tradition reports that in the pulpit 
■and upon the platform he was a mag- 
netic orator, possessing rare power 
over the feeliugs of his audience. 
Blessed with attractive personal ac- 
complishments and with mental abili- 
ties transmitted from educated gen- 
tlemen, who had been in their gener- 
ation the intellectual leaders of their 
vicinage, he not only ministered to 
the intellect of his hearers, but, with 
a life experience of men and scenes 
and events in which they equally 
shared, he appealed to their imagina- 
tion, their love of country, their 
struggles for freedom, and their 
common remembrances, and inspired 

them with a masterful sympathy. 
Strong testimony to his oratorical 
abilities was the willingness of the 
officers of the Western army of 1779 
to contribute their hard earned and 
scantily paid Continental currency 
for the gratuitous distribution of his 
sermon at Easton : and, stranger yet, 
his selection as the preacher who 
should inspire the hearts of the sol- 
diery at Valley Forge with " Thauks- 
giving and praise " in that dolorous 
winter of 1777, when a foreign officer, 
walking with Washington through 
the camp, " despaired of American 
Independence," because he heard 
from many voices, echoing through 
the open crevices between the logs, 
these words: "No pay, no clothes, 
no provisions, no rum-" 

Dr. Thacher writes, — "Under these 
unexampled sufferings the army was 
not without consolation, for his excel- 
lency the commander in chief, whom 
every soldier venerates and loves, 
manifested a fatherly concern and 
fellow-feeling in their sufferings." 

This veneration and personal love 
for Washington, which sustained the 
soldiery during the privations of the 
Revolution, became in after years 
with many veteraus a characteristic. 
Especially was this true of Mr. Evans, 
who made it a marked feature in his 
conversation, his writings, and his 
orations. No supporter of royalty 
could have been more loyal to kingly 
leader than was he to the fame and 
honor of his chieftain. As illustrat- 
ing this trait in his character may be 
quoted from Mrs. Kirkland's Life of 
Washington the following incident, 
furnished by George Kent, Esq., of 
Washington, D. C. : 

;t The Reverend Israel Evans (aa 

Rev. Israel Evans. 


uncle of mine by marriage with my 
father's sister) was a chaplain iu the 
army through nearly the entire Revo- 
lutionary War. lie was a native of 
New Jersey, a man of education, and 
capable of appreciating such a char- 
acter as that of Washington. The 
opportunities he enjoyed for social 
intercourse with him, as well as with 
the patriots of the Revolution, were 
very frequent and f ivorable, and his 
reverence for "Washington was very 
great. It is related of Mr. Evans, 
that during his last sickness, thirty 
years or more after the Revolution, 
his successor in the ministry, in the 
New England village (Concord, X. II.) 
where he had been settled, was 
called in by the family to pray with 
him in the evident near approach of 
the dying hour. Mr. Evans had lain 
some considerable time in a stupor, 
apparently unconscious of anything 
around him, and his brother clergy- 
man was proceeding in a fervent 
prayer to God ' that as His servant 
was evidently about departing this 
mortal life, his spirit might be con- 
veyed by angels to Abraham's bo- 
som.' Just at this point the dying 
man for the first time and for the mo- 
ment revived so far as to utter, in 
the interval of his delirium, ' and 
Washington's too,' and then sank 

again into apparent unconsciousness 
— as if it were not enough to " have 
Abraham for his father,' and on 
whose bosom to lean ; — a signal man- 
ifestation of ' the ruling passion 
strong in death,' and of the lasting 
hold which that great man had on the 
mind and heart of one of his early 
and devoted friends." 

" My king 
King everywhere !— and so the dead have kings ! 
There also will I worship thee as king!" 

A copy of the will made by Mr. 
Evans is preserved in the archives 
of the New Hampshire Historical So- 

In 182G, while Gen. Lafayette was 
in Concord, he made his home with 
Col. Kent, and with the kindliness of 
manner and speech which endeared 
him to all, he paid the most consid- 
erate attention to the venerable widow 
of his former companion-in-arms. 
When a miniature of Mr. Evans was- 
shown to him, he exclaimed, his voice 
trembling with emotion, "-It is out- 
worthy chaplain !" 

The testimony of Lafayette vouches 
for the resemblauce to the man him- 
self of the first painting : good judges 
testify that the original painting is 
faithfully reproduced in the secoud,. 
which is herewith presented to the 

State of New Hampshire. 

The portrait of Rev. Israel Evans was accepted by the Governor and Council, and 
ordered to be hung in the Hull of Representatives, where it may now be seen. 


Secretary of State. 


The Bailey Family 


1. John Bailey, the emigrant an- 
cestor of the New England branch of 
the family, came from Chippenham, 
"Wiltshire, England. He sailed from 
Bristol in April, 1635, in the ship 
"Angel Gabriel," and was cast away 
at Pemaquid, Maine, in the great 
storm of August 15, 1635. He was a 
weaver, and settled in Salisbury, 
Mass. He removed to Newbury in 
1650. His wife's name was Eleanor, 
perhaps of Newbury. 

2. James Bailey, son of John and 
Eleanor (Emery) Bailey, was born at 
Newbury, Mass., Sept. 12, 1650; 
graduated at Harvard college in 1669 ; 
settled in Salem, Mass., in 1671 ; re- 
mained there until 1670 ; married, 
Sept. 17, 1672, Mary, daughter of 
George and Elizabeth Carr, of Salis- 
bury (born Feb. 29, 1652; died Oct. 
28, 1C83, at Killingworth, Conn.). 
Mr. Bailey went to Killingworth, 
Conn., in 1682 or 1683. lie proba- 
bly left that town before 1691. In 
October, 1697, he was dismissed from 
the church in Salem, and recommend- 
ed to the church in Roxbury. He was 
a physician in Roxbury, and died in 
that town, Jan. 18, 1706-7. 

3. Rev. Jas. Bailey, of Weymouth, 
Mass., said to have been the son of 
James Bailey, of Roxbury (vide 
N. E. Hist, and Gen. Register), was 
born iu 1691 ; graduated from Harv- 
ard college in 1719; died Aug. 12 
<22), 1766. Wife, Sarah. 

Children bom in Weymouth : 

1. James, born 1722. 

2. Mary, > 

3. Elizabeth,) 1 '-'^ 

By T.ev. H 

4. Joshua, 1726. 

5. Thomas, 1728 (a son came to Wool- 
wich, Me.) 

6. Samuel, 1730. 

7. Nathaniel, 1731. 

8. John, 1733. 

9. Daniel, 1734. 

10. Sarah, 1735. 

4. John 4 Bailey, Jas., 8 born in 
1733, settled in Woolwich, Maine. 
He married Elizabeth Anne Memoir 
(Moraoi), the daughter of a French 
officer (weaver). John Bailey was a 
captain in the Revolutionary array. 
He died July 29, 1813, aged 80 years. 
His widow died Jan. 17, 1828. 

Children of John and Elizabeth 
Anne (Memoir) Bailey, born in Wool- 
wich, Maine : 

1. Benjamin, b. Nov. 10, 1761 ; d. in 

2. John Maximillian, b. August 8, 
1764; d. Oct. 5, 1857. 

3. Elizabeth Limer, b. March 22, 1767; 
married, July 14, 1757, Josiah Brookins, 
Jr.; d. March 5, 1792. 

4. George, b. Sept. 7, 1769; d. 1858. 

5. David, b. in May, 1772; m., Nov. 8, 
1796, Prudence Hodgdon; d. Dec. 11, 

6. Jesse, b. Sept. 25, 1776; m., May 28, 
1791, Eunice Gould, who d. Dec. 30, 1867, 
aged nearly 94 years. 

5. John 5 Maximillian Bailey, 
John, 4 Jas.. 8 born Aug. 8, 1764 ; set- 
tled in Woolwich, Maine ; married (1) 
Nov. 13, 1787, Susanna Hodgdon, of 
Edgecomb, who died April 30, 1791, 
aged 28 years. He married (2), in 
January, 1792, Susanna, daughter of 
Josiah Brookins, who died May 21, 
18G1, aged 92 years. He died Octo- 
ber 5, 1857. 

O. Thayer. 

The Shazv Family. 


Children of John M. and Susanna 
(Ilodgdon) Bailey : 

1. Rebecca, b. Nov. 13, 1788; m. Wm. 
Fullerton; d. Feb. 19, 1887. Their son, 
Otis Fullerton, m. Sarah Ellsworth, of 
Bath, whose son, Rev. J. E. Fullerton 
(Bowdoin college, I860), formerly of La- 
conia, now resides in Brighton, Mass. 

2. Susanna Hodgdon, b April 23, 1791 ; 
m., Dec. 25, 1811, Abner Brookins. 

3. Anna M., b. April 23, 1791. 

Children of John M. and Susanna 
(Brookius) Bailey : 

4. Polly, b. July 9, 1792; m. Dec. 14, 
1809, John Williams. 

5. Martha (Pattee), b. Oct. 22, 1791; 
m., Aug. 12, 1812, Wm. Stacey Shaw. 

6. Abner, b. May 11, 1796; lived in 
Illinois ; m. twice ; large family. 

7. John M., b. July 18, 1806; m. (1) 

Williams; m. (2) Harriet Reed; d. 

in Woolwich, Nov. 10, 1886. 


John Shaw, a farmer of Woolwich, 
Maine, born about 1760, married 
Margaret Lancaster (born in 1756, 
died Feb. 18, 1839), and died June 2, 
1843, aged 83. 

Children of John • and Margaret 
(Lancaster) Shaw : 

1. Damaras, b. Oct. 15, 1783; m., Dec. 
22, 1799, Wm. Dickinson. 

2. Sarah, b. March 12, 1785; m., Dec. 
22, 1803, Solomon Seavey. 

3. Hannah, b. Feb. 2, 1787; d. Nov. 
17, 1787. 

4. William Stacey, b. Oct. 2, 1789; m., 
Aug. 12, 1812, Martha Batley. 

5. Lydia, b. Dec. 19, 1790; m. May 4, 
1809, Joshua Delano. 

6. John, b. July 17, 1793, m., May 6, 
1813, Hannah Wright; d. June 24, 1877. 

7. Hannah, b. July 12, 1798; m., April 
16, 1819, Reuben Wright; d. Nov. 4, 1883. 

8. Susanna, b. Feb. 22, 1800; m., Rev. 
Files; d. Dec. 19, 1887. 

William Stacey Shaw, born Oct. 
2, 1789; married, Aug. 12, 1812, 
Martha Bailey 6 (born Oct. 22, 1794, 
died Dec. 23. 1873) ; was a ship- 
master, ship-builder in Wisca.-sset, 

1 By Rev. H.O. Thayer. 

contractor in Boston, inn-keeper, and 
during the latter part of his life a 
farmer iu Winthrop, Me. He died 
April 5, 1851. 

Children of Capt. Wm. S. and 
Martha (Bailey) Shaw : 2 

1. Susan B., b. June 1, 1813; m., Dec. 
31, 1831, Edmund Wells Bliss; d July 9, 

2. William S., Jr., b. July 25, 1815 ; m., 

Dec. 11, 1842, Jane ; d. Aug. 19, 


3. Hannah, b. Aug. 21, 1817 ; m., June 
10, 1839, Josiah N. Fogg. 

4. Abigail Hodgdon, b. Sept. 1, 1819; 
m., May 26, 1811, Rufus A. Brainard ; d. 
Feb. 20, 1845. 

5. Mary Bailey, b. May 15, 1821 ; in., 
Sept. 2G, 1841, John McCllntock ; d. 
Oct. 25. 18G6. 

G. Martha, b. Jan. 13, 1824; m., (1) 
Nov. 25, 1851, Alexander Gray; m. (2), 

7. Charles Mumford, b. Jan. 13, 1824; 
d. unm., Oct. 21, 1847. 

8. Infant, b. and d. Jan. 7, 1826. 

9. Elizabeth Ann, b. Sept. 13, 1827 ; m., 
Oct. 3, 1848, Perkins Russell, ; d. March 
10, 1852. 

5 Family Bible, J. X. McC. 


The Sharw Family 


Children of Edmund Wells and 
Susan B. (Shaw) Bliss : 

Charles E., b. Nov. 1, 1831; d. Jan. 8, 
1855; drowned at sea. 

Susan E., b. March 10, 1838; m. Rev. 
Merry; d. Sept. 18, 1SC5. 

Obed W., b. March 8, 1840; d. Aug. 
16 1852. 

George F., b. April 26, 1843; d. July 6, 
1864, in U. S. A. 

John Me., b. Sept. 18, 1845; d. April 
25, 1853. 


Children of William S., Jr., and 
Jane Shaw, of Baltimore : 

Eliza E., b. Dec. 29, 1843; m. 

Boteler ; res. Baltimore. 

Martha J., b. June 13, 1846; d. Nov. 
22, 1848. 

Charles, b. Nov, 6, 1847. 

Children of Josiah N. and Hannah 
(Shaw) Fogg : 

Dudley S., b. April 10, 1841; m. Eva 
Dearborn, Dec. 25, 1867 ; d. April 7, 1876. 

Augustine N., b. Jan. 6, 1843. 

Charles H., b. April 18, 1848; m. Ada 
; res. Readfield, Me. 

Anna Laurie, b. April 14, 1859 ; d. Feb. 
11, 1865. 


Children of Rufus A. and Abigail 
H. (Shaw) Braiuerd : 

Arixene A., b. Xov. 26, 1842 ; m. Na- 
thaniel Wing; res. Long Island. 

Elbridge J., b. Feb. IS, 1845; d. June 
24, 1864 (in U. S. A.). 


Children of Capt. John and Mary 
Bailey (Shaw) McClintock. 

Georgianna, b. in 1842, in Winthrop, 
Me.; d. 1844. 

John Norris, b. May 12, 1846, in Win- 
throp, Me. ; m. Josephine Tilton, Oct. 
3, 1871 ; 3 children. 

William Edward, b. July 29, 1848, in 
Hallowell ; m. Mary Estella Currier, June 
17, 1873 : 5 children. 

James Young, b. 1851 ; d. April, 1853. 

J. T., b. April 21, 1853; m. Mary J. 
Robinson ; 2 children. 

Mary Elizabeth, b. April 13, 1859. 


Childreu of Alexander and Martha 
(Shaw) Gray : 

Leonora Jane, b. Nov. 18, 1848 ; m. Dr. 
McDavid ; res. Augusta, Me. 

Bertha O., b. April 29, 1852; m. Fred 
Reynolds; res. Lawrence, Mass. 

Mary A., b. Jan. 25, 1856 ; d. June 10, 


Children of Perkins and Elizabeth 
Ann (Shaw) Russell : 

Martha Etta, b. Sept. 20, 1849; m. 

Wallace, b. Oct. 12, 1850; d. Jan. 2, 

/;/ the Night. 219 

By Laura Garland Carr. 

Are there faint footsteps outside in the night? 

Is there low sobbing at window and door? 
Lost and forsaken ones seeking the light, 

Sighing in loneness for what is no more? 
No ! 'tis the rain, with a strange, ghostly fall ; 
Night winds, that moan like a lost spirit's call. 

Is that a drum with a dull, muffled beat, 
Like a heart throbbing in terror or dread? 

Are there forms moviug with slow, timing feet, 
Dancing a death dance by yonder low bed? 

No ! 't is the clock, marking time as it crawls ; 

"Wind-shaken shadows on dim-lighted walls. 

Friend that I love — oh so still and so white ! 

What ! from the'lips uot a flutter of breath? 
Oh ! has she gone in the dark, dreary night? 

Am I aloue in this chamber with death? 
No! faintest thrills. through the veined eyelids creep; 
'Tis but the lull of an opiate sleep. 

Under the curtains I peer through the dark; 

Only the room's gloomy double I sec, 
With its one sleeper, so silent and stark, 

And my own face staring blankly at me. 
Blackest of darkness is spread over all, 
Wrapping the land in funereal pall. 

Moans, moans the night wind, and sobs, sobs the rain. 

Will the long night with its burdens go past? 
Will my heart dance in its lightness again, 

And the world waken to motion at last? 
O for a sound in the wide, dismal house, 
Though but the squeak of a scared wainscot mouse. 

Death here beside me is watching to-night, 
Watching and waiting to swell his vast train ; 

Formless aud voiceless, but dreadful in might, 
Holding mv heart with a cold, noisome chain. 

Helpless and hopeless I watch in the gloom, 

Waiting the slow-coming, sure-coming doom. 


JSttstgn JYabby. 


An Old-time Story. — (Concluded.) 
By Mary R. P. Hatch. 

Great excitement continued in the 
colonies over their treatment by the 
mother country. Every one took 
sides, either for or against parlia- 
ment, and this wrought changes iu 
many a friend and sw etheart. Lucy 
Flint lost hers, for he went for the 
colouies and she for the king, and 
they wrangled so when they met that 
they came to dislike each other in time. 

The very air we breathed did not 
seem the same, and the wind blew to 
every quarter messages of strife. 
The massacre of 1770 had not been 
forgotten, and now seemed fresh in 
every mind. When the 5th of March 
came around, even the threats of the 
English soldiers could not prevent 
the address of Warren in memory of 
the event. 

I mind me well the day ; — it was 
fine and clear, and we went early to 
the South church to hear it. The 
English soldiers crowded the door- 
way, so Warren got in at the window 
over the pulpit. Such a speech ! It 
thrills my old heart now. To my 
mind he seemed grander than Alex- 
ander the Great. 

About this time father came near 
getting into trouble from overmuch 
speaking. It was but a little while 
after the battle of Lexington. Out- 
old friend Major Putnam had heard 
of it while ploughing in the field. 
He unyoked his team and left the 
plough in the furrow, sent Schuyler 
to the house for his gun, and came 
galloping down to Boston. His road 

lay by where father was at work, 
framing a house. He pulled up to 
ask, — 

"What are you doing, Dunton?" 

"Building a gallows to hang the 
lories on," said father. " Where are 
you going?" 1 

" To get them ready," shouted the 
major, clattering down the road. It 
was a tory neighborhood, and father 
was warned to leave. He left to 
join Putnam's regiment. 

Roger and Hugh became soldiers, 
but they were stationed near home, so 
we could see them sometimes. Mother 
and I were left alone, for all the ap- 
prentices had goue away one time 
and another. Peleg Jones joined the 
British army. 

Oh but it was a sad, anxious time 
to have three we loved so well go 
away, perhaps to die ; but we were 
proud, too. 

Three, I say, for Roger and I had 
plighted troth together, and were to 
wed if he was spared. 

"Nabby, dear," said Roger, u per- 
haps you will be a widow before you 
are a wife." 

"■How can that be, Roger dear?" 
and I laughed as I always did when I 
felt like crying ; it kept back the tears, 
you see. wt But if it be so, it is bet- 
ter to be the widow of a soldier than 
the wife of any other man." 

Then Roger kissed me and said I 
had a soldier's heart, and I said it 
was little either of us knew about 
soldiering vet. 


Ensign JVabby. 


The town was full of British sol- 
diers, and often they rode by, three or 
four abreast, all in scarlet and gold, 
shining in the sun, till I came to hate 
them, and the sun, almost, for making 
them glitter so when our dear ones 
wore homespun. 

About this time there was a story 
rife in the neighborhood about two 
of his majesty's officers, that was 
told for the truth, though it might 
not have been true. Tiiere was a 
large frog-pond just outside the town, 
and Colonel Dyer and Elderkin had 
to pass it one night. 'T was still and 
clear, and the frogs piped shrill and 
loud. Among them was one old 
settler that was said to be very old 
indeed, and had a voice that could be 
heard a long distance. If you ever 
noticed it, their croaking, like the 
ticking of a clock, takes on a variety 
of sounds. That night the officers 
plainly heard their own names called, 
thus : Colonel Dyer, Colouel Dyer ! 
Elderkin, too. Elderkin, too! The 
first in a dreadful monotone, the last 
in a shrill chorus. Not doubting that 
it was their own names they f heard 
called in such fearful tones, they 
took to their heels as though a legion 
of demons were after them. 1 

I remember the battle of Bunker 
Hill, June 17th, as no other event of 
the war, for my dear brother Hugh 
fell that day. We heard the sounds 
of musketry and cannon, and once I 
went on the housetop to see the bat- 
tle. Oh! the roar, the smoke, the 
charging, the struggling of the red 
and the blue ! Then Hugh was 
brought in. He was but seventeen, 
a year older than I, and I loved him 
better than my parents, almost. His 

brown hair curled over his forehead 
as he sometimes brushed it in sport, 
and his lips seemed to smile. But 
for the wound in his side he would 
seem to have been asleep. His poor, 
dear hand clung tight to his heart, 
where he threw it when he was struck. 

I never shed a tear, but a stern, 
solemn feeling came over me. He 
was good, and he had died nobly for 
his country. I would take his place, 
I said to myself, for I had the soul 
of a patriot, though in the body of a 
woman. They drew off his clothes, 
and robed him for the burial, and 
Friend Martha Remick came in to 
sit with mother. It was yet earl}' in 
the fight. The terrible death mus- 
ketry could still be heard. I took 
Hugh's clothes, and said to Friend 
Martha, — 

''I am going to my room. Will 
you stay with mother to-day?" 

"Yea, Abigail," said she, "I will 
so do, and verily my soul rejoiceth 
that the spirit moveth thee to spend 
the day in prayer. Pray that this 
wicked strife may cease." 

I put on my brother's clothes — he 
was scarce larger than I, for I was a 
tall girl now — and I knotted up my 
hair under the three-cornered hat. 
Then I locked my door and slipped 
into the street. 

I knew Hugh's company and found 
it. and I took my place by Roger's 
side where my brother fell ; but he 
scarce noticed me, so busy was he 
with the work of death. The bullets 
flew like hail, but Roger never 
flinched, and I felt proud of him. I 
Loaded and fired as 1 used to in Pom- 
fret when I went hunting with Hugh. 
When I was thirsty I drank from 



Roger's canteen, and I loaned him 
cartridges from my pouch. 

Then came shooting up from 
Charlestown flames of fire, but they 
did not come from the direction of 
home, where mother sat watching by 
her dead boy, so I saw it not again, 
nor the people thronging the house- 
tops. I felt no fear, and had I known 
I should never leave the battlefield 
alive, I am sure my hand would not 
have flinched. So felt the men 
around me. Look where I might, I 
saw calm, set faces under the grime 
of battle, but never a tremor nor 
gesture of cowardice. When our 
people turned to retreat, I felt as if 
we must not go, as if Hugh's spirit 
was crying out that it was given in 

" Let us die here rather than flee," 
I cried ; but wheu Warren fell I fol- 
lowed Eoger from the field, and, as 
soon as I could, slipped away home. 

Motber and Friend Martha still 
watched by the side of Hugh, and had 
not missed me. 

Roger came, and I cried for the 
first time as we looked at our dead 
brother ; for they were brothers in 
heart and cause, and were to have 
been so in name. Roger wept, and 
his tears fell fast, for brave men are 
always the tenderest. Afterward he 
spoke of the fight. 

" Nabby, dear," said he, "there 
was a brave lad that took Hugh's 
place, and fought by my side. I 
would be glad to know his name. I 
gave him my canteen and he did not 
hand it back, but that is not the rea- 
son I would know him." 

"What is the reason, Roger?" I said. 

" Because, Nabby, he looked and 
spoke so like Hugh, it would seem to 

be him, only I knew it was not, and 
Colonel Prescott noticed him and 
asked me about him. He would like 
to make him an ensign." 

My heart beat fast at that, but a 
woman has no right to such thoughts. 
I said to Roger, — " But you fought 
bravely, too. Will they not reward 
you ? " 

"Ah, Nabby, how do you know I 
did, — because I am your own Roger?" 
Yes, I am to have a lieutenant's com- 
mission, and be transferred to Put- 
nam's division at Long Island ; 
so I shall be near your father. 
Nabby, your words strengthened my 
heart and arm. ''Tis better to be 
the widow of a soldier than the wife 
of any other man.' " 

How brave and tender he looked as 
he took my hand and kissed it. 
Could it tell him that I fought yester- 
day, I, a woman, instead of watching 
by my dead brother, would he not 
think ill of me? 

But I did not keep my thoughts 
from the right way long. I said, "I 
will not keep it secret from Roger," 
so I fetched the canteen. 

"Here, Roger, dear, is your can- 
teen. I forgot to give it back," said I. 

He looked surprised. 

"Did the lad come in here?" 

" No, I am the lad, Roger, dear." 

"You, Nabby?" 

I did not look up, and soon he 
came to my side. 

"I'm proud of your courage, 
Nabby, dear, but I would rather it 
had not been. It is a man's place to 
fight for the hearth, and a woman's 
to keep it warm." 

"I know it, but you are not angry, 

"No, I scarcely know how I feel, 

JSnstgn JVabby. 


but I am sure I am not angry, my 
biave Nabby." 

Soon he went to Long Island, and 
mother and I were alone with our 
grief and our care. We scarce ever 
went out — we had not the heart. 
Morning and night came with scarce 
a change, and our thoughts rose and 
set with the dear hearts away. 

One day in walked Feleg Jones, 
dressed in English uniform, as gay 
as a peacock and as vain. He was 
sergeant or something, and as bold 
as need be. 

"A fine day to you, Nabby," said he. 

"The day is well enough without 
your praise, but I'm Nabby only to 
your betters," said I, as I set him a 
chair and curtsied. 

"Oho! so you are as proud as 
ever ! Well, I like it, it becomes you." 

"Your likes are nought to me," I 

" How know you that — I've come a 
wooing," he said, and he tried to 
kiss me. 

I gave him a box on the ear that 
made my haud smart. 

"Take 3'our wooing and your pres- 
ence elsewhere," I said, and walked 
out of the room. 

After that we asked Friend Martha 
and her folk to share our house. 

Peleg Jones came two or three times, 
but I would uever see him, and I sup- 
pose he got discouraged with trying. 

It was a long, weary time ere peace 
was declared, and we often felt heart- 
sick with waiting. Weeks would 
pass without a word from father or 
Roger, and we not knowing about 
the battles, or whether they were 
alive or dead. 

But at last they came home without 
a wound, and what was better, with- 
out a stain of dishonor. Mother 
said their clothes were bullet proof, 
for, after Hugh's death, she had 
stitched a prayer into every seam. 

Roger told father of my righting at 
Bunker Hill, and for many a day he 
called me Ensign Nabby. 

We were married, Roger and I, 
and we all moved back to Pomfret, 
but did not stay there long. Gov- 
ernment granted us some laud, and 
we came here to live. It was lone- 
some at first, to sit in our log house 
and hear the wolves howl about the 
door, but my love for Roger and the 
children was strong enough to make 
me willing to endure even greater 
hardships than I did. In time the 
settlement grew ; old friends joined 
us from Connecticut, and the wilder- 
ness blossomed into a sweet home. 


The Girl Soldiers. 


It was during the War of 1812. 
That war, you will learn in your his- 
tory, broke out because American 
citizens were seized by British sea- 
captains and made to serve as sea- 
meu on their ships. 

One afternoon in August, 1812, 
two little sisters, Abigail and Rebecca 
Bates, sat knitting. They were about 
ten and twelve years old, the daugh- 
ters of the lighthouse keeper at Sit- 
uate Beach, Mass., and they sat in 
the porch of the lighthouse. Above 
them in the tower was their father, 
cleaning and trimming his lamps. 

The little girls had so many rounds 
to knit on the woollen stockings be- 
fore they quit. They were talking 
of the war. Indeed, there was so 
much excitement then that the very 
dogs almost barked about it. British 
ships' boats put in anywhere, and 
took men out of their gardens and 
fishing vessels, tied them and rowed 
off with them, and they and their 
neighbors could not help it. Along 
the coast men were stationed to look 
out for the British ships and give the 
alarm to the villagers. 

Situate had a coast-guard, but he 
was away that afternoon, had gone 
mland to see his mother, who was 
very ill. lie had left his fife and 
drum in the lighthouse. It was with 
these he was to give the alarm to the 
neighborhood in case a British ship 
should appear in the harbor. Hearing 
these the men thereabouts would 
seize their guns, pistols, knives, and 
clubs, and rush to the rescue if an 
attempt was made to carry off one of 
their comrades. 

" I wish the coast-guard had not 

gone away," said Abby. " I am 

" I am not," said Rebecca. 

At that moment their father called 
them: "Abigail! Rebecca! Come up 
here quick !" 

They ran like wind up to the tower. 
"Look! look! girls! Isn't that a 
British frigate out in the offing? See 
the flag flying from her mast-head ! 
My hand trembles so I cannot hold 
the glass." 

In a moment Rebecca seized the 
glass and swept the quiet harbor and 
the open ocean. 

" Yes ! yes ! I see it. It is, father ; 
and see ! they are putting a small 
boat off to shore. It is loaded with 
men, and I see the muskets glitter 
and shine." 

" Oh ! " groaned the keeper, "what 
shall we do, and the coast-guard 
gone ! " 

" Father," broke in little Abigail, 
all her fear gone, — "Father, Becky 
and I will take the drum and fife and 
get behind that point of rocks and 
play. May be they will think we 
have some troops here " 

" But, child, how can you get 
down there without their seeing the 
drum? They have a glass, too." 

" I know," broke in Becky. "We'll 
take the table-cloth and tie it up in 
that, and they will think it's noth- 
ing but a bundle." They won't mind 
two such little girls as we are." 

"God bless you, children ; it's a 
faint hope, but the only one, and you 
may try it. Don't begin to play till 
I hang out this white cloth from the 
window, then you will know they are 
near the shore." 

Loneliness . 


Away they ran, the brave girls, of the seamen as they see the rallying 

their hearts beating like the drum on the shore, and, with muttered 

itself in their excitement. Their curses against the Yankee troops for 

father's heart thumped just the same, balking them in their purpose, they 
for he did not know what might hap- 
pen to his darlings if the angry Brit- 

ish soldiers caught them. But it was 
the last desperate resort, and they 
must try it. 

The drum is untied, the fife is 
raised to Abby'a lips, and soon the 
girls hear the rattle of the oars over 
the quiet water. Then from the 
tower flutters the white signal, and 
on the still air rings the sharp rat-a- 
tat-tat of the drum, and the shrill 
notes of the fife. They wake the 
echoes among the rocks, and startle 
the fishermen from their work on the 
mackerel fleet, while from the dwell- 
ings of the town, in eager alarm, the 
men in shirt-sleeves and with muskets 
in their hands come running down 
to the shore. And still the martial 
music rings out clear and shrill, 
with not a quiver nor a pause ; and 

turn and row swiftly back to the 

The men from the village have 
reached the shore, and, looking eager- 
ly around for the coast-guard, are 
amazed to see, in place of the famil- 
iar figure, the two daughters of Jared 
Bates, with white faces but determin- 
ed air, still playing the drum-sticks 
and blowing the fife. 

" Why, girls, it is n't you that 
saved us to-night from grief and per- 
haps death? " broke out Capt. Folger, 
the leader of the company. k; God 
be thanked for your bravery and fore- 

All the rest of their lives, till they 
grew to be old women, the sisters 
were honored for what they did that 
day. The story will be told as long 
as the United States is a republic. 
When Abbv died, in March last, vet- 

the boat's crew hear it, too. Their etans of the Grand Army of the Re- 
oars are suspended in the air, a public carried her to her grave wear- 
look of rage passes over the faces ing their uniforms. 1 

*The foregoing is from my scrap-book. The original, I think, was taken from the Boston Herald about 
three years ago. — James Priest. • 


[From the German of Herman Allmers.] 
By Laura Garland Cakr. 

I lie at length deep in the tall, green grass ; 

From all around the trills of crickets blend ; 
Straight up from earth my quiet glances pass 

Where heaven's blue mysteries above me bend. 

White, fleecy clouds lie tranquilly o'erhead, 
Like dreams or fancies all too vague to trace. 

It is to me as if I'd loiig been dead, 

And dwelt in bliss id realms of trackless space. 


My Lord Bangs, 


By the Author of " The Widow Wyse.' 

Chapter I. 


There had been signs ominous of a 
gathering storm in the direction of the 
piazza for the last half hour, and 
Edith Josselyn had started up more 
than once with the laudable intention 
of pouring oil upon the trouble waters. 

"It is strange they cannot get along 
without quarrelling," she said to her- 
self. "Margery is a 'little fire-brand,' 
as Charlie says, but he needn't tease 
the poor child so. What an unfortu- 
nate temper she has !" — and she sigh- 
ed deeply. 

But Edith often had occasion to 
sigh over her young sister. Poor 
little Margery ! motherless since her 
fifth year. Edith was only five years 
older, but there was such a difference 
between them ! — one calm, self-reliant, 
and always to be depended upon ; 
the other petulant, self-willed, and 

" I am sure I have tried to do my 
duty by her," she went on, laying 
aside the book she had vainlv tried to 

which were so very irritating to her. 
You must be mistaken ; I can 't fancy 
myself cheating. You must n't forget 
that you are subject to optical illu- 

" It is you who are subject to — to 
juggling" she burst forth angrily. 
"I won't play with you any longer. 
You ought to be ashamed." 

"Oh come, now, little fire-brand, go 
out into the garden and cool off," he 
answered, laughing lightly ; " onlv 

D.OB*/' •/ 

do n't poke your head among the 
branches — everything is so dry now, 
you know." Then a little louder — " I 

say, Edith " 

He said no more. This allusion to 
her red hair was too much for the 
4w little firebrand." She rose in her 
wrath, and, before he had time to de- 
fend himself, drew back her sturdy 
little arm and gave him a stinging 
blow on either cheek ; then rushed 
by her sister like a whirlwind, and 
reached her room, more angry than 
she had ever been before in all her life. 
Edith had witnessed the whole scene 
read ; but, instead of improving, she • from the doorway where she stood, a 
seems actually to be growing worse, picture of amazement and cousterna- 
She is quite fourteen. Certainly old tion. She could see plainly the marks 
enough to control herself. There of her sister's haud upon Charlie 

must be something wrong in my man- 
agement. Papa is right, perhaps. She 
ought to be sent to school — poor lit- 
tle girl ; she won't like it." 

" Now that is n't fair !" came from 
the piazza, in a petulant tone of voice. 

B.iugs's handsome face, as he turned 
his angry blue eyes upon her, and 
neither spoke for a moment. Finally 
he said in a low voice, which trem- 
bled a little from anger, — 

44 I think, Edith, vou will acknowl- 

" You poked the die over with your edge that this is going too far, even 

finger. I saw you !" for Margery. You must see how fooi- 

" Oh no, child !" answered her com- ishly you have managed the child. 

panion, in his soft, smooth tones, You can 't expect me to take such an 

J Copyright, 1889. 

My Lord Bangs. 


affront as this very patiently. If you 
had sent her lo school last year, as 
your father proposed, it would have 
been far better for you both." 

" But she was so young," answer- 
ed Edith, apologetically, " and she 
begged so hard to stay with me." 

"Oh, of course!" he replied sar- 
castically, " and she will beg just as 
hard now. Is she to be pitied and 
petted forever ? Miss Margery knows 
perfectly well how to get her own 
way. But, really, I did n't think you 
would justify this outbreak." 

" Oh Charlie, you know I do not 3" 
interrupted poor Edith, with a suspi- 
cion of tears in her voice. u I am 
very sorry ; and Margery is very, 
very wrong. I suppose I have not 
been strict enough ; but, indeed, I 
have tried " 

" Of course you have tried," an- 
swered Charlie, softening instantly. 
"Don't mind what I said. The lit- 
tle imp made me savage. You know 
I did n't mean it ; you have done as 
well as anybody could do, under the 
circumstances. The trouble is, Mar- 
gery takes advantage of your weak- 
ness — a perfectly natural weakness," 
he explained condescendingly — '-and 
is fast being spoiled. She needs a 
stronger hand than yours. She has 
got quite beyond your control." 

u Yes," replied Edith sadly, "what 
you say is quite true. I have felt it 
for some time, but did n't like to ac- 
knowledge it ; she must be sent away 
to school. Oh, if mamma had only 
lived !" — and she sighed again. 

" If your mother had lived she 
would have been sent away before 
this," said her companion, with easy 
assurance (taking up his hat). — " Will 
vou ride this morning?" 

"Pray excuse me," answered Edith, 
flushing a little, "I must talk with 
Margery. This is too grave a matter 
to pass over lightly. She is too old 
for such childish exhibitions of tem- 

"All right," said Charlie, who had 
entirely recovered his good-nature, 
*' we will go this evening if you like 
it better; but," turning back as he 
was passing through the door, " do n't 
give up the school arrangement." 

" She will go to school," said 
Edith, decidedly, and she went to 
seek her sister. 

If she had expected to find her in 
a penitent mood she was convinced 
to the contrary on opening the young 
Lady's door. Margery was moving 
about like a raging young panther, 
ready to spring upon anybody who 
came in her way. Edith had made 
up her mind to be very calm, and at 
the same time to let her sister know 
t' ; -iat she was very much displeased 
with her. But when she saw the 
hopeless state of the irate young lady, 
she felt that any attempt at reason- 
ing with her would be worse than 

M Oh Margery, how could you do 
so> ! " she began sadly. 

" You need n't preach to me, 
Edith," answered Margery, walking 
excitedly up and down, " for it won't 
do the least bit of good. I am glad 
I did it. I gave him one blow for 
ray red hair, aud one for my freckles, 
and if I could only give him one for 
my nose I should be quite satisfied. 
Let him cheat and call names again, 
if ihe dares. Prince Charlie, indeed V* 
with withering scorn. '* He's no more 

like a prince than — than He is n't 

even a gentleman — he's a cad." 


My Lord Bangs. 

" Margery, stop ! " commanded 
Edith, indignantly. 

" I won't stop," said Margery fu- 
riously. " Nobody can make me, and 
— and I '11 never live with you if you 
marry him — never! never! never!" 
and she burst into a passion of 

The force of Margery's anger be- 
ing spent, she threw herself upon her 
little white bed and sobbed as though 
heart-broken. But she had said 
words that her sister could not easily 
forgive. Edith did not stay to soothe 
the wayward child, as was her cus- 
tom, but left the room immediately, 
saying, as she did so, "You have 
both shocked and grieved me, Mar- 
gery, and when you are quite your- 
self again you may come to me, aud 
we will talk the matter over, and de- 
cide what is to be done." 

Margery rose as the door closed, 
saying wrathfully, with her little fists 
clenched, " You can decide 4 what is 
to be doue' if you choose, but it is 
quite another thing to make me do 
it. I icon't beg his pardon, so there ! 
I '11 never do it. They can shut me 
up and feed me on bread and water — 
they can even whip me," here she 
laughed scornfully, * k and I won't do 
it. He shall beg my pardon. It was 
his fault entirely. It is always his 
fault, only Edith can't see it. I 
suppose it is because she's in love 
with him. I 'd be ashamed to be in 
love with such a hateful creature as 
that. Edith never treated me like 
this before," sobbing again, " and I 
hate him ! hate him! hate him ! " 

Below Edith was giving an account 
of the unpleasant affair to her father. 
With many apologies and self-accu- 
sations she told him that she had 

come to the conclusion that Margery 
must be sent to school. 

44 Poor little girl," said Mr. Josse- 
lyn — "yes, it is the only way. But 
don't blame yourself, dear. I am 
sure you have done what you could. 
If an}' one is to blame it is I. She 
jneeds discipline. Perhaps it would 
Ihave been better if I — " 

" Oh ! papa," exclaimed Edith in 
a frightened tone (her father was not 
-old, and a step-mother was her bete 
moir), "yon have been everything 
(that is thoughtful and kind. Noth- 
ing can change poor Margery's un- 
tfortunate temper but strict discipline, 
constantly exercised, and that would 
be impossible at home in any case." 

After a good deal of discussion the 
matter was finally settled. Margery 
was to be sent to Madame Chaudet's, 
then known to be the strictest insti- 
tution of the kind in the country, for 
three years. She did not beg Charlie 
Bangs's pardon ; — on the contrary, 
she lashed him with her spiteful little 
'tongue whenever she found the least 
opportunity, and he grew at last to 
{hate the very sight of her, and avoid- 
ed her as much as possible. 

Chapter II. 


The Josselvus and the Bangses had 
always been intimate. They were 
the two considerable families of the 
tfcown, and were looked up to accord- 
ingly. "The biggest toads }n our 
jpuddle," Joe Whittlesey used to 
say to all new comers. Joe was a 
character in the town. Everybody 
quoted Joe Whittlesey. He was al- 
lowed to say and do pretty much as 
::e pleased. He was by no means a 

My Lord Bangs. 


fool, but he was u a queer fish," and 
sometimes said startling things. 

The two houses, which were ram- 
bling, old-fashioned structures, were 
exactly alike without and within, 
save that a wide piazza had been add- 
ed to three sides of the Josselyn 
mansion, where both families congre- 
gated in summer, and from which 
surpassingly lovely views were ob- 
tained. They were directly opposite 
each other, at the extreme end of the 
small though somewhat pretentious 
town in which they lived, on a slight 
elevation of land, at the junction of 
two long, wide streets, which were 
shaded their entire length by tall, 
straight maples and beautiful elms. 
Indeed, these trees coustituted the 
chief beauty of the town from April 
to November. In the latter part of 
May and in early June, the green 
time of the year, it resembled 
a dense forest, with occasional 
glimpses of tall chimneys and slen- 
der, gleaming spires. At the back 
were low, rolling wooded hills ; and ou 
the east lay the river, with its many 
dangerous eddies and swift cur- 
rents — a huge, fascinating serpent, 
whose terrible jaws had swallowed 
many an innocent victim. 

There was a sleepy atmosphere 
about this circumscribed town, even 
in its most hilarious season, that would 
have struck one used to city sights 
and sounds ; but it had its charms for 
all that. Indeed, it was delightful at 
certain seasons : — not in winter when 
huge mountainous drifts of snow 
were seeu upon all sides, when win- 
dows were half covered and fences 
were nowhere to be seen, when the 
north wind sought to penetrate not 
only oue"^ clothing, but one's very 

marrow, nor yet in mid-summer, 
when one had literally to gasp for 
breath while turning longing eyes in 
the direction of the blue sea. At 
such times the Josselyns and the 
Bangses were not iu town. Indeed, 
no one was in town who could by any 
means get away. It was the proper 
thing to do, and the inhabitants of 
this small place were as great stick- 
lers for propriety as those of the great 
metropolis. When the Josselyns and 
the Bangses adopted a fashion, the 
towns people fell in with it as a mat 
ter of course. 

But go, if you will, in that perfect 
time when the graceful, girlish elms 
are putting forth their leaves, when 
the apple-trees are loaded with pink 
and white blossoms, and the tender 
blades of fresh grass are shooting up- 
ward towards the soft blue sky ; when 
the intervale lands grow gloriously 
green iu the sunlight, when the wil- 
lows by the river flash silvery white at 
every sweep of the soft south wind, 
and the river gleams and sparkles, 
murmuring as softly and joyously as 
though dreadful secrets were not hid- 
den beneath its fair surface ; or, 
later, when Dame Nature holds high 
carnival — that brief, glorious season, 
when she dons her gayest robes, and 
flirts recklessly with every passing 
breeze, and you cannot fail to be en- 

The Josselyn family consisted of 
foui* persons, — the father, who was 
president of the National Bank and a 
large property-owner, and the two 
daughters, Edith and Margery, of 
whom we have spoken, and their aunt 
Sarah. There had been a son, a 
bright, beautiful boy, the pride and 
delight of his parents — their first 


My Lord Bangs. 

born. To Margery's childish eyes he 
was big brother Ned, although her 
recollection of him was very vague ; 
but Edith will never forget that bright 
June morning when this same brother 
Ned, two years older than herself, 
went out with a careless, merry whis- 
tle to meet his companion. 

"Don't go near the river!" his 
mother called out ; but he was already 
out of hearing, and an hour later his 
clothes were found carefully folded 
upon the river's bank. The next day 
his body, bruised and battered, was 
discovered below the Falls, miles 
away. The mother could not survive 
the shock. She died a few months 
later, and the little girls were left to 
the care of the bereaved husband and 
his maiden sister, who, having no 
other ties, immediately took up her 
abode with them. 

.Of the Bangses, there were three. 
Old Bangs had accumulated a fortune 
and died. He was always called 
" Old Bangs." I cannot tell why, 
for he was not so very old — scarcely 
fifty — but the title seemed to fit him. 
His wife was a gentle woman : no one 
could doubt that. Why she married 
Old Bangs every one wondered. They 
were total 1)' unlike. Have you never 
seen an unbeautiful, old, gnarled tree, 
full of knots and twists, aud disa- 
greeable protuberances, and all about 
it a wonderfully delicate and graceful 
clinging vine, putting forth its green 
leaves and fine tendrils, as though 
seeking to hide whatever was rouo;h 
and jagged and unsightly ? Old 
Bangs and his wife resembled such a 
tree. But Mrs. Bangs had one un- 
failing delight — a lovely cherub, with 
laughing blue eyes and sunny rings 
of hair. Surely no prince ever born 

had a more lovely face or a more 
perfect form. He was " Cherub " 
and " Angel" in his babyhood, and 
fci Prince Charlie " as he grew older ; 
and not only his own family, but, in- 
deed, all with whom he came in con- 
tact, acknowledged his sway. Hearts 
are easily won by mere physical 
beauty, aud Prince Charlie possessed 
this to an extraordinary degree. 

The other member of the Bangs 
family, and not the least important, 
was Geoffrey Thorpe, the only child 
of Mrs. Bangs's favorite brother, 
who had " gone down with all on 
bocird," as he, with his wife and a 
party of friends, was returning from 
a foreign tour. Geoffrey had been 
left in his aunt's care, aud still con- 
tin ned to live with her. Indeed, she 
looked upon him as a son. He was 
ten years older than Prince Charlie, 
and was cast in an entirely different 
mould. Not that he was ugly — far 
from it ; but they were totally unlike 
from every point of view. 

Geoffrey was tall, erect, and vig- 
orous, dark-haired, with singularly 
clear eyes of darkest blue, aud where 
Prince Charlie was weak he was 
strong- There was a look of firm- 
ness about the iatter's mouth which 
spoke of a will as unyielding as iron, 
although there was an especial charm 
in Ids smile, which was as rare as it 
was sweet, and which lighted up his 
somewhat stern features. There were 
lines about the face which indicated 
hard study and deep thought. He 
was ibis adopted mother's counsellor 
and guide, and his strong character 
was a prop upon which the volatile 
Charlie uuconsciously leaned. He 
au- r -~ered good-humoredlv to the 
sobriquets of "Judge" and "Old 

My Lord Bangs. 


Geoff.," but no one else took the 
smallest liberty with him. His prac- 
tical good sense, and, above all, his 
unselfish devotion to the interest of 
both of his relatives, made him in- 
valuable to them. 

Charlie was now twenty-two. He 
had been through college, and had 
begun the study of law, as Geoffrey 
had done before him. He was con- 
sidered brilliant rather than thorough 
in his studies, but he was thoroughly 
accomplished in the gracious art of 
putting people at ease ; charming in 
conversation and intellect, but weak 
of will and quite wanting in energy. 
He entertained an absurd idea of his 
own importance, and showed a hope- 
less indifference to the value of 
money, which fact made him very 
popular with his fellow-students, for 
he scattered this commodity freely. 
But, although his allowance was am- 
ple, his demands upon his mother's 
purse were frequent, and more than 
once " Old Geoff" had been appealed 
to in an extremity, for, although the 
latter was not rich, he had an assured 
competency. But Prince Charlie was 
merry and careless. He laughed 
down all scoldings, and was the pet 
of the whole feminine portion of the 
town. His haudsome, smiling face, 
soft, lazy voice, and irresistible man- 
ners made him welcome everywhere. 
But the girls knew better than to 
spread their nets for him. They all 
knew that he had been looked upon 
as Edith Josselyn's future husband 
from the time he donned knicker- 

There was a flavor of idleness 
about this young man's every move- 
ment, a picturesqueness in his atti- 
tudes, which were fascinating. He 

found the world a very pleasant place 
to live iu in all respects, and he aimed 
to get as much pleasure out of life 
and with as little effort as was possi- 
ble. Geoffrey might plod — it was 
his nature — but he was of a different 
mould altogether. He would exert 
himself to be agreeable, but if there 
were any sacrifices to be made, why 
he was perfectly willing that others 
should make them — that was all. 
He had hosts of friends, this charm- 
ing young man, for he would not 
take the trouble to be disagreeable — 
except to Margery. There was an 
unaccountable antipathy between 
them. Iu fact, they were always 
quarrelling ; but on the whole he was 
such a pleasant, easy-tempered fellow, 
that no one could get angry with 
him, albeit he did give one the im- 
pression that he considered that the 
world was made especially for him. 

He did not trouble himself about 
the future. " Sufficient unto the day 
is the evil thereof " was his motto. 
So he lived from day to day, with no 
set purpose in life. What was the 
use? There was no hurry. He in- 
tended to go abroad in the spring. 
It was quite the proper thing to do. 
Geoffrey had spent two years in trav- 
elling ; but lie did not intend to follow 
his cousin's course, by any means. 
Geoff, was too fond of delving to 
suit his ease-loving nature. He 
would spend some time in England, 
the home of his ancestors. He was 
fond of talking about his ancestors, 
and he would revel in the delights of 
Paris. He would have no trouble 
about the language. He had been 
studying with Mousieur Delorme for 
months, and had really a very good 
accent, and when he returned he 


My Lord Bangs. 

should probably think about settling 
down, with Edith, of course, and live 
a life of comparative ease. He 
would have something to do to look 

after his property, and well, his 

ideas were very vague at present. 
He might go in for distinction in 
politics : he was a ready speaker, 
that is to say, an adept in brilliant 
nothings, and won applause when- 
ever he condescended to address a 
multitude on the exciting questions 
of the day. 

- He was not an ardent lover, not 
as mnch so as the more quiet Geof- 
frey would have been. He took 
things of that nature in a matter-of- 
course sort of way which was very 
exasperating to his cousin, who wor- 
shipped the stately Edith from afar, 
and made no sign. In fact, Prince 
Charlie never talked of love at all, 
but he consulted Edith upon all mat- 
ters, great and small, and leaned 
upon her as he did upou all his 
friends ; and it would have been 
strange, indeed, if, with all his 
props, he was unable to stand erect 
and make a creditable appearance 
before the world. 

Edith Josselyu was tall and slen- 
der, with large, dark eyes, refined and 
delicate features, and clear, pale com- 
plexion. Her head was set upon 
exquisitely shaped shoulders, and 
she had the manner and bearing of 
one born to command. There was a 
grace and dignity in her movements 
which were restful to look upon. 
Her calm, proud eyes seldom flashed 
with anger, and she was quite above 
petty jealousies. 

Margery had been a pretty child, 
but she was now at that very ugly 
and awkward a^e when one wonders 

whether she will turn out passably 
good-looking or decidedly plain. 

She was a great care to her sister, 
and kept her in a constant state of 
perplexity. At times it seemed as 
though she tried to be unreasonable 
and absurd, having an air of obsti- 
nate enjoyment in forbidden things ; 
but she had quaint little charms of 
manner quite impossible to resist, 
and it was hard for Edith to refuse 
her anything. Indeed, Edith yielded 
to her young sister quite as much as 
was good for her, treating her always 
with forbearing tenderness. And 
Margery, who was as tricksy a sprite 
as a veritable Undine, was, indeed, 
at times very lovable. But she 
wanted sunshine all the time, — 
storms never. Caresses were abso- 
lutely essential to her happiness ; 
discipline, she would none of it. 
She had a way of putting off all disa- 
greeable things until to-morrow. She 
was quite willing to sew a seam, or to 
be lectured to-morrow. Evervthino- 
in the way of fun she hailed with the 
wildest euthusiasm. She had such a 
capacity for enjoyment, that, after 
the first indignant outbur&t was over, 
she forgot even her worst grievance 
in some new venture. It was thus 
about going to school. After rush- 
ing about the house like a small 
cyclone, and vowing over and over 
again that she would not go, then 
shutting herself up without food for 
a whole day, she suddenly appeared 
in the midst of her sorrowing family, 
and informed them, with a great as- 
sumption of dignity, that she had 
been thinking the matter over, and 
had made up her mind to go away 
to school, but she wanted everybody 
to understand that she went from 

My Lord Baucrs. 


choice; that it was the least of two 
evils. She could bear to go a way, but 
she could not bear to meet that odious 
creature three huudred and sixty-five 
times a year. 

Chapter III. 


There was an oppressive stillness 
about the house after Margery's de- 
parture which weighe ". upon Edith's 
spirits and made her unlike herself. 
Aunt Sarah, who was a fussy little 
woman, made matters worse by con- 
stantly referring to "that poor child," 
wondering if she was very homesick, 
and hoping that she would be careful 
and not get ill, and so on. But Prince 
Charlie's openly expressed feelings of 
relief and satisfaction were quite as 
hard to bear. Indeed, Edith felt al- 
most like quarrelling with him. and it 
was a great relief to her when Geof- 
frey Thorpe came in, as he often did, 
and turned the conversation into a 
different channel. He had studied 
Edith, and he knew how keenly she 
was feeling her sister's absence. He 
was fond of Margery, and he knew 
just how to bring out her good quali- 
ties. Indeed, Margary was always at 
her best with Geoffrey, whom she 
adored ; and she was often heard to 
say that he was worth a million of 
Charlie Bangs, and that she would 
marry him when she was old enough. 
There was a delicacy aud refinement 
in his nature seldom found in the 
sterner sex, and Edith often wished 
that Charlie possessed a little more 
of his cousin's unselfish spirit. Mar- 
gery's first letter to Edith was per- 
fectly characteristic of her. It ran 
thus : 

" My Dear Edith : 

44 Everything is just as horrid as it 
can be. The teachers are cross, the 
beds hard, and the food — 'plain.' I 
should think it was plain with a ven- 
geance. Perhaps you will pity me a. 
little when I tell you that I went to 
bed hungry last night, yes. actually 
hungry. But I suppose you will say 
that I deserve to be punished. I only 
hope that you will be honest enough 
to tell people why. It is because 
Charlie Baugs chooses to be disagree- 
able; because he cannot find anybody 
to quarrel with but poor little me. Of 
course he's got to quarrel with some- 
body. I do hope, Edith, if you care at 
all for me, that you will keep poor, 
dear little Fluff out of the creature's 
way. It would be just like him to be 
cruel to my poor dog just to spite me. 
I have to study very hard. Old Grim, 
(short for grimalkin) is very severe 
(nobody thinks of calling her Mad- 
ame Chaudct, except to her face), but 
we manage to outwit her sometimes. 
I should die if it was n't for ray room- 
mate. She is perfectly lovely, but, 
poor dear, she's got a stepmother; 
and the way that poor girl suffers 
when she is at home is perfectly ap- 
palling. Edith, you mast not let any 
woman inveigle papa into marrying 
agaiu. You must see to it, or he'll be 
doing it some day when you do n't 
expect it, and then it can't be helped . 
Maude Eaton could tell you of perfect- 
ly harrowing scenes that she has been 
through with that woman. It is per- 
fectly evident that she hates Maude, or 
she would n't make her leave her dear 
home and be shut up in this dreadful 
place. Madame Chaudet says that 
she cannot allow me to write to dear 
old Geoffrey. She reads all my let- 


My Lord Bangs. 

ters, but she won't read this. Perhaps 
she does n't know that Maudie has a 
cousin who is married and lives near 
here, and is perfectly devoted to her, 
and that Bridget Callahan, the cham- 
bermaid, loves money. Trust Maude 
for finding ways and means. 

"But you need n't think I am un- 
happy — at least not very. I shall bear 
everything, and do the best I can. I 
wrote what Madame called k a very 
good letter 1 to papa yesterday. N. B. 
When you get c very good letters ' you 
may know that Bridget Callahan has 
n't been bribed. Old Grim, thinks my 
allowance ample, and perhaps it 
would be if I could spend it as I 
please. But fancy her insisting upon 
knowing where ecery penny goes ! 
We have to keep accounts. She is 
willing that we shall have a very few 
caramels, but not many, as they are 
bad for the teeth. What business is 
it of hers, I should like to know ! My 
teeth are my own. Besides, I have 
to buy something to eat, or I should 
starve. So please, Edith, send me a 
little money now and then, in care of 
Mrs. Ernest Dalrymple, 18 Thornton 
street, and Maude will manage to get 
it for me. I just love Maude. She 's 
the dearest girl. She has told me all 
about herself, in confidence, of course, 
and I pity her. I want to ask her to 
visit me next summer. Can I? I told 
her that I had got just the dearest, 
sweetest, loveliest sister in the world, 
and you should have heard her sigh. 
It was very touching. She has a half 
sister, five years old, that woman's 
child. She says she almost hates her, 
and I am sure I do n't wonder. I told 
her about my home, but I did n't tell 
her why I was sent away. I only- 
hinted that I had seen trouble. She 

said she thought that I was unkind to 
keep anything back when she had 
opened her heart to me, but that 
she trusted me, and that she just 
knew that, whatever it was, I was not 
the least bit to blame. 

" I had an awful scare just now. 
Mademoiselle Louise has just been in. 
The little cat never makes the least 
noise. She just creeps, and she came 
very near catching me. But I saw 
her shadow, and tucked this sheet un- 
der my pillow just in season to escape 
detection. She is very suspicious, 
and she seems to enjoy finding out 
things about the girls. 

" » Mees Zhosseleen,' she said, 'I 
ope you ave not been up to meescheef ; 
you look deescom posed.' ' How 
can I help it, Mademoiselle,' I said 
desperately, ' when you glide in like 
a ghost; I am afraid of ghosts.' I 
wanted to say creep in like a cat, but 
I did n't dare to. She did n't answer, 
but asked for Mees Aton, as she calls 
her. Now, what did she come in for? 
Simply to see what I was doing ! She 
knew perfectly well where Maude 
was. But I must close, for she may 
be suspicious enough to come back. 
Tell Geoffrey that I shall write him 
the very first opportunity . Give my 
Love to him, and to papa, and hug 
Fluff for me. and don't let him be 
tormented by anybody. 

" Your affectionate sister, 

" Margery. 

"P. S. You are the dearest sister 
iin the world, and I love you, even if 
you were cruel enough to send me 
away. m." 

4t So that sweet child Margery has 
condescended to write," said Prince 
Charlie, as he sauntered leisurelv in, 

John Park's Ride, 


just as Edith had finished reading her 
sister's letter. " What does she say? 
Of course she sends her love to me? 
Shall I read the precious epistle?" 

44 You had much better not/' 
answered Edith, smiling, 4i for truth 
compels me to say that she is not over 
complimentary to you. In fact, she 
calls you 4 that creature,' and seems 
to think that you are responsible for 
all her misfortunes." 

Prince Charlie winced. He did not 
like to be scorned, even by Margery, 
but he answered lightly, — 

44 1 can return compliment for com- 
pliment : you may tell her that I said 

4 a good riddance' as her carriage 
rolled away, and to think of me as 
being in paradise while she is endur- 
ing a season of purgatory." 

But it was Edith's nature to sooth 
rather than to irritate, and no un- 
pleasant remarks were ever repeated 
to Margery. She was careful not to 
make too frequent use of Prince 
Charlie's name in her letters, but 
spoke of him naturally, as though no 
unpleasant feelings were entertained 
by either of them, hoping for and ex- 
pecting an agreeable change in her 
sister when they should meet again. 
[To be continued.] 


By'C. Jennie Swain. 

Through the mountain pa.-ses, damp and dark, 
Shot the goaded steed of " Paul Revere " Park; 
While the silhouette of the rider's form, 
With its wild background of night and storm, 
Seemed like a phantom with mailed shroud, 
Holding at bay the wraith of the cloud. 

Close behind him, with bated breath, 
Stole the pale horse and his rider, Death ; 
Can he outride him? Shrill and high 
Rang his alarm like a petrel's cry : 
44 Haste : for the valley is doomed to-day ; 
Like a bird to the mountains flee away ! " 

The fiends of the flood-gat^s, with foaming ire, 
"Wait a mightier carnage than sword or fire ; 
Still the faithful steed, wi r h his rider brave, 
Swept on like, an arrow, to warn and save ; 
While like bird of prey, upon fleetest wing, 
With unsheathed sword, rode Death, the king. 

Above him the strength of the green hills lay; 
With each hoof-beat their refuge is farther away ; 
Yet he falters not, though with every breath, 
Comes deadly peril or certain death ; — 
For what does one life in the balance weigh, 
When thousands hung by a thread that day ! 

236 J&hn Park's Ride. 

With the warm blood leaping from heart to brain, 

He counts not life or its gifts as vain ; 

But the hopes of his manhood melt and fade 

In the gloom presaged in the forest glade, 

And the dream of lov-e, and the promise of fame, 

In eternity's light are an empty name. 

" In yonder valley," the hero sighed, 
" Life glides on in a peaceful tide ; 
Childhood gathers and heaps the flowers ; 
Love counts as jewels the summer hours ; 
And the blessing of heaven each day is sent 
On busy life, and its sweet content. 

" Marshalled by glory. :, or lured by love, 
By the genii of roses, or angels above, 
Led to build of gold on a templed height, 
Or to weave a tent roof from love's soft light, 
Life's cup is full to its brim, with bliss ; 
Too well, O my heart* thou knowest this. 

" Haste thee, my charger, nor pause to rest : 
By the sword-thrust rankling within my breast 
Threatening to rend Move's ties in twain, 
Haste, for I faint not with fear or pain, 
While thousands and thousands may rescued be 
Whose lives are as dear as mine to me." 

He drove the spurs in his foaming steed, 

And tore down the valley with lightning speed, — 

Still shouting again his warning cry, 

With the pale horse Death and his rider nigh, 

As down from the mountains the wild floods came, 

Scourging the valleys like quenchless flame. 

A brave knight-errant was Paul Revere : 
But tell the story, thxat all may hear, 
Of the Paul Revere of storm and flood, 
Who face to face like a hero stood 
To a greater danger, — and write his name 
In golden lines on the scroll of fame. 

The History of JVcw Hampshire. 237 



What the Newspaper Critics say of it. 

Mr. John X. McClintock, the compiler 
and author of " The History of Xew 
Hampshire," endeavors to condense into 
one volume the history of a great com- 
monwealth, from the first beginnings at 
Little Harbor in 1623 to the year 1S88 — a 
period of 265 years. In no other state of 
the Union, perhaps, is there a deeper 
interest in the doings of its pioneers. 
Contemporaneous with the settlement of 
Boston and of Plymouth, the attempt was 
made to settle on the Piscataqua and ex- 
plore the northern wilderness, and the 
adventures connected with these various 
settlements are quite as unique as those 
of the pioneers who entered Boston har- 
bor in the year 1630. The need of a 
central locality, which was one of the 
chief recommendations of Boston as a 
great settlement, led to the development 
of the Puritan quality in a more concen- 
trated form than was possible at the 
Piscataqua. The Puritaus were chiefly 
of one mind, and compelled all who did 
not think with them to depart out of 
their coasts. The settlers in Xew Hamp- 
shire included both the churchman and 
the Puritan, and the one person whom 
they could not tolerate was the Quaker. 
The witches were traced in Xew Hamp- 
shire as in Massachusetts, but they did 
not flourish in the more northern climate. 
It is reported that the "White Mountains 
were visited as early as 1632, and one of 
the astonishing facts connected with this 
early provincial history is the rapidity 
with which the small towns of New 
Hampshire were settled by the early col- 
onists. Though Portsmouth was, at an 
early date, an important location, as even 

*By John \. McClintock, Concord, K. 

its present antiquities eloquently testify, 
it never had the prestige of Boston. 

At an early date the claims of the Mas- 
sachusetts colony overawed the settlers 
in Xew Hampshire, and the necessity of 
making a common defence against the 
Indians practically brought Xew Hamp- 
shire within the direction and control of 
the Massachusetts province, so that, while 
there is a great interest in the fortunes 
of Xew Hampshire during the period 
that it was a colonial province, and down 
to the Revolution, its history never has 
the same importance which is attached 
to the story of the civilization of the 
Puritans on the shores of Massachusetts 
bay. At the same time, fully one third 
of this history is the deeply interesting 
account of the way in which Xew Hamp- 
shire was settled, the different encounters 
with the red men, and the steady advance 
of the English settlers in the rescue of 
the land from the wilderness, and in 
its efficient cultivation. Mr. McClintock 
makes no claims to be an accomplished 
historian. He uses the writings of others 
whenever it is practicable, and the graces 
of literary expression are not found in 
his narrative ; but his book, while only 
claiming to be a compilation, which he 
has put into a continuous story, is a more 
complete account of the earlier history of 
Xew Hampshire, and its rapid develop- 
ment during the present century, than 
has before appeared. It is natural that 
the larger part of the work should be 
devoted to the 17th and 18th centuries. 
It is for this earlier period that the ma- 
terials of history are now collected and 
can be reduced to good form, and Mr. 
II. Boston, 1889. 8vo. 764 pp. S3« r . 

2 3 8 

The History of I\ r czv Hampshire* 

McClintock has spent a large portion of 
his strength upon this portion of the 
work. The. perils of the pioneers, the 
discussions about the land grants, the 
establishment of the Indian school which 
grew into Dartmouth college, the intense 
warfare with the Indians, the struggle of 
the people to gain a scanty subsistence 
from the soil, the character of the relig- 
ious life of the country, are here portrayed 
with truth if not with all the fulness 
that coidd be desired, .id the sons of 
New Hampshire will be proud of a work 
which, if it is not all that could be asked 
for, is more than they have ever yet had 
in their possession. 

The part which New Hampshire played 
in the Revolution was not unimportant ; 
only less so was its response to organiza- 
tion as a state under the first constitu- 
tion. It has practically stood second to 
Massachusetts in the federal government, 
and whatever phase of life and thought 
passed over the one was reflected in the 
other. The struggle for toleration, which 
shook New England from centre to cir- 
cumference in 1815, was carried on in 
fear and trembling in Xew Hampshire. 
All this earlier history of the state, which 
brings us down to the beginning of the 
19th century, is strictly local in its char- 
acter, and displays the hardy character 
of the people, and the necessity for the 
late development of their energies. It is 
practically only within the present cen- 
tury, and especially within the last sixty 
years, that Xew Hampshire has entered 
upon a development of its internal re- 
sources which has introduced its citizens 
to prosperity. To-day Xew Hampshire 
is the most widely known commonwealth 
in the whole American federation, while 
its streams for develoj>ing manufacturing 
industries to a high degree, its wonderful 
mountain scenery, the finest this side of 
the Rockies, has brought into its north- 
ern section pilgrims from all parts of the 
country and from almost ever}' section 
of the globe. The interest in travel and 
the development of manufactures have 

built up the prosperity of the Granite 
State to a remarkable degree. The march 
of this later development is recorded in 
tli is history. 

Rightly Mr. McClintock has given 
chief attention to that portion which, if 
not rescued from uncertain memories 
now, will soon be lost forever. It is to 
be regretted that he has not been able to 
present this combination in better literary 
form. He has not failed to make an in- 
teresting book, but his colors are the 
natural colors of fact, and not the method 
in which the colors are employed with 
artistic skill. The excellence of the work 
is, that the writer has confined himself 
mainly to matters of fact. There is no 
speculation, no political science, no dis- 
cussion of society or religion, in these 
pages. It is purely a matter of fact from 
beginning to end. and the excellence of 
the work is, that these facts are so briefly 
and fairly stated as to give satisfaction 
to the reader. There is evidence of im- 
partiality in the writing. For almost 
the first time in a Xew England history 
of the early period the Indians have their 
side of the early wars of extermination 
fairly presented. There is no evidence 
that the author had any whim to gratify 
in the preparation of the book. In the 
later section the portraits of a large num- 
ber of Xew Hampshire's illustrious sons 
are given, and are a welcome addition to 
the work. AVhatever was really charac- 
teristic of Xew England life finds its way 
into this ample volume. 

In looking through the pages, especially 
the latter part of the volume, one notes 
omissions, which are probably due to the 
contracted space to which the narrative 
must conform. Xo more interesting 
chapter in the volume can be named 
than that which is devoted to turnpikes, 
canals, and railroads. Doubly interest- 
ing, too, is the sketch of the struggle for 
toleration which went on in Xew Hamp- 
shire at the same time that it was being 
fought out in Connecticut. There is no 
false note in this book. It is simply what 

The Hisioi'y of New Hampshire. 


it claims to be, an unvarnished, unpre- 
tentious narrative of the facts that are 
preserved in regard, to the earlier history 
of the state, such a condensed view of 
New Hampshire, especially since the 
Revolution, as enables one to follow its 
•development with intelligent interest. 
The volume will be widely sought for by 
all those who have ever lived in Xew 
Hampshire or regard it as their father- 
land. There is enough in the history of 
this commonwealth to iustify its condens- 
ation into one of the Commonwealth 
series. Mr. McClintock gives the facts, 
and leaves out the philosophy and the 
religion. A truer record would be a 
study of the political, religious, and social 
development of the state, where all these 
forces were in operation — Boston Herald, 
February 25, 1889. 

Few of the thirteen original states of 
the American Union furnish to the stu- 
dent of American political institutions a 
more fruitful field of study than does 
Xew Hampshire, and it has long been a 
matter of regret that the facts connected 
with its early history especially, — its 
unique provincial government, the con- 
troversy with Xew York and Vermont 
over the so called Xew Hampshire grants, 
the attempt made by the people of the 
towns on both sides of the Connecticut 
river to form an independent common- 
wealth, the attitude of the people towards 
the federal constitution when the Articles 
of Confederation had been proved inade- 
quate to maintain a more than nominal 
Union, — have not been easily accessible, 
and that these have not been clearly 
presented in connection with the later 
growth and development of the state, and 
their influence upon modern Xew Hamp- 
shire institutions and character traced. 

Belknap's three volumes are of course 
invaluable, but they have become inac- 
cessible to the general reader, and have 
come to be catalogued with scarce Ameri- 
cana. Barstow's, Whiton's, and Sanborn's 
histories have each merits peculiar to 

themselves, but they have each been long 
recognized as inadequately telling the 
story of the state. Historical material 
exists in abundance in the Provincial and 
State Papers, in the five volumes of the 
adjutant-general's reports, which give a 
better military history of the state than 
has as yet been published concerning any 
other American commonwealth, in the 
Farmer and Moore publications, in the 
publications of the State Historical So- 
ciety, in the various town histories, and 
in the miscellaneous historical and bio- 
graphical papers which have been pub- 
lished in the eleven invaluable volumes 
of the Granite Monthly ; but this ma- 
terial has also been inaccessible to the 
general public, and there has long been a 
desire that this mass of historical wealth 
should be so utilized as to give to the 
smaller Xew Hampshire at home, and to 
the much larger Xew Hampshire abroad, 
a readable and adequate history of this 
splendid little commonwealth. 

Mr. John X. McClintock's just pub- 
lished history will therefore be eagerly 
welcomed, and will be found the most 
complete and adequate history of the 
state which has yet been given to the 
public. An enthusiastic antiquarian, a 
devoted collector of all literary material 
bearing upon the history of the state, the 
editor of the Granite Monthly almost 
from its establishment, the author has 
enjoyed exceptional opportunities and 
advantages for the preparation of his 
work, and has made free and at the same 
time judicious use of the best productions 
of others. If there be ground for criti- 
cism, it is more in the arrangement than 
in accuracy of statement or authenticity 
of facts. The result is a work, which, if 
not a model history of a grandly historic 
commonwealth, is certainly an invaluable 
thesaurus of historical fact, which will 
repay the careful study of those inter- 
ested in the genesis, growth, and develop- 
ment of American institutions, and which 
will also be intensely interesting to the 
general reader. 


The History of JVczv Hampshire. 

The story Mr. McClintock tells in his 
more than seven hundred pages is that of 
the first settlements at the mouth of the 
Piscataqua, their growth into towns, and 
their union under the jurisdiction of the 
Massachusetts Colony; the formation of 
the Royal Province of Xew Hampshire ; 
the bloody conflicts with the Indians and 
with the French ; the inroad into the 
province of the Scotch-Irish, and the 
spread of the Massachusetts and Con- 
necticut settlers up the valleys of the 
Merrimack and Connecticut rivers; the 
contest between these and the Masonian 
proprietors ; the part taken by the people 
of the province in achieving national in- 
dependence ; the formation of an inde- 
pendent state government ; the compact 
settlement of the state and the growth of 
its varied industries ; the part borne by 
its people in the war for the Union ; the 
changes which have taken place in laws, 
habits, and customs ; together with an 
account of the men who in the different 
generations have stood forth as leaders, 
giving to the state its honored and envi- 
able place in American history'. — Boston 
Evening Traveller, December 27, 18S8. 

There are several good histories of Xew 
Hampshire, but that of John X. McClin- 
tock, editor and publisher of the Granite 
Monthly, incorporates the best features 
of each, adds considerable new matter, 
brings down the record to a later date, 
and adopts a popular style. It is pecul- 
iarly valuable in its treatment of the 
periods of the colony and the province, 
by its presentation of the latent facts on 
the discovery and first settlements, its 
introduction of an original sketch on the 
union with Massachusetts, and generally 
by its fulness and completeness. The 
period of the formation of the state, and 
its development to the Civil War, in turn, 
receives close description, and the story 
of Xew Hampshire's part in the Civil 
War is well told. The subsequent period. 
to 1888, is sketched hurriedly, but its 
leading characteristics ar.± presented. 

Chapters on special subjects unnamed 
already, treat of the Revolution, the War 
of 1812, the struggle for toleration, turn- 
pikes, canals, and railroads, anti-slavery 
agitation, and the Irish in Xew Hamp- 
shire. The author, while seeking histori- 
cal value to the student as well as to the 
general reader, has aimed at popular 
interest, and so weli that no history of 
the state has so many claims upon it. 
This is secured throughout the text by 
making the work, so far as possible within 
its plan, a history of the people, with 
biographies of its representatives, but 
particularly by views of important scenes 
and objects, portraits of distinguished 
citizens of the past and the present, maps, 
plans, etc. There are many and excel- 
lent portraits of the leading men of the 
day. It makes a large volume of 744 
pages, exclusive of a full index, is printed 
on heavy paper from large type, and is 
handsomely and durably bound. — The 
Boston Globe. 

People of the Granite State, as well as 
her sons and daughters who have emi- 
grated to all parts of the country, and 
their progeny, owe a debt of gratitude to 
Mr. McClintock for the faithfulness, the 
patient study and care, with which he has 
performed his task. From the immense 
mass of materials extant he has succeeded 
in making a concise, readable, authentic 
history, covering all the important facts 
from the earliest colonial times. The 
history of Xew Hampshire is so inti- 
mately associated with that of Massachu- 
setts, that the first half of the book, so 
far as it relates to the incidents of colonial 
life, the joys, deprivations, and dangers, 
the battles with Indians, and controver- 
sies with the mother country, is of general 
interest. The history of the boundary 
controversy between the two states from 
its beginning is told. 

George Mitchell made oath in 1741 
that his survey of the river Merrimack, 
from its mouth to Pawtucket falls, is true 
and exact to the best of his skill and 

The History of JVew Hampshire* 


knowledge, and that the line as described 
in the plan is as conformable to his 
majesty's determination in council as 
was in his power to draw, " but finding it- 
impracticable to stick to the letter of said 
determination, has in some places takeiL 
from one province and made ample 
allowance for the same in the next reach 
of the river." The part taken by Xew 
Hampshire in the Revolution, the diffi- 
culties encountered in establishing the 
state government, the division of towns, 
and other incidents of that formative 
period, are treated with conciseness and 
vigor. The history of the old Middlesex 
canal, which at one time promised to have 
great influence on the commercial and 
social condition of the state, is interest- 
ingly told. The author says, — 

The curious traveller may still trace 
with little difficulty the line of the old' 
Middlesex canal, with here and there a 
break, from the basin at Charlestown to 
its junction with the Merrimack at Mid- 
dlesex village. Like an accusing ghost, 
it never strays far from the Boston & 
Lowell Railroad, to which it owes its 
untimely end. Judging the canal by the 
pecuniary recompense it brought its pro- 
jectors, it must be admitted a dismal 
failure : yet its inception was none the 
less a comprehensive, far-reaching scheme, 
which seemed to assure a future of ample 
profits and great public usefulness. . . . 
It was the first step toward the solution 
of the problem of cheap transportation. 

"What great results might have been 
derived from the enterprise and its pro- 
posed extension to the Connecticut river, 
and possibly to the St. Lawrence, but for 
the invention of steam transportation 
overland, are pictured vividly. Brief ac- 
counts are given of all men who have 
been most prominent in the state's his- 
tory in a political, military, or profes- 
sional capacity. There are 39 steel por- 
traits, and a very large number of wood 
engravings. The book has 7G1 pages, 
and will have great permanent value. — 
The Morning Times (Lowell). 

Typographically the publisher has pro- 
duced a handsome volume. In the treat- 
ment of the subject the author has taken 

a new departure, confining himself chiefly 
to the narration of facts, not only in re- 
gard to events, but to the individuals 
who have been prominently identified 
with those events. In the first twelve 
chapters of the work, which cover the 
period treated by Belknap, the author 
follows that historian in the main, and 
differs from him only when supported by 
the highest modem authorities. In the 
chapters on the Union with Massachu- 
setts, and King Philip's War, he has relied 
chiefly upon the records preserved in the 
Xew Hampshire Provincial and State 
Papers. He has drawn liberally from 
the biographies of Gov. William Plumer 
and Jeremiah Mason for the narrative 
of the early years of the present cen- 
tury. The volume contains a brief ac- 
count of the early settlement of the chief 
towns of the state, a short biography of 
every Provincial and state governor and 
many other notables; a sketch of the 
growth of the various religious sects ; the 
origin of turnpikes, canals, and railroads; 
an account of slavery, colonial laws, edu- 
cation, church music, anti-slavery agita- 
tion; Puritan, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, 
and Catholic migration into the state ; 
Scotch-Irish and Irish ; and the War of 
the Rebellion. The author has appar- 
ently made an effort to include within 
the volume extracts from the writings of 
those who have contributed to the vol- 
umes of the Granite Monthly. As 
was expected, the work is strong in bio- 
graphical matters. While the work may 
mot be an ideal or complete history of 
^"ew Hampshire, while it contains some 
Tthings which might as well have been 
omitted, and lacks some which should 
Eave been embodied, it embraces a large 
;amount of valuable information pertain- 
ing to Xew Hampshire history and biog- 
raphy, bringing together in the compass 
of a single volume, and placing in ready 
access for the student or writer dealing 
with Xew Hampshire affairs, matter 
heretofore requiring extensive search to 
.secure. — People and Patriot (Concord). 


The Cutis Family. 

The work is so arranged and indexed 
as to be invaluable to students and those 
■who would have a handy book of refer- 
ence. — Nash ua Telegraph . 

The sons and daughters of Xew Hamp- 
shire . . . will welcome this concise, 
bright, and sparkling history. It ought 
to be in every home. — Gorham Moun- 

The book has been generally well re- 
ceived by the press and the people of 
New Hampshire. Within a few months 

after it was issued from the press over 
sixteen hundred copies were sold, three 
hundred of wliich were taken by the citi- 
zens of Concord. The addition of the- 
appendix of forty-four pages, containing 
toe official succession of state officers, 
makes the book more valuable as a book 
of reference. The author has on hand a 
few volumes of the first edition, which 
he will sell for -$3.50 each, or will exchange 
for local town histories. He would be 
pleased to receive an order for the work 
from every reader of the Granite. 


Since the commencement of work upon 
this important family record, two years 
have elapsed. Unusual encouragements 
have been experienced, and the work will 
probably be a great success. It will be 
limited, however, and those who desire to 
obtain copies at ?5 a volume should sub- 
scribe at once. When the volume comes 
out the price will be advanced. A few of 
the names of the families connected with 
the Cutts family are here given, to show 
the scope of the work. Appleton, Bart- 
lett, Borland, Bowen, Brown, Briar, 
Clark, Church, Coues, Crosby, Drown, 

Cox, Dummer, Elliott, Erving, Elwyn r 
Fairfield, Frierson, Gerrish, Greeley,. 
Mart, Hatch, Hayes, Howard, King, 
Knight, Ladd, Mitchell, Murray, McCaa, 
3Joore, Jarvis, Lowell, Paine. Prescott r 
Pickering, Parker, Porter, Pace, Rust, 
Sawyer, Shillaber, Screven, Smith, Shan- 
non, Sparhawk, Thornton,, 
Waldron, Webster, Wheeler, Wise. 

Address all queries and communica- 
tions to the compiler, 

256 Tompkins Avenue, 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 

IVO W 1* TJ A. T> "ST 


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Hon. Hiram D: Upton, 

Granville P. Conn, A. M., M. D., 

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Sketches oi" Persons, Localities, and 
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, . 


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>W a f# '■ si SC- C " / 

Hon. David A. Taogart. 




'Devoted to Literature, 'Biography, History, and State Progress. 

VOL. II. (New Series.) SEPTEMBER, ') QQ 

OCTOBER, $ lbb 9' 

Vol. XII. 

Nos. 9, IO. 


There has been no session of our 
legislature when the presiding officers 
of the two branches have discharged 
their arduous duties to the greater 
satisfaction of members than during 
the session just closed. President 
Taggart of the senate is the youngest 
presiding officer that body ever had, 
yet he has never beeu excelled in 
that position. Courteous and im- 
partial, he has won the regard of 
every senator. There has seldom 
been a session when the rules of that 
body have been so correctly inter- 
preted by the chair, and when the 
senate has been held so strictly to 
parliamentary procedure. He lays 
down the gavel with the satisfaction 
of knowing that his work has been 
appreciated by the senate and tLe 

The above comment was made by 
the editor of the Concord Evening 

David Arthur Taggart, son of the 
late David Morril Taggart, of Goffs- 
town, grandson of Hugh J. Taggart, 
of Hooksctt, a descendant of the early 
Scotch-Irish settlers of the old town 

of Londonderry, was born in Goffs- 
town, January 30, 1858. He was 
educated at the high school in Man- 
chester and at Harvard college, grad- 
uating from the latter institution with 
high honors in the class of 1878. He 
studied law, in due time was admitted 
to the bar, and at once formed a 
partnership with Hon. David Cross, 
of Manchester. The partnership con- 
tinued until the spring of 1885, when 
Mr. Taggart commenced to practise 
law by himself. As a lawyer he has 
already won an enviable rank. He 
is a careful and diligent student, in- 
dustrious, energetic, and ambitious. 
While modest, he is self-reliant. 

Although Mr. Taggart's father was 
one of the most pronounced Demo- 
crats of the old school, his son em- 
braced Republican doctrines. He 
began making campaign speeches 
when he was twenty-one years of 
age, which were highly spoken of for 
eloquence and good points. In every 
campaign since then he has made 
numerous telling speeches. 

Practising law in Manchester, Mr. 
Taggart makes his home in Goffs- 
town. He represented the town in 


Hon. David A. Taggart. 

the house of representatives in 1883, 
serving as chairman of the Committee 
on Elections and as a member of the 
Committee on Revision of Laws. He 
took an active part in debates, and 
was recognized as an able and elo- 
quent speaker and a good debater. 

He attended the last Republican 
national convention as an alternate. 
He has been a member of the State 
Central Committee several years, and 
was an efficient member of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee in 1884. 

In the fall of 188S he was nomi- 
nated by the Republicans of the 
Amherst senatorial district as their 
candidate for senator, and was hand- 
somely elected in November, — the 
youngest member of that honorable 
body. His youth, however, did not 
prevent his aspiring to the presi- 
dency, and, active and enthusiastic 
friends lending their support, he was 
elected. It is needless to say that 
he was qualified for the high office. 
His sterling integrity, polished and 
affable manners, dignity, and fair- 
ness won for him a host of friends. 
He presided over the senate with 
honor and ease. 

Among his predecessors in the 
office of president of the senate were 
Frank D. Currier, Chester Pike, 
Charles H. Bartlett, Jacob H. Gal- 
linger, John Kimball, Natt Head, 
Charles Holman, John W. Sanborn, 
John Y. Mugridge, Daniel Barnard, 
Ezekiel A. Straw, Charles II. Bell, 
Onslow Stearns, Austin F. Pike, 
Moody Currier, William Haile, Jona- 

than E. Sargent, Jarecl W. Williams, 
Benning M. Bean, Joseph M. Har- 
per, Matthew Harvey, Josiah Bart- 
lett, David L. Morril, William Badg- 
er, William Plumer, Samuel Bell, 
Woodbury Laugdon, and others, who 
have honored and have been honored 
by New Hampshire. In point of 
years Senator Taggart is one of the 
youngest men ever elected to the 
senate, and the youngest ever chosen 
to preside over that body. It is the 
hope of his friends that he will, in 
honor and usefulness, rival during 
the coming years the many distin- 
guished men who have preceded him 
in office. 

The New Hampshire senate of 1889 
was an able body of meu. It included 
William H. Mitchell of Littleton, 
Thomas P. Cheney of Ashland, Henry 
B. Quinby of Lake Village, George 
L. Balcom of Claremont, John C. 
Pearson of Penacook, Ezra S. Stearns 
of Rindge, Frank G. Clarke of Peter- 
borough, Edwin G. Eastman of Ex- 
eter, and other well known and 
popular men. 

Senator Taggart married, Novem- 
ber 11, 1884, Mary Elbra, daughter 
of Dr. A. B. Story, of Manchester, 
and has one daughter, Mary Esther, 
bom March 31, 1886. He attends 
the Congregational church, and is a 
member of Bible lodge, A. F. A. 
Masons of GoiTstown. 

For the facts in the foregoing and 
following sketch the writer is chiefly 
indebted to the Manchester Weekly 



Hon. Hiram D. Upto: 

Hon. Hiram D. Ufton 



It is remarkable how many of the 
roost prominent and successful busi- 
ness men of Manchester are young 
men, many of them having scarcely 
reached the age of thirty. Among 
these can be mentioned Hon. Hiram 
D. Upton, the well known and popu- 
lar treasurer of the New Hampshire 
Trust Company, which began busi- 
ness in that city December 1, 18S5. 
He is the son of Hou. Peter Upton, 
of Jaffrey, a member of Governor 
Moody Currier's Council, and was 
born in East Jaffrey, May 5, 1859. 
He was educated at Kimball Union 
Academy, Meriden, and graduated at 
Dartmouth college in the class of '79. 
He taught a high school in Marlow in 
1877. While in college he was man- 
ager of the Dartmouth, and his efforts 
put that journal on a paving basis 
for the first time. "While in Jaffrey 
he was chairman of the trustees of 
the Conaut high school, and also su- 
perintendent of schools. From Jan- 
uary 1, 1881, to January 1, 1886, he 
was cashier of the Monadnock Na- 
tional Bank, of East Jaffrey. When 
the New Hampshire Trust Company 
was organized Mr. Upton was picked 
out as a live and energetic young 
man to act as treasurer. The large 
business of this company, which is 
officered by such solid men as Hon. 
James A. Weston president, and the 
directors including Hon. James F. 
Briggs, Hon. Charles H. Bartlett, vice- 
president, John C. French, Alonzo El- 
liott, Col. Hiram A. Tuttle of Pitts- 
field, Ex-Governor Charles H. Saw- 
yer and others, is successfully man- 
aged by Treasurer Upton. The com- 

pany has a cash capital of $300,000, 
and its total assets are now nearly 
$3,000,000. The steadily increasing 
demand for its securities attests the 
fact that it possesses the confidence 
of the public. 

Since July 1G, 1883, Mr. Upton 
has been president of the Northwest- 
ern Trust Company, of Fargo, Da- 
kota. He is also treasurer of the 
Amoskeag Fire Insurance Company 
of Manchester. Mr. Upton and F. R. 
Clement of Minneapolis own an ex- 
tensive stock farm in South Da- 
kota, which has the finest blooded 
stock of au} T in that region. They 
also own the gas-works in St. Cloud, 
a thriving Minnesota town. 

Politically Hiram D. Upton is a 
Republican. He was elected a rep- 
resentative to the legislature from 
Ward 4, Manchester, in November, 
1888, and was oue of the two most 
prominent candidates for the position 
of speaker of the house, his rival for 
the honor being Herman W. Greene, 
of Hopkintou. After an exciting 
coutest in the Republican caucus Mr. 
Upton received the nomination of his 
party, and was duly elected. 

Concerning Mr. Upton's ability, a 
Concord correspondent wrote just be- 
fore the caucus: "He possesses to 
an uncommon extent the special ele- 
ments that should be contained in a 
successful and acceptable speaker, — 
sincerity, keen insight, and quick ex- 
ecutive discernment, coolness, and no 
corporate or official prejudice. He 
would maintain a high even tension, 
and conduct the public business with 
a uniform force and impartiality wor- 


Hon. Hiram D. Upton, 

thy of emulation. Both Upton and 
Greene are prepossessing, keen, in- 
tellectual men. Both would make a 
spleudid showing on the floor of the 
house, and either would grace the 
speaker's chair with becoming digni- 
ty. Upton has the advantage in some 
respects, as well as Greene. He has 
followed a vocation that has allowed 
him to stand wholly aloof from the 
prejudices of railway and other cor- 
porate entanglements. He is also 
wholly unbiased on the question of 
the United States senatorship. Just 
now he is for himself and has no pro- 
tege, no railway baggage, no luggage 
of any kind, but stands up free, un- 
embarrassed, untrammelled, to act for 
himself and for those whose support 
he asks, up to the highest dictates of 
unswerving honor." 

The Manchester Mirror had this to 
say of him immediately following his 
electiou : 

"He is one of the youngest men that 
ever occupied the speaker's chair, and 
we believe one of the brightest. He 
has grit, grace, and gumption. He is 
clear-headed, courageous, and an un- 
tiring worker. No man ever needs to 
ask him twice for his opinions, or 
question whether he keeps a promise 
once given. He is honest above sus- 
picion : loyal, true, and strong. We 
like to see such a man win, and espe- 
cially such a young man, and we give 
him our hearty congratulations. His 
fight for the speakership has been 
carried under circumstances that 
make his success a remarkably brill- 
iant one. He was without legislative 
experience of any kind. He is not a 
lawyer, and he was opposed by one 
of the strongest and most active com- 

an organization, because of his out- 
spoken and well known opinions upon 
subjects in which that combination 
was interested ; but wherever he was 
known — and for a young man he had 
a wide acquaintance — he had zealous 
friends who delighted to support him, 
and he won in a manner honorable to 
himself and to all who helped him." 

His course as speaker is thus crit- 
icised by the Concord Daily Monitor : 

" Speaker Upton has been a success, 
and when this is said of the presiding 
officer of one of the largest legisla- 
tive bodies in the world, it is the 
highest eomplimeut that can be paid 
to a parliamentarian. Without leg- 
islative experience he took the chair, 
and from that moment until the hour 
of final adjournment he has held the 
respect and confidence of the house. 
With perfect command of himself he 
has never been disturbed by parlia- 
mentary complications, and his rul- 
ings have been accepted without ap- 
peal. He has surpassed the expecta- 
tions of his friends, and he closes his 
labors with increased personal popu- 
larity. He has wielded a strong in- 
fluence on legislation, and on several 
occasions, when he has taken the 
floor, he has shown large capacity for 
leadership. Men of his clear judg- 
ment are of great service to the state 
in public life." 

Mr. Upton is a Unitarian, belongs 
to Charity Lodge A. F. A. M., of 
East Jaffrey, Peterborough Royal 
Arch Chapter of Peterborough, Trin- 
ity Commandery K. T., the Amos- 
keag Veterans, and the Calumet and 
Derryfield clubs of Manchester. He 
was also one of the workers in the 

binatious that ever sought to control Tippecanoe campaign club 

Granville P. Conn, 



For more than a hundred years 
New Hampshire has been honored by 
men of the medical profession, and 
has honored them with the highest 
offices within the gift of the people. 
To the chief-magistracy the state has 
called Josiah Bartlett, David L. Mor- 
ril, and Noah Martin ; and to con- 
gress it has sent Samuel Tenney, Jo- 
siah Bartlett, Thomas Whipple, Jr., 
Joseph Mammons, Robert Burns, 
James Farrington, George W. Kit- 
tredge, and Jaeob H. Gallinger. At 
the present time the medical profes- 
sion includes men of the highest char- 
acter, ability, and worth, who, while 
alleviating the ills of humanity, have 
at heart the best interests of every 
community, and are in the vau in 
leading the people to a higher plaue 
of culture, physical and moral devel- 
opment, and all that tends to the 
most advanced civilization. A com- 
munity must be poor indeed which 
has not its respected, trusted, and 
beloved physician. 

The following sketch of Dr. Conn 
was written by Dr. George EI. Lara- 
bee, of Suncook : 

Dr. Granville P. Conn, of Con- 
cord, was born in Hillsborough, Jan- 
uary 25, 1832, and was the young- 
est of tight children of William 
aud Sarah (Priest) Conn. The 
paternal ancestry was of Scotch- 
Irish origin, while on the maternal 
side it was of English descent. His 
father being a farmer, he resided at 
home until sixteen, attending the 
common schools and doing farm- 
work. After this a few mouths at 

Francestown and Pembroke acade- 
mies was followed with two years at 
Capt. Aldeu Partridge's military in- 
stitution at Norwich, Vt., with an 
occasional term of teaching common 
and select schools in New Hampshire 
and Vermont. At this time, and 
until 1852, he devoted his attention 
principally to fitting for the profes- 
sion of civil engineering, which my- 
opia and general ill-health compelled 
him to relinquish. 

From this time until 1856 he read 
medicine in the office of Dr. H. B. 
Brown, of Hartford, Vermont, teach- 
ing mathematics several months dur- 
ing this period at the academy in 
that village. After attending two 
courses of medical lectures at Wood- 
stock, Vt., and a third course at 
Dartmouth Medical College, he re- 
ceived the degree of M. D. from the 
latter institution, in the class of 
1856, with the late Prof. A. B. Cros- 
by, of Hanover. In 1880 Norwich 
University conferred the honorary de- 
gree of A. M. 

In 1856 he located at East Ran- 
dolph, Vt., and remained there till 
1861, when he sold out and removed 
to Richmond, Chittenden county, Vt. 

He was commissioned assistant- 
surgeon of the Twelfth Regiment 
Vermont Volunteers Aug. 10, 1862, 
and was ordered to rendezvous at 
Brattleborough at once, and in con- 
nection with the late Surgeon Phelps, 
of Windsor, Vt., instituted a United 
States hospital of one thousand beds. 
A month later his regiment went into 
the field, and with it he served in 
Virginia during his nine months' ser- 

2 4 8 

Granville P. Co mi. 

vice, first in the Twenty-Second 
Army Corps, and afterwards with 
the Second Vermont Brigade ; was 
transferred to the First Army Corps, 
and was mustered out of the service 
with the regiment at Brattleborough, 
Vt., July H, 1863. 

In the fall of 1863 he came to 
Concord, and located in Ward 4, on 
North Main street, where he has re- 
mained ever since. For several years 
he was a partner of Dr. Charles P. 
Gage, of Concord, and a member of 
the local board of health. After- 
wards, for five years he was city 
physician. Very soon after com- 
mencing the practice of medicine he 
became firmly convinced that a great 
many deaths occurred from preventa- 
ble causes, due in many instances to 
ignorance of the laws of health, and 
that physicians were ofteu disap- 
pointed in obtaining satisfactory re- 
sults by means of inefficient nursing 
and lack of attention to the hygiene 
of the sick-room. Believing that the 
state owed to the people the care of 
their health as well as of their mor- 
als, he commenced in 18C6 to agitate 
the question of cleaning up the city ; 
aud there being an epidemic of chol- 
era in Europe at the time, he brought 
the matter to the attention of the 
city officials, who passed an ordinance, 
drafted by him, that secured a house- 
to-house inspection — the first in the 
state. This was made under his di- 
rection, and a full record of the sani- 
tary condition of every building in 
the compact part of each ward in the 
city was made early in the season, 
which resulted in a general cleaning 
of courts, alleys, streets, and yards. 
The city at once took an advanced 
position in sanitation, which it has 

always maintained, for with the in- 
troduction of a water-supply in 1873 
came the necessity of a system of 
sewers, that was promptly met by 
the city's borrowing a large amount 
of money practically to complete the 
system in 1876. 

While city physician, circumstances 
occurred to show that more care 
should be exercised in the burial of 
the dead, and, in company with the 
city solicitor, he advocated that a 
burial permit be required from the 
city registrar before a body could be 
lawfully interred. The city council 
passed an ordinance to that effect. 
Since then substantially the same or- 
dinance has become the law of the 
state, and New Hampshire undoubt- 
edly secures quite as accurate regis- 
tration of deaths as any state in the 

His intimate connection with the 
hygiene of the city of Concord ren- 
dered him more and more convinced 
that the state should have aud main- 
tain au effective supervision over the 
lives and the health of its citizens, 
and that a state board of health was 
fully as necessary an adjunct of the 
executive department of New Hamp- 
shire as a bank, railroad, insurance, 
or fish commission, — for, while it is 
acknowledged by all that the mate- 
rial interests of the state should be 
fostered and pushed forward to com- 
pete with the industries of other mu- 
nicipalities, yet, unless the causes of 
sickness were reduced to the mini- 
mum, but little progress could be 
made ; therefore the watchful care of 
a health department becomes a ne- 
cessity in order to render good health 
possible to the greatest number, 
whose energy, vitality, and working 

Granville P. Conn, 


capacity become the capital stock of 
the state, whose par value and divi- 
dends can only be obtained by hav- 
ing a sound mind in a vigorous and 
sound body. For many years he la- 
bored, with others, to secure for the 
people of New Hampshire a board of 
health. To this end he read papers 
on sanitation before the medical pro- 
fession, as well as contributed arti- 
cles to the newspapers on the neces- 
sity of hygienic reform ; for it was 
evident to his mind that the state 
must be progressive in matters per- 
taining to the health of her citizens, 
else it would be impossible to retain 
her prestige among other common- 
wealths. In 1881 he had the great 
pleasure of having the legislature pass 
an act giving to his native state a 
board of health. 

The bill establishing the board was 
drafted by him, and is in many re- 
spects a model for any state of the 
population and diversified interests 
that characterize New Hampshire, 
while the few years the board has 
been in existence proves that the 
whole subject was thoroughly and 
carefully considered before bei ug 
presented to the legislature ; for. 
while there is but the slightest ap- 
pearance of arbitrary power, which is 
so distasteful to a free and enlight- 
ened people, yet with the statute law 
then existing in the state, and the 
enactment of the bill establishing a 
board of health, it is doubtful if 
there is another state in the Union 
whose health department creates less 
friction in its practical work than it 
does in New Hampshire. This is 
largely accomplished by taking it en- 
tirely out of the domain of politics, 
and iu making the secretary a per- 

manent officer so long as his efficien- 
cy continues. Dr. Coun was at once 
appointed a member of the board for 
four years, and upon its organization 
was elected its president, which office 
he now holds. 

Although in the active practice of his 
profession, he has, by his industrious 
and systematic habits, done consid- 
erable work for the board, contribu- 
ting articles upon ventilation and 
other subjects intimately connected 
with hygiene, and he has represented 
the board several times in coufer- 
ences with sanitary authorities and in 
public health meetings. 

At this time it may be considered 
an indorsement of his work on the 
board that he has received a re- 
appointment for four years. 

While a resident of Vermont he 
became au active member of its State 
Medical Society, and a few years 
since he was elected an honorary 
member of the same association. He 
became a member of the New Hamp- 
shire Medical Society in 1864, and in 
18G9 was elected its secretary, which 
oflice he has. by a unanimous vote of 
the association, held ever since, ex- 
cept in the years 1880 and 1881, when 
he was vice-president and president of 
this venerable society, which was or- 
ganized in 1791. 

It is well known that in voluntary 
associations of this kind very much 
of their prosperity and efficiency de- 
pends upon the executive ability and 
energy of its secretary: and it is a 
matter of satisfaction to all who know 
him, that since he became its secreta- 
ry the New Hampshire Medical Socie- 
ty has increased in the number of its 
active members from sixty to over 
two hundred and twenty-five, with an 



Granville P. Conn. 

average annual attendance of one 
hundred and twenty-five in place of 
less than fifty in 1865. 

He is a member of the Centre Dis- 
trict and an honorary member of the 
Strafford District Medical Societies, as 
well as a member of the American 
Public Health and the American Med- 
ical Associations. He is also a mem- 
ber of the various Masonic associa- 
tions in Concord, and of E. E. Stur- 
tevant Post, G. A. R., of Concord. 

In 1877, and again in 1879, he 
was elected by the people on the 
board of railroad commissioners for 
New Hampshire, this being the only 
time he has taken any active part in 

While railroad commissioner Le 
made two reports to the legislature, 
in which he strongly advocated re- 
forms in the commission and in the 
manner of the roads making returns, 
that have since been adopted. His 
early educatiou as a civil engineer 
has always made the construction 
and management of railways a mat- 
ter of interest to him, and he always 
believed that the progressive spirit of 
our country will yet advance Ameri- 

can railways until they become an 
example to the world of busiuess 
prosperity. In this connection it 
may be mentioned, that, believing 
that the prosperity of the state and its 
railroads depends very much npon its 
being a summer resort for the people 
of the whole country, who come here 
for the purpose of health and recrea- 
tion, he has instituted a system of 
railway sanitation inspections that the 
managements of the roads nobly sec- 
ond, which, by the watchful care of 
the state board of health over the 
railway stations, cars, and hotels, 
will increase the assurance of the 
travelling public that it. is the de- 
sire of the people of New Hampshire 
to keep the hills and valleys of the 
Granite State free from the contami- 
nating influences of waste and effete 
matter, in order that the summer vis- 
itor may return to his home with firm 
health and renewed vitality in return 
for the pecuniary consideration of a 
few days or weeks in the state. 

In 1858, while a resident of Ver- 
mont, he married Miss Helen M. 
Sprague, of East Randolph,, in that 
state, and has two children. 


[From the German of Heiurich Heine.] 

By Laura Garland Carr. 

Where will this worn wanderer's 

Last resting-place be? 
'Neath the palms of the South? 

Where the lindens spread free? 
Will it be in the desert, 

Entombed by strange hands, 
Or on the sea's coast. 

In the moist, yielding sands? 
No matter. God's heaven 

Above me will spread ; 
His stars, as death's tapers, 

Will light my low bed. 



/. i 

* I { 


In the earl}* history of Canterbury, school several winters in his native 
few names are more conspicuous than and adjoining towns. He was select- 
that of Ezekiel Morrill, who came man several years. In 1859 he was 
from South Hampton to Canterbury a member of the house of representa- 

about the year 1750. He was a dea- 
con of the Congregational church. 
His name appears many times on the 
old record-books as town-clerk, and 
he often served on committees. 

To this Ezekiel Morrill, David 
Morrill traces his ancestry in direct 
line. (2) David Morrill, second of 
fifteen children of Ezekiel Morrill, 

tives ; in 1860 and 1861 he was a 
member of the senate. He is a Re- 
publican in politics. 

In 1825 Mr. Morrill married Cora- 
fort, daughter of Marston Morrill, 
and in 1843, Mrs. Sally S. Kimball. 
By his first marriage he had six sons 
and one daughter ; by his second, 
two sons. Three of his sons were in 

was the father of (3) Reuben Mor- the civil war. 

rill, who married Miriam Smith. (4) He is a man of integrity, of sound 

David Morrill, son of Reuben and judgment, of great firmness, and of 

Miriam (Smith) Morrill, was born in practical common-sense. He has al- 

Canterbury, August 12, 1798, on the ways taken an active interest in 

place where he now lives. educational affairs. 

In hi.^ youth, before settling down He has a large farm and a fine 

to the life of a farmer, he taught set of buildings. 


Wilton — Past and Present. 


The Celebration of the One Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of its Settlement on 
Thursday, September 12, 1889. 

Reported by "William 0. Clough. 

It may be said, without doing in- 
justice to the many towns in the state 
of New Hampshire that have a noble 
and patriotic record in their sons 
and daughters, in both peace and war, 
that Wilton, which celebrated her 
150th anniversary on Thursday, Sep- 
tember 12, 1889, is second to no 
place in the state in the matter of an 
interesting history, in which all her 
peoplejmay take pride, and find new 
incentives for enterprise, industry, 
and good living. Those of her chil- 
dren who have remained on their na- 
tive heath have done yeoman service 
in making improvements and keeping 
abreast of the times in agricultural 
and other pursuits ; and many of 
those who have settled in other places 
have made the most of their oppor- 
tunities and reflected honor upon the 
old town. The people of Wilton, 
and the descendants of those who 
have made homes for themselves in 
other places, ma}' well pause in their 
avocations, and, honoring themselves 
and their worthy ancestors alike, as- 
semble upon her hillsides and in her 
valleys, and celebrate in song and 
story, in historical reminiscence and 
other exercises, events around which 
cluster memories dear to the heart. 


The town of "Wilton is situated in 
the south-west part of Hillsborough 
county, eighteen miles from the city of 
Nashua, on the Wilton Railroad, the 
direct line from Boston to Keene, 

and has the Souhegan river for water- 
power. It is bounded by Lynde- 
borough on the north, Lyndeborough 
and Milford on the east, Mason and 
Greenville on the south, and Temple 
on the west. The first movement 
towards its settlement was made in 
1735. Samuel King and others, ;4 in 
consideration of their sufferings in 
the expedition to Canada in 1690, " 
petitioned the General Court of Mas- 
sachusetts, on the 19th of June, for 
relief. They were entitled to consid- 
eration because of their military ser- 
vice ; and accordingly a committee 
was chosen to lay out a township 
containing six miles square, west of 
the Narragansett town called No. 3, 
and make return to the court within 
twelve months for confirmation. This 
tract included what is now Lynde- 
borough and the north part of "Wilton. 
It received the name of Salem-Can- 
ada, Salem being in honor of a town, 
now a city, in Massachusetts, and 
Canada bt-ing added in remembrance 
of the expedition. 


In 1739 Jacob and Ephraim Put- 
nam, John Dale, and John Badger 
commenced a settlement in the south- 
erly part of the town. Ephraim Put- 
Dam located near what is now the 
intersection of the north cemetery, 
and a daughter of his was the first 
child born in the place. Jacob Put- 
nam located in the south-east part of 
the town, and built a house two story 

Wilton — Past and Present. 


front and one story back that sur- 
vived the storms of a century, and 
is remembered by many of the res- 
idents of to-day. It was remodelled 
by Mr. Joseph Wilson, who removed 
to western New York a few years 
ago. John Dale built a camp, then 
a house, near the house now owned 
by S. II . Dunbar. It is said to have 
been the first two-story frame house 
built in the place. It was lined be- 
tween the inside and outside finish 
for protection against the Indians. 
The farm and house descended from 
father to son till 1 S43, when it was 
sold to Abel Fish. John Badger 
located about one third of a mile east 
of Dale. "When winter came on, all 
but Badger -and his family went to a 
block-house situated ou a hill north- 
easterly from the glass-works in 
Lyudeborough. He was taken sick 
and died in 1740, the first death in 
the town. A historian says, — '*A 
tree was hollowed out for a coffin, 
and so, in the solitude, was he com- 
mitted to the earth." The first set- 
tlers were from Dan vers, Mass. 


The Indians who roamed this terri- 
tory in pursuit of game were prin- 
cipally of the Pawtucket tribe. The 
camp was on the bank of the Merri- 
mack river near Lowell. So far as 
is known, no person belonging in the 
town was carried into captivity or 
killed by the Indians except Henry 
Parker, Jr., in the French and Indian 
War, in 1757, in the massacre of Fort 
William Henry on Lake George. 
The settlers, however, lived* in con- 
stant fear of attack, and often fled to 
their garrisons. It is also a matter 
of record that in 1744 thev became 

so alarmed that they petitioned Ben- 
ning Wentworth, governor of New 
Hampshire, for soldiers to defend 
them. They represented that they 
were few in numbers, exposed, and 
without means with which to defend 
themselves and their crops. History 
does not record that their petition 
was granted, and it does not appear 
that their fears were well founded. 


The name of Salem-Canada con- 
tinued thirteen years, when the terri- 
tory was divided, portions being set 
off to Masou, to Lyndeborough, and 
to Charlestown, and so remained 
until 1761, when the inhabitants of 
the section, to the number of twenty- 
three males, petitioned the governor, 
Beuniug Wentworth, to be incorpo- 
rated as a township. The petition 
was granted, and June 25, 1762, it 
was incorporated under the name of 
Wilton. The name was derived 
from an ancient town in Wiltshire, 
England. The act went into force 
January 1, 1765. Iu 176S a tract 
one mile wide, on the west of the 
town, was set off to Peterborough, 
and a tract of one mile was added on 
the east. The tract set off is now a 
part of Temple. Thus, after these 
changes, 1 Wilton became located as it 
remains to-day, four and a half miles 
wide by five miles long. 


In all these years of town life the 
people of Wilton have borne a con- 
spicuous part in whatever has been 
for the public weal, the support of 
government, and the liberty of their 
country. The records of 1771, and 
tiie sub-equent acts of the town in 

2 54 

Wilton — Past and Present. 

providing soldiers and doing its part 
in the war with Great Britain, show 
that it was no place for Tories. Its 
inhabitants entered into a solemn 
covenant of non-importation and non- 
consumption of the products of the 
old country, and their sons were con- 
spicuous for valor at Bunker Hill 
•and on mauy other fields iu the war 
that followed. So, too, in the war 
of the Rebellion the fires of patriot- 
ism burned brightly upon her altars, 
and eighty-seven of her sons followed 
the flag, many of them giving their 
lives to their country. 


The first church was erected in 
1752. It was built of logs, not far 
from the spot on the common where 
the Unitarian church now stands. 
It was used about twenty-one years, 
and was then taken down. The first 
minister was Rev. Jonathan Liver- 
more, who resigned iu 1777 and died 
in 1809. The second meeting-house 
was a large two-story building, sit- 
uated a little to the north of the old 
one. It had all the old-fashioned 
fixtures with which many of our 
readers are familiar. It was raised 
in 1773, and a terrible accident oc- 
curred. When the frame was nearly 
up a central beam broke, and three 
men fell thirty feet and were killed, 
two died shortly after, and others 
were crippled for life. Of the fifty- 
three that fell, not one escaped with- 
out brokeu bones. The church was 
completed in 1775, and Rev. Jona- 
than Livermore preached the first ser- 
mon in it. The edifice was struck 
by lightning in 1804, and consider- 
ably damaged. It has had a large 
number of ministers since Mr. Liver- 

more's day, and is now in use for 
public, worship. 

A Universalist society was formed 
in 1813, and a Baptist society in 
1817. Rev. George Evans was the 
first minister. The church has had 
sixteen or more pastors, and is in a, 
flourishing condition at the present 
time. The second Congregational 
church was formed in 1823. Its first 
meeting-house was built in 1829. 
Rev. Wm. Richardson was its pastor 
till 1840, and since then it has had 
many other pastors. A liberal Chris- 
tian church was formed iu 18G9, two 
miles from the centre, and an edifice 
was erected the same year. It has 
had five or six pastors. The Cath- 
olic church was founded by Rev. John 
O'Donnell, of Nashua, in 1867. Rev. 
P. Houlahau was the priest in charge 
from 1879 to 1881, when Rev. E. E. 
Buckle took charge and built an edi- 
fice. Father Buckle is the pastor at 
this time. 


The schools of Wilton are among 
the best and most progressive in their 
management in the state. They 
were founded, according to the best 
record that can be obtained, in 1707, 
and have been steadily maintained 
and improved. No greater evidence 
of the liberality of the people of the 
place in this particular is needed than 
the fact that her sous and daughters 
have held and are still holding some 
of the most important places of honor 
and trust in the country. Besides 
the schools, Wilton has a literary so- 
ciety that debates questions of cur- 
rent importance, a public library 
founded iu 1874 through the efforts 
of Rev. A. M. Pendleton, and manv 

Wilton — Past and Present, 


other societies, public and secret, that 
minister to the intellectual and moral 
well-being of the community. More 
than fifty of her sons have been grad- 
uated from colleges, and many of 
them have won national reputation 
in the sacred desk and at the bar. 


The pursuits of the people are 
largely agricultural, _nd, although 
the topography is somewhat hilly and 
uneven, the soil is fruitful and the 
farmer prosperous. No greater evi- 
dence of this is needed than the fact 
that there is hardly a town in the 
state that can boast of a better aver- 
age, of attractive farm buildings, all 
of which evidence thrift and prosper- 


The important industries of the 
town are the Wilton Manufacturing 
Company, Whiting & Sons' saw-mill, 
Cragin's knife, tray, and dry measure 
manufactory, Putnam's saw- and plau- 
ing-mill, Barker's grist-mill, Hop- 
kins's clapboard- and shingle-mill, 
Livermore's saw-mill, shingle, and 
turning-lathe establishment, Sargent's 
saw-mill, Holt & Son's knob and milk- 
can stoppers and cider-mill, Smith's 
knob manufactory, Flint & Gray's 
wheelwright- and carriage-shop, and 
many smaller industries in the same 


Wilton has suffered more from fire 
and flood than any other town in the 
state. Her citizens, however, have 
been equal to every emergency, and 
by their energy and enterprise have 
rebuilded better than the original. 
Prior to 1872 it suffered from these 

causes to about the same extent that 
other places have suffered. In the 
year mentioned the Wilton Mills were 
burned, together with Putnam's store- 
house, Duueklee's shop, and other 
property. In 1874 a disastrous con- 
flagration ra^ed on Main street, at 

DO 1 

the East Village, destroying a hotel, 
Masonic hall, stores, houses, and 
other buildings. In 1881 the Masonic 
hall, bank, library, and houses were 
burned, causing a loss of $50,000 ; 
and in 1883 the Whiting House, one 
of the finest hotels in southern New 
Hampshire, was burned. In 18G9 a 
great flood swept awa} T bridges, and 
entailed a loss upon the town of 
$60,000; besides this, the Milford 
bank robbery cost the people of the 
town $10,000. 


Concerning the many noted men of 
the town who have lived and died 
within its borders, or who have won 
fame and fortune in other places, we 
can say but little in an article of this 
length. Perhaps the best known of 
all to the student of history is Col. 
Miller, who led a regiment at Lundy's 
Lane. His reply to Gen. Brown, 
when asked if he could storm the 
enemy's position, "I'll try, sir," is 
as familiar to the students of to-day 
as "Don't give up the ship," or 
' l We have met the enemy, and they 
are ours." Perhaps the best known 
man of the town to-day, a man whose 
energy and enterprise have been felt 
in every department of industry, and 
who, by building up a Boston milk 
route, has naturally benefited not 
only the farmers of his own town, but 
those of all the surrounding towns, 
is Mr. David Whiting. He richly 


Wilton — Past and Present. 

merits the praise his townsmen be- 
stow upon him. 


"Of late years," says a recent 
writer, " a marked social change has 
come to the place, and many people 
from the cities and seaboard annually 
resort to the hills and mountains, for 
health and iuvigoration, in the sum- 
mer months. From one to two hun- 
dred boarders find accommodations 
during the warm season, and enjoy 
the healthful air, its charming drives 
and walks, and its beautiful scenerv, 

while not a few build here tasteful 
country cottages for their homes 
nearly half the year." 

What the future of Wilton is to be 
cannot be foretold. Enough to know 
that if the sons continue — and they 
will — faithful to the memory of their 
sires, if they keep alive the spirit of 
enterprise, and show the same in- 
domitable courage and perseverance 
in the midst of temporary misfortune, 
their town will continue to increase 
in wealth and influence till she be- 
comes the city of the Souhegan val- 


Wilton of to-day is unlike Wilton 
a hundred and fifty years a^o. It 
has the same boundaries, the same 
hills and valleys, but everything else 
is changed. One hundred and fifty 
years ago there were but a few scat- 
tered settlers, no streets or highways, 
only marked trees to guide the trav- 
eller. The people practised rigid 
economy ; they knew nothing of the 
comforts and luxuries of this genera- 
tion. They were beset with wild 
beasts and roaming savages, and 
were in constant fear of happenings 
that might cost them their lives. 
More than this, — they knew nothing 
of society, were isolated from church 
and school-house, and ready money 
was something unknown among them. 
But they were strong in muscle and 
in perseverance. They were cour- 
ageous, determined to succeed ; and 
so by hard work and frugality they 
felled the forest, and builded for 
themselves and posterity good homes. 
Beside9 all tins, they developed a 
spirit of freedom that was felt in the 

struggle for liberty, laid deep and 
secure the foundations of state and 
school, that have with the other old 
towns of the commonwealth made 
this, as Phillips puts it in one of his 
masterly orations, ki a fit country to 
live in." So much for the past. 

Wilton to-day has all the luxuries 
that any town or city in the state 
can boast, — wide streets with luxuri- 
ant shade-trees, concrete and brick 
walks, fine highways in all desirable 
directions, and railroad facilities of 
the best, with telegraph and tele- 
phone connection with the outside 
world. The hardships of her people 
are simply such as all endure who 
toil in the shop, the mill, or on the 
soil. Her homes are among the most 
attractive in the state, her society 
such as would do honor to any city 
in the land, while all are educated, 
happy, and free, with no lurking red- 
man or insidious disease to fill the 
passing hours with omens of unhap- 
piness. The contrast thus briefly 
drawn between the past and the 

Wilton — Past and Present. 


present is very great ; but great as 
it is it could not have been accom- 
plished except that Wilton has raised 
up a class of men who have carried 
forward to success the industries and 
institutions which the fathers founded. 
To these men — and their names would 
swell this article to undesirable lim- 
its — more of praise is due than the 
average man accords. 


Said an English statesman not 
long since, "Show me the public 
building or buildings of the town, 
and I can make up my mind instantly 
as regards the thrift, enterprise, and 
public spirit of the place." If Wilton, 
then, were to be judged by her public 
building, the verdict must be that no 
town outranks her in this essential 
evidence of prosperity. Her town 
building is the finest structure of the 
kind in the state, and we doubt very 
much if any town iu New England 
can boast a better one. It stands 
upon the former site of the Whiting 
House, destroyed by fire, and was 
erected in 1883. The walls of its 
first story, on the Main street side, 
are constructed of square blocks of 
stone, and the superstructure above, 
fronting on Maple street, is con- 
structed of pressed brick. It has 
storm-covered entrances on the two 
sides, partially stained glass win- 
dows, and a handsome tower with a 
clock in it. The interior is finished 
throughout in white ash, and neither 
time nor money has been spared in 
making it perfect in every particular. 
It cost $20,000. The hall is about 
fifty feet square. It is lighted by 
one large central window on each 
side, at either side of which are 

smaller windows. The chairs and all 
the belongings are in white ash. 
The ceiling is panelled in heavy 
cherry moulding, and a handsome 
chandelier adorns the centre. The 
entrance to the hall is by broad stair- 
cases from both streets into a com- 
modious vestibule, in which there is a 
ticket-office. A large gallery is fin- 
ished with the same care. On the 
same iloor as the hall there is a room 
for a public library fifty feet by about 
twenty feet. To this room there is 
an entrance from the main vestibule T 
and also a separate entrance by the 
side of the main entrance on Maple 
street. The lower story, which forms 
a basement on Main street, is parti- 
tioned into a banquet hall, kitchen, 
office for the selectmen, boiler-room, 
and storerooms, all being finished 
the same as the halls above. The 
building is heated by steam and' 
lighted with gas. In fine, there is 
nothing lacking to make it just what 
the people of Wilton claim for it, the 
finest town building in the state. 


We have said that the prosperity 
and progress of Wilton are largely 
due to her business enterprises and 
manufactories. True. The largest 
of these industries, and the firm that 
has done the most to build up the 
place, is Messrs. David Whiting & 
Son, and A. and George O. Whiting. 
Mr. David Whiting has been in the 
dairy and milk business all his life. 
He is really the successor of his 
father, who had a wide reputation as 
a manufacturer of cheese. Mr. Whit- 
ing formerly owned what is now the 
count}' farm, and on it he had a large 
dairv. He manufactured butter for 

2 5 8 

Wilton — Past and Present, 

the Boston market long before tbe 
railroad reached Wilton, and his son, 
Mr. H. A. Whiting, has a vivid rec- 
ollection of starting from the farm at 
3 o'clock in the morning, summer 
and winter, to catch the morning train 
out of Wilton. About thirty years 
ago Mr. Whiting established himself 
at the village, and since then the 
business has been conducted by 
Whiting & Son. They run six cars 
into Boston every day in the year, 
and dispose of between eight and ten 
thousaud gallons of milk a day ; of 
cream they dispose of between five 
and six thousand gallons per month, 
and their average make of butter is 
1,000 pounds a day. They keep 500 
bogs to fatten on the sour milk. Be- 
sides this, the Messrs. Whiting own 
and manage a large saw-mill that gets 
out pretty much all the lumber for 
the town, aud manufacture boxes for 
out-of-town parties. They also sup- 
ply a large cooperage with staves, do 
a heavy grain business, sell all the 
coal burned in the town, and mauage 
a dairy farm of one hundred acres. 
They employ about forty men, and 
their business is so systemized that it 
moves along like clock-work, without 
friction or hindrance. It will thus 
be seen that their enterprise is far- 
reaching, stimulating every indus- 
try, and encouraging every tiller of 
the soil in Wilton and the surround- 
ing towns. 

Colony Bros.' mills, Frank Colony 
agent, were built about seven years 
ago on the site of the Wilton Mills, 
which were destroyed by fire. The 
main mill is 130 by 52 feet, brick, 4 
stories, including basement, and is 
supplied with all the latest improved 
machinery employed in manufactur- 

ing twilled flannels. Behind the mill 
is a large three-story brick picker- 
house, in which the engine is also 
located. The principal power is wa- 
ter, supplied by canal from a river 
that has its source in Greenville. 
They also have an eighty-five horse- 
power engine, and large boilers which 
supply power when the water is low — 
an occurrence that has not happened 
recently. The Messrs. Colony em- 
ploy between sixty and seventy hands, 
and pay weekly. They use about 
three hundred thousaud pounds of 
clear wool annually, and manufact- 
ure nearly a million yards of flannel. 
Their plant is handsomely located, 
and all its surroundings are attrac- 

The Hillsborough Mills, Nash Si- 
mons, agent, are on Milford soil, and 
are assessed in Milford, but all their 
business is done in Wilton, and they 
contribute to its prosperity about the 
same as if they were located there. 
It is about fifteen minutes' walk from 
the post-office to the mills. These 
mills are successor to the Pine Val- 
ley Company. They came under their 
present management in 1873. The 
main mill is substantially built, of 
brick, is 180 feet long, 80 feet wide, 
and three stories high ; near it is a 
brick picker-house 110 by 50 feet. 
The mills obtain their power from a 
canal from the Souhegan river, and a 
200 horse-power engine, which has 
three magnificent boilers. The water- 
wheel is of the horizontal pattern 
and one of the best in the state. The 
company manufactures about one 
million pounds of carpet-yarn annu- 
ally, employs one hundred and fifty 
operatives, and pays weekly, its pay- 
roll averaging about §000. General 

Wilton — Past and Present. 


George Stark, W. W. Bailey, and J. 
A. Spalding, of Nashua, are on the 
board of directors. 

Among the important new indus- 
tries of the town is the Low & Pewell 
Manufacturing Company. This com- 
pany came from Manchester and lo- 
cated here about a year ago. It 
manufactures the Triumph self-wring- 
ing mop, the Webster shaft iron and 
tug-holder, and th^ Webster electric 
draft; also Taber's saddletree and 
water-hook. The company employs 
between sixty and seventy men, and 
turns out about ten gross a day of 
the mops, and a large number of the 
other patent articles mentioned. The 
demand for these articles is increas-* 
ing, and the company expects to em- 
ploy a large number of men at an 
early day. The works are run by 
steam and water-power, the engine 
being one hundred aud fifty horse- 
power. The company pays its help 
semi-monthly. Its monthly pay-roll 
is about $2,800. The company em- 
ploys several Nashua men, among 
the number being Hon. Frank G. 
Thurston, in charge of manufacturing 
the various lines of goods. 

W. N. Patterson manufactures 
plow-handles, saw-horses, grindstone 
frames, knife trays, etc. He employs 
six or eight men, does a heavy busi- 
ness, and disposes of the product of 
his establishment through a Boston 

Daniel Cragin's dry measure man- 
ufactory is about two miles beyond 
the village. Mr. Cragin has a large 
aud convenient set of buildings for 
his business. lie employs a dozen 
hands, and it goes without saying 
that he manufactures the best dry 
measures of any man in the country. 

They have a wide reputation for ex- 
cellence. Mr. Cragin's townsmen 
credit him with success along all the 
lines that make an enterprising and 
honored citizen. 

There are numerous other smaller 
and yet important industries in the 
place: Levi Putnam manufactures 
trunks, and does some other classes 
of wood-work, employing five or six 
men. t Hopkins & French manufact- 
ure a nice writing-desk, and do a 
good business. They employ five or 
six men, and Mr. Hopkins puts his 
time in on the road soliciting orders. 11 
Henry Holt runs a saw-mill, and gets 
out stock for builders. He employs 
half a dozen men, and does a thriving 
business. Herman Hopkins manu- 
factures hand- rakes for farmers, and 
Flint & Gray manufacture carriages, 
doing a lively and paying business,, 
while Mr. H. N. Gray is the patentee 
and manufacturer of the Wilton 
double road wagon. There are sev- 
eral other mechanical industries in 
the town, together with blacksmith- 
shops, carpenter-shops, etc. 


The total valuation of the town, as 
shown by the assessors' books, is 
$897,618. This is distributed as fol- 
lows : Mills aud machinery, $21,350; 
stock in trade, $44,100; money on 
baud and at interest, $4:0.857 ; stock 
in banks, §24,570 ; stock in public 
funds, $23,500 ; improved and unim- 
proved lands, 8641,385 ; thirty car- 
riages, $2,645 ; hogs, $3,585 ; sheep, 
$368 ; neat stock, $2,702 ; cows, 
$23,000; oxen, $3,580; horses, $23,- 
598; 418 polls, $41,800; 94 dogs, 
$110. The last yearly receipts of 
the town treasurer were $14,846.75. 


Wilton — Past and Present. 

The total population, estimated, and 
exclusive of summer boarders, is 


Next to the churches in importance 
to a town are the public schools. 
Many people consider them first in 
importance, for without them and the 
work they accomplish for mankind 
the churches would be as seriously 
handicapped as in foreign lands, 
where missionaries must establish 
means of education before the people 
are able to read the religious teach- 
ings. Regarding the schools of Wil- 
ton, George E. Bales. Esq., the effi- 
cient chairman of the board of edu- 
cation, says, — Our schools have al- 
ways been the average of those in the 
other towns of the state, with the 
exception of our high school. That 
was in such a condition that some of 
our brightest scholars were sent to 
the Nashua high school, Milford, Mt. 
Vernon, and other places. We are 
dow out of the beaten path, and may 
safely claim that our schools are as 
good as the best. Our high school 
has forty-eight scholars, and we are 
fortunate in having for a master a 
graduate of Amherst college, Mr. 
George W. Marshall, who is doing 
excellent work, and who is engaged 
a year ahead. Our graded schools 
nre in two buildings, and we have 
five district schools where pupils are 
fitted to enter the high school. We 
have three unoccupied school-houses. 
These were closed under the new law, 
the pupils being sent to other dis- 
tricts. Our whole number of schol- 
ars is 317; average attendance last 
year, 223 ; the high school is in ses-" 
sion thirty-five weeks in the year, 
and the other schools thirty weeks. 


The Wilton Savings-Bank was in- 
corporated in 1864, and commenced 
business shortly after. Charles H. 
Burns was its first treasurer. Moses 
Clark was its second treasurer, hold- 
ing the position eighteen years, until 
Jan. 1, 1889, when George E. Bales 
accepted the position. The bank had 
deposits when Mr. Bales took it to 
the amount of $102,000. It now has 
$117,000. It is a live institution, and 
a great help to the town in many par- 


The secret orders of Wilton are 
Clinton Lodge, A. F. and A. M. ; 
Laurel Lodge, I. O. O. F. ; Forest 
Colony, Pilgrim Fathers ; a division 
of the Ancient Order of Hibernians ; 
Order of Irou Hall ; Advance Grange, 
Patrons of Husbandry ; A. A. Liver- 
more Post, G. A. R; Woman's Relief 
Corps ; David E. Proctor Camp, S. 
of V., and a few other bodies. 


The apparatus for extinguishing 
fires consists of one hand-engine — 
Excelsior Compauy No. 1, forty men, 
Chas. B. Smith, foreman — and stand- 
ing pipes on the main thoroughfare 
that are operated by power from 
Whiting's mill. The addition of 
standing pipes is an improvement 
over old methods that it is hoped and 
believed will prevent such serious de- 
struction of property in the future as 
the town has experienced in the past. 


The newspapers of the town are 
the Wilton Journal, issued from the 
Advance ortice at Milford, and the 
Wilton Doings, a small but enterpris- 

Wilt oil — Past and Present, 


ing sheet that has been published five 
or six months by H. P. King, and 
which the citizens hope will live, in- 
crease in size, and prosper. The way 
to make it succeed is for the people 
of Wilton to patronize it, and the ad- 
vertising columns indicate a purpose 
to do so. 


The town has but one hotel, but 
that is a good op^, and is conducted 
in a manner to meet the approval of 
the citizens and satisfy travellers. It 
is called the Everett House, 100 by 
50 feet, has 30 rooms, is heated by 
steam, and supplied with hot and cold 
water. It was built in 187G and 
opened in 1877, and it sets a table 
good enough for anybody. Mr. S. B. 
Center is the landlord. 


Next in importance to good schools 
in a town comes a public library. 
The Ladies' Reading Club is an or- 
ganization that cannot be too highly 
commended. The club has secured 
about 300 valuable books as a nucleus 
for a public library, to take the place 
of the library lost in the great fire. 
In addition to this, Mr. George A. 
Newell, of Boston, has signified his 
purpose to donate 1,000 volumes; 
Mr. P2. H. Spalding has said he will 
make a valuable contribution ; and so, 
with about 200 volumes saved from 
the fire, and other promised contribu- 
tions, it is expected that a public libra- 
ry will be a certainty at an early day, 
with not less than 2,500 volumes at 
the start. 


The number of attractive residences 
is so large that we cannot mention all 
of them. Among those that espe- 

cially attract the attention of stran- 
gers are those of Fred Colony, David 
Whiting, Harvey A. Whiting, and 
David Whiting, 2d, on Park street. 
The Luke Beard place on the Wilton 
Highlands also attracts attention. 
It is now the home of Mr. Horace 
Beard, an inventor, who has been an 
invalid for more than twenty-five 
years. Hon. Charles H. Burns is 
also a resident of the Highlands, and 
has a large farm there. This home- 
stead, which he has greatly improved, 
and to which he has added a magnifi- 
cent barn, was formerly known as 
the Pettingill place. The view from 
the Highlands is good. Mr. O. J. 
Lewis, of Boston, has a fine summer 
residence on what was formerly known 
as the Baker place, at the middle of 
the town, and Hon. D. A. Gregg, of 
Nashua, is the owner of a fine house 
occupied by Mr. H. Low. N. D. 
Foster owns and occupies one of the 
pleasant residences on Main street, 
and another attractive homestead is 
the residence of Moses Clark, Esq. ; 
Mr. Geo. I. Doe also has a magnifi- 
cent residence. At the middle of the 
town Mrs. Davis, Mr. Geo. Newell, 
Mr. Harvey Newell, and one or two 
others, have pretty places. Hon. John 
A. Spalding has a handsome resi- 
dence and estate on Abbot hill, as 
also does Mr. E. H. Spalding, who 
owns and resides on the acres of his 
ancestors. Mr. J. Woodbury How- 
ard, of Nashua, when in town, may 
be found at French village, where he 
owns a fine house with modern ap- 
pointments, the same being once 
known as the French place. These 
and the many cosy cottages, large 
farm-houses, and pretty village dwell- 
ings, tenement-houses, and blocks, 


Wtlton — Past and Present. 

together with commodious walks, with 
mountain drives and varied scenery, 
make Wilton an attractive place to 
live in, and inviting to those seeking 
a summer home among the hills. 

From what has been written — and 
the half has not been told — it will be 
seen that there is no more beautiful 
or attractive spot in the Granite State 
than the Wilton of the present. 



A rainstorm that had been hover- 
ing over the Souhegan valley for a 
few days disappeared beyond her hills 
at night, and, although the sun was 
hidden by fleecy clouds, the people 
of Wilton, on the 12th day of Septem- 
ber, celebrated the one hundred and 
fiftieth anniversary of its settlement. 
They were early awake, and busily 
engaged in decoratiug their houses 
and grounds with the national colors. 
The display was one of the finest ever 
witnessed in a New Hampshire vil- 
lage. At depot square a large flag 
was suspended over the street, and 
another floated proudly from a staff 
on a building ; the Everett was gay 
with miniature flags, streamers, and 
evergreens, while in front of it, sus- 
pended over Main street, was the 
star-spangled banner in ample folds. 
All the stores, shops, and mills near 
which the procession passed were 
tastefully hung with small flags and 
bunting; the town building floated 
the flag, and was handsomely trimmed, 
and every private residence was made 
doubly attractive with miniature flags, 
streamers, Chinese lanterns, and other 
decorations, some of the more elab- 
orate displays being at the residences 

of David Whiting, Moses Clark, H. 
A. Whiting, E. G. Woodman, A. A. 
Ramsey, , Albert Beard, Rev. I. S. 
Lincoln, David Whiting, 2d, the Luke 
Beard homestead, and Hon. Charles 
H. Burns. 

The civic procession, a surprising 
demonstration for a town to make, 
formed on depot square in the fol- 
lowing order : 

Chief Marshal, Geo. W. Wallace. 

Aids: C. A. Burns, A. C. Young, F. E. Proctor, 

D. E. Herrick, E. W. Haselton, and 

David Gregg, 2d. 

Platoon of police under command of M. J. Her- 

Wilton Cornet Band, Azel P. Brigham, leader; 

Thomas Conley, drum major. 

A. A. Livermore Post, G. A. R., with a delegation 

from Harvey Holt Post of Lyudeborough, 

Henry Emerson, commander. 

David E. Proctor Camp, S. of V., with a delegation 

from the camp at Lyndeborough, Edward 

W. Lawrence, commander. 

Excelsior Fire Engine Company, Willis Hopkins, 

Advauce Grange, P. of H., James Sheldon, master. 
Mr. and Mrs. Caesar Barnes on horseback after the 

fashion of ye olden time. 
Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Putnam in an old chaise of the 

last century. 
Mr. and Mrs. Albert Beard and friends in a hand- 
some turnout beautifully decorated 
with golden rod. 
Hon. Charles H. Burns's carriage prettily trimmed 
with flowers, and containing lour young 
ladies dressed in white, and bearing 
cornstalks, emblem of plenty. 
Carriage containing the four oldest inhabitants in 
town.— Rev. I. S. Lincoln, 91; Benjamin 
Hopkins, 92; Joseph Upton, 93; 
Calvin Wright, 93. 
Barge handsomely decorated and crowded with 

Barge containing the children of the county farm. 
Citizens in carriages, the most of which were dec- 
orated with miniature flags. 


The Low & Rewell Manufacturing 
Company headed this division with a 
magnificently trimmed float drawn by 
a horse weighing 1,500 pounds. The 
display consisted of mops and other 
articles manufactured by the compa- 
ny, and a knitting-machine in full 

Wilton — Past and Present. 


operation, the workmen marching be- 
hind the float being gaily dressed in 
uniforms made upon the knitting- 

The village blacksmiths, Bales & 
Putnam, made a fine show, having an 
anvil and forge upon a float, and 
being at work. It was noted upon 
the bonnet of the forge that the busi- 
ness was established in 1812 by Capt. 
John Bales. 

The other handsome displays were 
by Colony Bros., manufacturers of 
twilled goods ; F. M. Lund, boots 
and shoes, clerks at work and barge 
finely trimmed ; D. Whiting & Sons, 
three teams, grain, milk, and farm, 
the latter having live stock on board ; 
Proctor Brothers' Manufacturing Com- 
pany, mau at work making casks ; 
Northern express team ; S. N. Car- 
ter, 2d, grocery team piled high with 
goods ; Levi Putnam, a mountainous 
pile of trunks ; Patterson & Son, 
plows, grindstones, saw-horses, etc. ; 
D. E. Proctor, handsome grocery 
team ; A. C. Young, display of dry 
goods ; displays by M. P. Stanton, 
A. O. Barker, Dr. McGowu, dentis- 
try outfit with patient in chair; White 
Sewing-Machine team ; H. P. Rings, 
Ambrosia and printing-press. 

The route of the procession was as 
follows : Railroad square down Main 
to Russell street, up Russell to Ma- 
ple, up Maple to Forest, up Forest 
to Putnam's mills, countermarch to 
Highland, up Highland, countermarch 
in front of the Gregg mansion, 
then to Colony's mills, countermarch 
to Main street, where the procession 
was reviewed from the balcony of the 
Everett House by the committee on 
the celebration and the invited 

Among the absent sous and daugh- 
ters who participated in the honors 
and pleasures of the event were Rev. 
Abiel Livermore, D. D., of Mead- 
ville, Pa., Mr. John D. Fiske, aged 
80, of Brookfield, Mass., Ezra Pet- 
tingill of Auburn, Hon. David A. 
Gregg aud Hon. John A. Spalding of 
Nashua, Geo. O. Whiting of Arling- 
ton, Mass., Samuel Warren of Hol- 
den, Mass., Mr. and Mrs. H. H. 
Hutchins, of Boston, Geo. W. Hop- 
kins of Concord, Sewell Putnam of 
Goffstowu, Mr. and Mrs. J. S. Gray 
of Lowell, Francis Greene of Lowell, 
A. N. Whittemore of Greenfield, Lo- 
renzo Phelps of Lowell, Moses Love- 
joy of West Wilton, and Abial Abbot 
of xVbbot hill, who served on the com- 
mittee fifty years ago, Dr. W. Clark 
aud Hon. Frank G. Clark of Peter- 
borough, Mr. J. Woodbury Howard 
of Nashua, Dr. Brown of Barre, Vt., 
Mr. John F. Kimball and Sewell G. 
Mack, Esq., of Lowell, and many 
others whose names could not be con- 
veniently obtained. 


The anuiversary was celebrated by 
many happy reunions ' of returning 
sons and daughters, and of those who 
still have homes within her borders. 
The commemoration exercises of a 
literary and musical character were 
held in the town building, the spa- 
cious hall of which was crowded to 
overflowing with a brilliant assem- 
blage of the people. The exercises 
were as follows : y 

Selection by the Wilton Cornet 

Remarks and welcome by Moses 
Clark, Esq., chairman of the Commit- 
tee of Arrangements. 


Wilton — Past and Present, 


Ladies and Gentlemen : 

What is the reason we see so many 
young people here? what is the rea- 
sons so many middle-aged people are 
here? and for what purpose have gath- 
ered so many aged people who have 
seen the toil of many years? It is 
because they all have a deep interest 
in celebrating the one hundred and 
fiftieth anniversary of the good old 
town of Wilton. For the committee, 
then, and in behalf of the people of 
the town, we welcome the sons and 
daughters of Wilton to this celebra- 
tion. We also welcome the people 
from adjoining towns to the celebra- 

I myself cannot comprehend one 
hundred and fifty years, but I can go 
back fifty years and recall something 
that has been done. I came here 
about fifty years ago, and at that time 
there were only twenty-six buildings, 
all told, upou her soil. A large num- 
ber of these were ordinary structures. 
To-day there are more than two hun- 
dred, and many of them are equal to 
any iu the state. In the past fifty 
years we have not only had prosperity, 
but we have had adversity. Our prop- 
erty has been destroyed by fire and 

When I came here there was not a 
mill in the town. Some thirty or forty 
years ago a mill was built, but it was 
destroyed by fire : to-day there is a 
beautiful mill upon the same spot. 
We have had fires that have twice 
burned our village, but it has been re- 
built. The Whiting House, on the site 
of which was an old red house that 
many of you will remember, was de- 
stroyed by fire, and now on the spot 
is this town-house — grand in archi- 

tecture, rich in material, and good in 
workmanship — the grandest of the 
grand. We trust that the memory of 
this day will long be cherished, and 
prove profitable to our recollection. I 
now have the honor to introduce the 
president aud vice-presidents of the 
day : 

President — Hon. Charles H. Burns. 

Vice-Presidents — David Whiting, 
Wm. Emerson, Sewell Putnam, E.G. 
Woodman, Samuel X. Center, Wm. 
Shelden, Abiel Abbot, Wm. Abbot, 
Henry T. Frye, Edward H. Spald- 
ing, Samuel Burton, Jacob Putnam, 
George Buss, John I). Wilsou, Sam- 
uel L. Kimball, John McGregor, 
Henry Gray, Jos. Hazelton, Warren 
Holt, Samuel W. Smith, Warren 
Stiles, and L. W. Perham. 

Secretary — Andrew N. Burton. 

Invocation by Rev. T. O. Harlow. 

Chorus — Festival Hymn. 

Scripture reading by Rev. J. H. 

Prayer by Rev. Abial Livermore, 
d. d., president of Meadville (Pa.) 

Address by the president of the 
day, Hon. Charles H. Burns. 


Fello w- Cit fzen s : 

Fifty years ago Wilton completed 
a century of its life. It was deemed 
by its good citizens an event of such 
consequence as to entitle it to formal 
notice ; and a day was set apart for 
that purpose, and devoted to speeches,- 
music, songs, and general rejoicing. 
I hold in my hand a published ac- 
count of that performance, and in it 
I find this graphic description of the 
day and it ^ experiences : 

Wilt oil — Past and Present. 


44 The morning of the celebration 
dawned auspiciously, and was ushered 
in with the ringing of the bells and a 
salute of one hundred guns. The sun 
rose upon a cloudless sky. The day 
was calm and clear and mild. Every- 
thing conspired to render it one of the 
finest mornings of early autumn ; and 
many were those who rose betimes 
and hailed it with joyful anticipations. 

44 Emigrants U other towns, aud to 
the distaut cities and villages of oth- 
er states, had come back to revisit 
once more the scenes of their youth, 
and to celebrate with friends and for- 
mer associates this grand jubilee of 
their native town. Aud now the sons 
and daughters of Wilton, resident 
and emigrant, together with numerous 
guests from abroad, leaving behind 
them for a while the cares of profes- 
sional life, the din of machinery, the 
business of the farm, the workshop, 
or the counting-room, might be seen 
thronging the roads that asceud from 
all quarters to the common. As they 
approached, the first tiling to catch all 
eyes was a fancy flag, in its semi- 
circular wreath of evergreen, hovering 
in the air midway between the two 
churches on the hill, and appearing 
to have no support, till, on arriving 
near it, the cord which upheld it was 
seen stretched from belfry to bel- 
fry, and on the flag itself appeared 
the inscriptions 4 1 730' and '1839,' 
with other devices between them. 
The national banner had been raised 
in the air, and its stripes and stars, 
borne on the now rising breeze, were 
floating gaily over the now spacious 
pavilion, erected on the border of a 
pleasant field, a few rods east of 
the old meeting-house. Around the 
meeting-house stood handsome spruce 

trees, the growth of the night; while 
within, it was beautifully ornamented 
with verdant boughs and wreaths, and 
a large chandelier of evergreen. The 
common was at an early hour alive 
with people, moving to and fro. or 
collecting in groups ; and the tine 
appearance of the Miller Guards, a 
company of volunteers, organized in 
the town a short time previous, under 
the command of Col. Samuel King, 
with the cheering music of the band 
attending them, gave increased ani- 
mation to the scene. And through- 
out the multitudes there assembled 
the cordial greetings of old acquaint- 
ances, the hearty shaking of hands, 
the glad voices and speaking counte- 
nances, all testified to the overflowing 
pleasure and good feeling which 
reigned on the occasion." 

The officers of the day were, — 

President — Ezra Abbott. 

Vice-Presidents — Abram Whitte- 
more, Jonathan Livermore, Jonathan 
Burton, Timothy Parkhurst, Timothy 
Abbot, Daniel Batchelder, Oliver 

Chief Marshal — Jonathan Park- 

Assistant Marshals — Samuel Kink, 
David Wilson, Hermon Pettengill, 
Calvin Gray, Oliver Barrett, Moses 

Toast-masters — Eliphalet Putnam, 
Zebediah Abbot. 

This is a list of splendid men. 
They are all gone. Not one of the 
oflicers who were active on that occa- 
sion still lives ; but they have left a 
record that is as imperishable as the 
stars. They were representative 
men. Although not the founders, 
they were the promoters and builders 
of a stanch and noble town, whose 


Wilton — Past and Present, 

influence has reached every part of 
our great country. They were men 
who loved their God, their home, 
their town, and their country. They 
worked not only for themselves, but 
for their fellow-men. They were not 
drunkards nor loafers, but men of 
marked sobriety and unflagging in- 
dustry. They did not plot against 
the common weal, but they wrought 
by day and by night for the perfec- 
tion of law and for the advancement 
of society. They had not great 
learning nor brilliant abilities, but 
they were wise observers, very intel- 
ligent, and full of native worth and 
an integrity that was as immovable 
as the -granite hills on which they 
lived. They were possesed of all the 
characteristics which are essential in 
establishing a successful common- 

Fifty years have come and gone 
since the centennial of Wilton occur- 
red ; and it is without doubt true that 
they have been the most remarkable 
years in many respects that the world 
has ever known. In no other epoch 
of history has the brain of man been 
so productive of discoveries and in- 
ventions which are useful to mankind. 
Chemical, mechanical, physical, and 
economic truths have been discovered 
and utilized, which have displaced 
and readjusted almost all the proc- 
esses of manly industries, affecting 
agriculture, manufactures, transporta- 
tion, exchanges, the sciences and the 
arts, the finances, the education and 
learning, the moral and social condi- 
tion, of the human race. 

In the old world, cluriug this time 
and since Victoria ascended the 
throne of England, which was just 
before the centennial of Wilton, 

kings and queens have lost their 
thrones, and more than half the govern- 
ments of Europe have been overturned 
or remodelled. In our own country 
we have made a growth which is the 
marvel of Christendom. We had a 
population in 1839 of about fifteen 
millions of people, now we have more 
than sixty millions. Then the Pacific 
coast was an almost unknown land, 
with scattered inhabitants, and with 
a shore covered with snow and sand 
and rock, u where formerly the slug- 
gish Mexican kept his ranch aud the 
red Indian hunted the buffalo:" now 
it is dotted all over with thriving cit- 
ies and villages, in which are to be 
found all the equipments of modern 
civilization ; — and this vast region is 
to-day connected by the iron rail with 
every other part of the United States. 
Then Arkansas aud Missouri were 
extreme frontier states ; Michigan al- 
most unknown. Chicago was a speck 
of a town not then christened, but 
called Fort Dearborn : now it has 
almost as many inhabitants as Lou- 
don then had. Its name is a power in 
this land ; its beauties and marvels 
are the wonderment of all who behold 
them. The growth of this magic city 
is typical of the whole natiou. 

When our fathers celebrated fifty 
years ago, they recurred to the storms 
and trials of the Revolution, and the 
brave work of their fathers at Bunker 
Hill, Bennington, and Yorktown, for 
evidences of their prowess and patriot- 
ism in war ; but the valor of the men 
of '76 is almost dwarfed by that of 
their sons, shown on hundreds of bat- 
tle-fields eighty-five years later. The 
civil war, which stands midway be- 
tween 1839 and 1889, tested the 
patriotism not only of the men of the 

Will on — Past and Present. 


nation, but of Wilton, whose roll of 
honor is proof that here dwells a peo- 
ple thoroughly imbued with love of 
home and couutry, and a disposition 
and ability to defend both at all haz- 
ards and at any cost. During the 
period, slavery, which was a foul blot 
upon our government half a century 
ago, has been overthrown, and the 
nation is redeemed from the clutch 
of its deadliest foe. 

In our town we can show commend- 
able progress. This beautiful town 
hall, and the charming village where- 
in it stands, are almost eutirely the 
product of these fifty years. The 
locomotive that whistles through this 
valley morning, noon, and night, had 
not then even threatened to thrill our 
mountains with its echoes. In a 
review of Wilton's centennial, written 
in 1840, it was triumphantly boasted 
" that the old ill-formed, inconven- 
ient houses, with their large chim- 
neys, were in many instances gone, 
and in their place we had the neat 
and convenient dwelliug, warmed by 
a cast-iron fireplace, or its more 
economical stove. " Hot air and 
steam furnaces were then un- 
known, and modern dwellings, such 
as now crown " the noble hills of 
"Wilton," with their manifold conven- 
iences, had not yet appeared. The 
era of tallow and sperm oil. which 
succeeded the pine knot, has been fol- 
lowed with petroleum, gas, and elec- 
tricity. We ride by steam, and talk 
by wire, thus almost annihilating 
time and distance. This is an epi- 
tome of national and town progress 
during the^e eventful years. 

During the five decades since our 
fathers thus paused, and with honest 
pride registered their splendid progress 

and condition, has the great work of 
town building aud citizen making here 
gone ou. Its sons have traversed all 
climes, and the principles taught them 
by their fathers permeate and adorn 
civilization in most, if not all, of the 
great centres of our country. Again 
we pause to celebrate, in a modest 
way, another suggestive event. We 
do not stand, as is said in the match- 
less oration of Mr. Peabody, deliver- 
ed here fifty years ago, " on the hor- 
izon that divides two centuries," but 
we are midway between the second 
century of our town life, and in an 
era fruitful of the most astounding 
discoveries and developments. 

This is the occasion. Wilton wel- 
comes her sons and daughters to-day 
with all the warmth of a mother's 
greeting. She only asks her children 
solemnly to remember that *'it is bet- 
ter to transmit than to inherit a good 

Chorus — " Triumphal March." 
Address by Ephraim Brown, Esq., 
of Lowell, Mass. 


Jfr. President and Fellow- Citizens : 

Fifty years ago Wilton became one 
hundred years old, and that day was 
celebrated as a memorable day in its 
existence. The celebration was the 
second of its kind in Hillsborough 
county. The Hollis celebration was 
in 1830, nine years before the one in 

Great changes have taken place 
during the fifty years just elapsed. 
That celebration was at the centre of 
the town, in the meeting-house on the 
hill. That meeting-house was the 
town-house, and all the large assem- 
blages of the people were there. To- 


Wilton — Past and Present. 

day we are here in this beautiful tem- 
ple. This appropriate and beautiful 
town hall tells us that old things have 
passed away ; that for Wilton all 
things have become new. It tells us 
of foresight, enterprise, and gener- 

A dense population is the destiny 
of New England, and that destiny is 
nearer at hand than most imagine. 
Before the time just mentioned ar- 
rives there are other interests that 
will be developed into more imme- 
diate details. The greatest immedi- 
ate, undeveloped possibilities of Wil- 
ton are in its vast, unoccupied water- 
powers, now running to waste. Less 
than half our power is in use to-day. 
The recent discovery of electric trans- 
mission of power adds vast impor- 
tance to your cascades. Electric 
transmission of power is having a 
wonderful development. There are 
3,351 electric plants now running, of 
459,495 horse-power. There is no 
other town in Hillsborough county 
where all things combine, in location, 
rivers, railroads, and people, more 
fully to make this development a 
complete success. 

Fifty years from now, at the same 
ratio of increase of the next one hun- 
dred years, our population will be 
280,000,000. Perhaps that Wilton 
child is born that will see that day. 
Mrs. Sarah A. Holt, a Wilton resi- 
dent, lived to be one hundred years 
old. Mrs. Dr. John D. Putnam had 
one hundred birthdays. Mrs. Lucin- 
da (Sawtell) Fletcher celebrated her 
one hundredth birthday. The United 
States now have 19 people to each 
square mile ; China 270 : Belgium 
343. When we become as populous 
as China we shall have a population 

of 949,000,000. In one hundred 
years our population will be 1,120,- 
000,000. Your children's childreu 
will see that day. 

Grand hallelujah chorus. 

Poem by Dr. Francis E. Abbot, of 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Benediction by Rev. I. S. Lincoln. 

Follow ins these exercises a grand 
dinner was served by the ladies of 
the town in the basement banquet- 
hall of the building. 


A large audience gathered in the 
town hall after dinner to listen to 
short remarks by distinguished sons 
of the place and visitors. Hon. 
Charles II. Burns presided, and in- 
troduced the speakers in a felicitous 
manner, the band, soloists, and a 
chorus class interspersing the ser- 
vices with selections that were meri- 
toriously rendered and loudly ap- 

Rev. Abiel Livermore, d. d., of 
Meadville, Pa., was the first speaker. 
Dr. Livermore confined his remarks 
to the ministers of Wilton. He said 
he was probably called upon because 
he was the grandson of a minister, 
because he was a minister himself, 
and because he had been engaged a 
good many years in making minis- 
ters. Wilton has had about fifty 
ministers, and the churches have 
increased from one to five. Rev. 
Jonathan Livermore, the first minis- 
ter of the place, was an Arminian in 
faith, which was the liberal Chris- 
tianity of that day. Several hundred 
of his sermous exist. During his 
ministry one hundred and fifty- 
two persons were added to the 
church, and there were only two fam- 

Wilton — Past and Present. 


ilics in town *whose members were 
not baptized. He was a good man 
and sincere, and it is doubtless due 
to his inlluence that the religious 
sentiment of Wilton is of a liberal 
character to-day. Rev. Abel Fisk 
was the second pastor, and served 
the people twenty-four years. He 
was a Calvinistic Baptist, and very 
rigid in his creed. Like a good 
many ministers of to-day, his great 
liking was a fast horse. Rev. 
Thomas Beede was the third pastor, 
and served the church twenty-six 
years. He was liberal in his views, 
a noted Freemasou, aud several 
years chaplain of the New Hamp- 
shire legislature. Thus three pas- 
tors covered a period of sixty-three 
years, and were the only ministers of 
the place till 1826. Then came a 
split, and short pastorates, the long- 
est — sixteen years — being that of 
Rev. D. E. Adams. Dr. Livermore 
closed with a fervent benediction 
upon the clergy and the people of 
the town. 

Hon. George A. Marden, of Low- 
ell, was then introduced as "a Wilton 
man born just over the line, in Mont 
Vernon." Mr. Marden spoke at 
first in a humorous vein, what he 
said being received with shouts of 
laughter and applause. He then 
spoke seriously, and made some 
telling points relative to the advan- 
tages which New England men and 
women enjoy over all the rest of the 
world. These advantages are in the 
general obedience to laws whereby 
every man's life and liberty are pro- 
tected ; in the improvements which 
enterprise and ambition have brought 
to every town ; in society, in com- 
forts, in luxury, in a thousand and 

one things he had not time to men- 
tion. In New England a traveller 
can get a good and wholesome dinner 
at any house where he may tarry ; 
ten miles beyond her borders his 
stomach rebels. Mr. Marden spoke 
of the boundless possibilities and 
probable future of our country, and 
in all he said reference was pleas- 
antly and profitably made to Wilton. 
He was loudly applauded. 

The speaking was further contin- 
ued by Hon. F. G. Clark, of Peter- 
borough, George E. Bales, Esq., 
Messrs. Isaac and George 0. Whit- 
ing, and others. Mr. Clark spoke 
of the duty and pleasure in returning 
to one's native town on great occa- 
sions ; and Mr. Bales made brief 
mention of the improvements that 
have been made aud are hoped for in 
the town. The other speakers spoke 
to the same point, and thus com- 
pleted exercises the recollection of 
which will be a source of pride to all 
the sons and daughters of the good 
old town. 


The platform in the town hall was 
beautifully garlanded with evergreens 
and flowers, and above it were sus- 
pended handsomely wrought tablets 
bearing the inscriptions " 1739-1889." 
There was a liberal display of red. 
white, and blue streamers and crossed 
miniature flags. 

Among the representative guests 
of the occasion, whose names have 
not been heretofore mentioned, were 
Rev. F. G. Clark of West Medford, 
Mass., Dr. C. N. Kittridge of New 
York, Rev. A. M. Pendleton of 
Mil ford, Mr. Ezra P. Howard of 
Nashua. Mr. Samuel Putnam of 


Wilton — Past and Present. 

Leominster, Mass., and Mr. Frank 
Harden of Boston. 

The New Hampshire Historical So- 
ciety was represented by Mr. E. H. 
Spalding, of Wilton, and Col. J. E. 
Pecker, of Concord. 

The Everett House not only served 
a metropolitan dinner, but issued a 
handsome menu card, upon which 
were handsome wood cuts of the log 
inn of 1739, and the Everett House 
of 1889. Mr. Starr B. Center is the 
landlord of the house, and a model 
.landlord he is. 

The Wilton Cornet Band deserves 
a word of praise. Its marching music, 
and the concert selections performed 
in the hall, were admirable. It is 
an organization that Wilton people 
should take pride in and encourage. 

The Grand Army men and the 
Sons of Veterans are an honor to 
the town. With full ranks and mag- 
nificent banners, they made a patriotic 

Among the busy people in making 
the celebration a success, — and our 
observation was that Mr. Harvey A. 
Whiting was the busiest, — were Mr. 
Moses Clark, Mr. D. E. Proctor, 
Mr. George W. Wallace, Mrs. 
Charles H. Burns, Mrs. Whiting, 
and Mr. Bales. Mr. H. Low, agent, 
and Hon. F. G. Thurston, of Nashua, 
in charge of the manufacturing de- 
partment of the Low & Rewell manu- 
factory, also deserve complimentary 
mention for the grand display made 
at the head of the trade division of 
the procession. 


At the celebration in Wilton a com- 
mittee of ladies, of which Mrs. Chas. 

H. Burns was chairman, made a very 
attractive display, in the library room 
of the town building, of heir-looms 
and mementos of the pioneers and 
early settlers. Nearly all the relics 
exhibited were souvenirs of the eigh- 
teenth century. Among the articles 
that attracted special attentiou was a 
quilted bed-spread designed by Rev. 
Jonathan Livermore one hundred and 
twenty years ago, and also a hand- 
some bed-spread that was spun aud 
woven by Betsy Blanchard nearly 
one hundred years ago. There were 
several other fine spreads, and a va- 
riety of women's clothing that belong- 
ed to the grandmothers of this gener- 
ation, as well as the implements with 
which they toiled, among them being 
a flax-wheel more than one hundred 
and twenty-five years old, together 
with wool and flax-cards. Another 
relic specially interesting was a huge 
tithing-stick, with which order was 
restored in church and other public 
gatherings by thumping upon the 
floor. It is traced back more than 
one hundred and fifty years. Several 
families exhibited chairs that did 
service before the War of the Revo- 
lution, and a few displayed the prim- 
itive tools of those days, such as 
augers, bit-stocks, and saws. These, 
with old China and pewter dishes, 
liuen, shawls, books, saddle-bags, tin 
lautern, etc., made a collection which 
was very interesting and attractive to 
visitors and citizens alike. Several 
young ladies of the town, clothed in 
the dresses of their great-grandmoth- 
ers, did the honors of the occasion as 

Manchester and the Amoskeag Comfany. 



From the Manchester Daily Mirror 
and American of September 16, 18S9, 
the following interesting facts in re- 
gard to Manchester and the Amos- 
keag company have been taken : 

A half century of prosperity in 
Manchester, and the priucipal factor 
in that prosperity is the Amoskeag 
corporation ! How much the city of 
Manchester, individually and collec- 
tively, owes to the Amoskeag Manu- 
facturing Company ! 

In her great and remarkable growth 
Manchester has lost sight of the fac- 
tor that this company has been in her 
progress, and, even where it has been 
realized, the meed of praise awarded 
the company has not unfrequently 
been grudgingly given, and with any- 
thing but admiration back of it. The 
reason for this is ignorance, undoubt- 

The following article has been 
carefully collated from the most re- 
liable sources, and contains much of 
Manchester's early history. It is full 
of facts, and its value as a matter of 
reference entities it to something 
beside the ephemeral existence grant- 
ed the ordinary newspaper article. 

A city that has grown from a sand- 
bank to a municipality, with a valua- 
tion of over a score of millious, 
through the liberality, thrift, and 
enterprise of one corporation, owes 
considerable to that organization, 
although the debt of gratitude that 
the residents of such a city are 
placed under is one that is not gener- 
ally recognized. 


In order that one may obtain a 
more absolute knowledge of this sub- 

ject, it will be necessary to go back 
to 1809, when Benjamin Prichard 
built the first cotton-mill on the west 
side of Amoskeag falls, in what was 
then Goffstown. This mill, which 
was forty feet square and two stories 
high, after many vicissitudes, was 
finally succeeded by several others, 
and in June, 1831, the business then 
having been placed upon a firm finan- 
cial basis, the Amoskeag Manufact- 
uring Company was chartered, Dr. 
Oliver Dean, of Norfolk, Mass., then 
in his 48th year, being elected presi- 
dent. Dr. Dean, Wiilard Sayles, 
William Amory, and several other 
shrewd Boston capitalists, put the 
company on its feet ; and through 
their own far-sightedness and the 
ability of Col. Robert Read, who was 
appointed the company's agent in 
1837, serving in that capacity until 
January 1, 1852, is much of the cor- 
poration's success in obtaining real 
estate holdings due. 

Mr. Sayles was a particularly 
shrewd bargainer, and the truthful 
historian, while making no excuse for 
some of the methods pursued by him, 
adds, — "It is probable that few per- 
sons could have done the business to 
better advantage." 

The Amoskeag corporation was 
chartered in 1831, and at the annual 
meeting, July 12, 1832, Doctor and 
President Dean was chosen agent. 
It was soon after determined to 
enlarge operations, and competent 
engineers, having been ordered to 
investigate the condition of things 
along both banks of the river, re- 
ported that the east bank of the 
Merrimack was the most feasible site 


Manchester and the Amoskeag Company 

for the company's proposed improve- 
ments, both as a chancel for their 
canals and a site for their mills. In 
1835, having secured a large block of 
land on that side of the river, they ■ 
entered actively on the work of 
building up a city. 

Rivals were effectually shut out by 
purchasing the water-power at Hook- 
sett and at Garvin' falls, and combin- 
ing the stock of the companies doing 
business there with the Amoskeag. 
Thus rid of competition, the company, 
in 1837, constructed a wing dam and 
guard lock at the falls, and the canal 
facilities following, as a matter of 
course, the company decided that it 
had got its little town ready for set- 

October 24, 1S38, the first public 
sale of lots took place. There were 
147 lots sold, situated between Elm 
street on the west, and Union street. 
which had not been graded, on the 
east, Lowell street on the north, and 
Hauover street on the south. The 
lots were numbered from the corner 
lot, at the intersection of Lowell and 
Union streets, westerly. A plan of 
the lots to be sold that day is still 
extant. It is in the sere and yellow 
leaf, to be sure, but one forgets all 
that in the curiosity aroused by the 
queer-looking draught. Were it not 
for those two familiar landmarks — 
Concord and Merrimack squares — 
which somehow have refused to stray 
away from their moorings, one would 
have hard work to realize that it was 
Manchester, or any section of it. 

Elm street appears familiar enough, 
with its broad lines running north 
and south, 110 feet apart, according 
to the scab-, but the rest of the plan 
is not so familiar. Elm street was 

to be the street of the new city, but, 
luckily for the electric lights and 
horse cars of to-day, the scheme that 
was seriously advocated of planting 
a row of trees in the centre of this 
thoroughfare met an ignominious 
death, and the trees were relegated 
to their proper spheres — beside the 

According to the map, Central 
street divides with Elm the dignity 
of being one of the principal high- 
ways. Like Elm, it is laid out 100 
feet wide, while Merrimack, next 
north, is only 40. Manchester street 
has disappeared altogether. Hanover 
street is set down as 50 feet in width ; 
aud then come Concord and Amherst 
streets, each a 40- foot thoroughfare ; 
and finally Lowell, another 50-foot 
street, and completing the list of 
those running east and west on the 
map. Back streets are provided 
between all the highways as at pres- 

As for the streets running north 
aud south, it seems funny enough to 
see Chestnut starting from Concord 
square and running off to nobody 
knows where in the south ; and even 
those who fought so bitterly against 
having this highway put through 
Concord common, within a few years, 
will doubtless agree to-day that it 
would have been better to have put 
the thoroughfare through the com- 
mon in the first place. It was not 
Chestnut street in those days, evi- 
dently. The plan has it " Chesnut " 
street, and the plan ought to know. 

There is a spaceway reserved for 
a street north of Concord common, 
where Vine street now rears its con- 
crete covered surface, but no name 
for the passage-way is given on the 

Manchester and the Amosheag Company. 


map. East of Chestnut street, fnom 
Concord to Hanover, is Pine street 
as at present, but, unlike the present 
Pine street, when it reaches Hanover 
street stops, and after a break of 
150 feet another street starts in, — 
Spruce street it is called, — extending 
to Merrimack street. This street 
was evidently intended as a continu- 
ation of Pine street, exactly as Ma- 
ple street is contiuued at Lowell ; but, 
luckily for us of the present day, 
better counsels prevailed, and the 
streets were laid out as straight as 
possible and in parallel lines, in which 
form they present a much better ap- 
pearance than they would if all criss- 
crossed op, like the cow-paths that 
do duty for highways in some other 
New England manufacturing cities. 

On the west side of Elm street 
three streets fifty-six feet wide are 
laid out on the plan running east and 
west, but none of them were named. 
It was evidently expected that the 
region about Concord square was 
going to be a favorite residential 
spot, as the lots facing this well 
known breathing-spot were each of 
them laid out twenty-five feet front 
by one hundred feet deep, while the 
lots on others of the side streets were 
sold in bigger lots, ranging from 
100x150 to 200x315 feet. 

The terms as set forth on the plan 
were not liberal. Twenty-five per 
cent, cash was to be paid, on deliver} 7 
by the company of the deeds, the 
balance in three notes of twenty-five 
per cent, each, the payment to be 
secured by a mortgage on the prem- 
ises, and payable in one, two, and 
three years from the date of note, 
with interest payable annually. 

Since then a regular form of deed 

has been drawn up especially for 
house-lots, which, stripped of its 
legal verbiage, provides that inas- 
much as the land sold by the company 
has been disposed of at prices below 
its true value in order to encourage 
settlement, the purchaser by accept- 
ing the deed covenants that he will 
not for the space of twenty-five years 
erect on his lot a building suitable 
for more than one family, with the 
necessary out-buildings for the same. 
In case he N violates his covenaut, the 
corporation promises to commence 
proceedings against him at once, to 
the end that the deed may be declared 
void. Nevertheless, if this provision 
is violated, and the company does 
not commeuce proceedings inside of 
twenty-five years, the purchaser shall 
not be disturbed in his possession 
after that date. 

Where did the Arnoskeag company 
get this land that they were laying 
out iuto streets so bravely? Most of 
it they bought, which is more than 
can be said of some of those from 
whom it was obtained, for squatter 
sovereignty was common in New 
Hampshire in the early part of this 
century, and the job that the register 
of deeds for Hillsborough county had 
when he traced out the title for the 
government building lot is only a 
sample of the fog that hangs over the 
title to most of the early settlements 
in this section. The company came 
into possession by purchase on the 
east side of the river of 1,561.56 
acres, and on the west side of be- 
tween 700 and 750 acres more. The 
land on the east side of the river was 
obtained from George Clark, 374.22 
acres: Job Rowell, 216.74 acres; 
Kidder heirs, 138.33 acres; F. G. 


Manchester and the. Amosheag Company. 

Stark, 45.13 acres ; John Gamble, 
35.17 acres; Philip Stevens, 168.51 
acres ; Henry R. Barrett, 52.24 acres ; 
Samuel Hall, 289.39 acres; Daniel 
Rowell, 11.97 acres; Mrs. Davis, 
36.92 acres ; Robt. Hall, 30. S2 acres ; 
Rowell McGregor (ledge lot), 86.07 
acres ; Young land, 76 acres ; other 
sources, 239.91 acres ; — total, 1,561.56 

This was laid out into lots suit- 
able for building and business pur- 
poses. From time to time since that 
first sale in the fall of 1838 the com- 
pany has held auctions, at which the 
highest bidder obtained land in some 
cases almost without money and with- 
out price, and certainly in all cases 
at a low rate. Auction sales have 
thus been conducted, of which a record 
was found, since the first one, on Oc- 
tober 8, 1839, September 1, 1843, in 
August and September, 1844, Sep- 
tember 30. 1845, October 21, 1846, 
May 3, 1879, April 17, 1880, May 28, 
1881, and August 6, 1887, which was 
the last. Doubtless other sales were 
conducted in the '50s and '60s, of 
which no record was encountered in 
the cursory examination made. 

During these early years the city 
grew like a weed. An old blue sta- 
tistical sheet states that the popula- 
tion of Manchester, in 183S, when the 
Amo^keag company commenced its 
work of building, was but fifty per- 
sons inside of the corporate limits. 
In 1840, two years after, this number 
had increased to 3,238, in 1850 to 
13,933, and in 1856 to 22,000. In 
the latter year, under the fostering 
care of this corporation, — which, of 
course, as is the case with all cor- 
porations, — had no soul, the city 
boasted of forty-one public schools 

and fourteen churches. And all this 
in eighteen years ! 

The amounts paid for the land sold 
at those earliest auction sales, along 
in '38, '39, and '40, embracing, as it 
does now, the property right in the 
heart of the city, aud worth thousands 
of dollars in many cases, is a most in- 
teresting feature of the city's growth. 
The first lot on the company's 
plans is the one situated at the corner 
of Lowell and Union streets. On 
that eventful October day when the 
little manufacturing town received its 
first real estate boom, a man named 
O. W. Bayley bought the lot, 24,000 
square feet, for 2| cents per foot. 
This is the lot on which stands to-day 
the fine brick residence of the head 
of the See of Manchester, with the 
former and less pretentious home of 
Bishop Bradley, now occupied by a 
deputation of Christian brothers. The 
lot next west, now occupied by John 
Mooar, was bid off at a still lower 
price, 2 1 3 ^j cents, by the late Herman 
Foster, his purchase including 22,500 
feet. Uncle John Maynard bought 
the property on the corner where St. 
Joseph's cathedral stands to-day, it 
being a lot the same size of that pur- 
chased by Mr. Foster, at the rate of 
2^%- cents. The lot on the other 
corner, containing 15,000 feet, occu- 
pied for so many years by A. G. 
Stevens, the architect, sold for 2\ 
cents to William Amory. T. C. 
Lowell bought the centre lot, now 
occupied by Col. John B. Clarke, and 
of the same size as Mr. Amory's, for 
2 cents ; and then the latter captured 
another lot, buying the property now 
occupied by Judge Hunt, which con- 
tains 18,000 feet, at 2| cents per foot. 
Prices ruled low in those days, 

Manchester and the Amoskcag Company 


and those hard-beaded financiers bid 
pretty carefully, as can be judged by 
the foregoing examples. It is rather 
doubtful if the lot occupied by Judge 
Hunt could be bought to-day for 
$495, or the premises which contain 
Rev. Dr. Bradley's Episcopal resi- 
dence be secured for 8600, yet that 
was the price that they were origi- 
nally sold for. 

The old index book in which these 
facts are set forth contains the names 
of many persons prominently identi- 
fied with the welfare and interests of 
the infant city, who were early invest- 
ors in Amoskeag realty. Here are 
the names of D. A. Bunton, who 
bought in the first sale 15,000 feet of 
land about where the blacksmith-shop 
on Lowell street, next to the corner 
of Chestnut, now stands, at two cents 
a foot. Ziba Gay, Ed. P. Offutt, and 
James Russell were contiguous own- 
ers clear to Elm back street. The 
lot at the corner of Chestnut aud 
Lowell streets was bought by A. S. 
Trask. It was evidently considered 
more desirable than any of the others 
on the street, for it only coutained 
6,000 feet, and was sold at the ex- 
orbitant price of 4f cents a foot — 
more than that commanded by any 
other one piece of land on the thor- 

Over on Concord street we find 
among the purchasers again the name 
of Wm. Amory, and a short perusal 
of the prices paid here for land shows 
that this thoroughfare was considered 
much more desirable, probably be- 
cause it opened upon the common, 
than the adjacent Lowell street. Six 
cents, six and a half, and seven were 
freely paid, and near Elm street as 
high as 10] cents per foot was bid. 

Judge Bell, John H. Moore, Fos- 
ter Towns, Alexander McCoy, Benja- 
min Kinsley, James Bailey, Jonas L. 
Parker, the unfortunate collector, 
whose untimely takiug off has made 
early Manchester criminal history a 
matter of notoriety throughout the 
country, with Phineas Harrington and 
Z. Colburn, comprise the names of 
men of more or less promiuence in 
Manchester forty years ago, who 
bought land here. 

Land ou Elm street for those days 
brought good money. Willard Sayles 
paid 8402.50 for a lot containing 2,500 
feet, at the corner of Elm and Lowell 
streets, where Martin's block now 
stands. At compound interest at 6 
per cent, that sum of money would 
amount to about $9,850 to-day, which 
sum would come considerably nearer 
buying that lot in this year of grace, 
i«889, than the original price paid for 
it ; but still it would probably require 
quite a little pile on top of that to 
secure it. It is evident that the old- 
time investors who put their money 
into real estate on Elm street came 
pretty near banking on a sure basis. 
Sayles not only bought the corner 
lot, but he bought the lot next to it 
of the same size, paying for it the 
same amount. Besides Judge Bell, 
the name of Isaac Riddle, another 
purchaser, will be remembered by not 
only a former but by the present gen- 
eration, along with Allen Partridge, 
Thomas Hoyt, D. J. Marston, and 
Lemuel Page, names not so familiar. 
Marston bought the lot at the north 
corner of Concord and Elm streets, 
and paid 20 cents per foot for it. 
The land on Elm street between Mars- 
tori's and Sayies's, sold for from 12 J 
to 13 J cents a foot. 


Manchester and the Amoskeag Company, 

A firm named Burnhaun & Means 
were real estate buyers of consider- 
able importance in the new township. 
They secured 51.000 feet on Concord 
street in one lot at 1 T %V cents per 
foot and 2^$y cents per foot. On 
Amherst street, Calvin Smith and 
Miles Durgin bought as much more 
at almost the same figures. These 
four lots covered the territory from 
Union street west to Pine back street, 
and included the territory on which 
both the First Baptist and St. Paul's 
churches now stand. The lots on 
Pine street fronting Concord common 
brought from of to 6} cents per foot. 
They were divided up into slices of 
2,500 feet each, and among the pur- 
chasers were Hiram A. Daniels, Hiram 
Brown, Seth R. Jones, and Moore & 

Big prices were commanded by the 
lots at the other end of the common 
on Vine street. This locality was at 
that time the haunt of the F. F. V.'s 
of Manchester, and occupied the 
same prominence in the little town 
that the North Fnd does in the city 
of to-day. Hence it is not strange 
to find Reuben R. Page and I. A. 
Stearns paying 18 cents a foot for 
land there, — within half a cent of as 
much as that paid by Willard Sayles 
for his corner lot at the intersection 
of Lowell and Elm streets. Eight 
cents was the lowest price paid for 
land on this thoroughfare, and from 
8\ to 10' cents were the ruling fig- 
ures. Andrew I. George, E. P. Of- 
futt, W. Walker, Jr., and Asa Reed, 
buyers here, are names that will 
readily be recalled by old residents. 
A firm named Wallace & Patten evi- 
dently to<.k considerable stock in the 
desirability of house lots on this 

street, for they invested in no less 
than 10,000 feet, at an average price 
of 9£ cents. 

Coming down on to Elm street 
again, we find the lot at the south- 
east corner of Concord aud Elm 
streets sold to Wilbur Gay for 18 
cents. He also bought the two lots 
next south ; then followed E. P. 
Offutt, William Walker, Jr., Jesse 
Duncklee, George Porter, and II . & 
I. T. Plumer. The Plumers bought 
two lots at the corner of Elm and 
Amherst streets, where Dunlap's 
block now stands, at 26^- cents a foot, 
the highest price yet paid for land 
recorded. The lot on the opposite 
corner was bid in by Foster Towns at 
20 cents a foot. 

I. S. Stackpole bought the lot at 
the corner of Hanover and Elm streets, 
where Riddle's building now stands, 
for 15^ cents per foot. It would be 
hard work to convince a man to-day 
that property at the corner of Am- 
herst and Elm was more valuable than 
that on the nest corner below, but 
this is only another instance where a 
man's foresight was not as good as 
his hindsight. 

Between Stackpole and Downs are 
only two buyers, Miles Durgin and 
John R. Page. Stackpole undoubt- 
edly believed in the prosperity of his 
end of the town, for he bought no 
less thju 15,000 feet between Am- 
herst street and Hanover, being the 
lots numbered 142 to 147, obtaining 
them, except the corner lot, for 11 
cents a foot. Fancy land selling on 
Elm street to-day, where Pickering's 
block now is, for 11 cents a foot ! 

Up on Amherst street, taking the 
lots from Chestnut street to Elm back 
street, Win. H. Metcalf, Michael Con- 

Manchester and the Amoskcag Company. 


nelly, Thomas McDermott, Ed. Quim- 
by, Robert Hall, Samuel R. Kidder, 
Dudley Haynes, J. N. Brown, Liberty 
Raymond, one of the subsequent own- 
ers of Merchants' Exchange, J. T. P. 
Hunt, William P. Farmer, Joseph F. 
Gage, Wm. P. Riddle, Isaac Riddle, 
and Moulton & Rowe were the orig- 
inal purchasers. Farther up the street, 
at the corner of Union and Amherst, 
Hiram Bean bought a tract of 43,200 
feet ; next west, Judge Bell and the 
Stark Mills, each buying almost as 
much more. Seth K. Jones, Seth 
Woodbury, Samuel B. Kidder, Joseph 
Prescott, and W. D. James were 
among the other buyers. Brown paid 
but If cents per foot for his land; 
but one J. N. Brown, who bought a 
lot nearer Pine, had to settle at the 
rate of 8£ cents per foot. 

On Hanover street Wm. G. Means 
was the purchaser of the lot where 
the government building rears its 
granite front to-day, buying 18,000 
feet of land at the rate of \\ cents a 
foot. J. D. Kimball bought the lot 
on the north-west corner of Hanover 
and Chestnut streets, now known as 
the Elliot property, for a trifle more 
than Mr. Means paid for his lot. It is 
a smaller lot, only 7,500 feet in size. 
The other sections between here and 
Elm back street are each fully 15,000 
feet. Amory Warren bought the first 
one from the corner at G^ cents a 
foot; the Stark Mills acquired the 
next, which is the lot where the post- 
office block is now located, for 4 cents 
afoot, and "the First Congregational 
society was deeded the third. This 
is where the Opera block stands to- 
day, but for years and years the old 
Hanover street church, with its giant 
wooden pillars in front of its huge 

portico, and with the old stable of Fogg 
& James at the side, was one of the 
city's most famous landmarks. I. S. 
Stackpole bought the lot at the north- 
east corner of Hanover and Elm back 
streets. Up above Chestnut street, on 
Hanover, J. Y. French, Joseph C. 
Crane, J. R. Fitts, A. O. Colby, and' 
Geo. Hamblett were among the buyers ; 
also Judge Bell again, Daniel Haynes, 
Nathaniel Hastings, Samuel Dana, 
Nehemiah Chase, and Robert Moore, 
all names more or less familiar to the 
oldest inhabitants. 

Other buyers who will be remem- 
bered are Jonathan Barrow, Isaac C. 
Flauders, John L. Sinclair, Samuel 
Bartlett, Walker Flanders, and Dan- 
iel Gile. Prices paid for land ranged 
from 6 cents per foot at the lot next 
below the corner of Union on the 
south side of Hanover, to "25 cents per 
foot paid by S. & E. Corey for the 
property at the south-east corner of 
Hanover and Elm back streets. 

On Manchester street, commencing 
at Union and working westward, on 
the north side of the thoroughfare, 
Ebenezer Knowlton was the pur- 
chaser of the north-west corner lot, 
paying therefor the sum of 8^ cents 
per foot. Edmund Johnson and 
Thomas C. Piper are two new names 
found on the record-book as purchas- 
ers of land there, along with Samuel 
Head, who bought 10,000 feet just 
about half way between Union and 
Pine. J. N. Howe, N. D. Hill, and 
James Dudley were other purchasers. 
Rimmey & Brown bought the lot at 
the north-east corner of Pine and 
Manchester streets for 13 cents per 

Investors on the south side of 
Manchester, between these two 


Manchester and the Amosheag Com f any. 

streets, include L. and J. Knowles, 
D. R. Perkins, II. F. A. Richardson, 
D. Marshall. Ahner G. Gutterson, 
L. B. Bowman, and Alpha Currier, 
the latter buying 10,000 feet at the 
south-west corner of Manchester aud 
Union. Land on this portion of Man- 
chester street sold from 6 to 13 cents 
per foot, according to location. 

From Pine to Chestnut street, on 
both sides of Manchester, old invest- 
ors in realty included Samuel Eaton, 
Darius Merrill, B. Judkins, Benj. F. 
French, Benj. Currier, Stephen Pres- 
cott, Jere. Fellows, Isaac II use, E. 
Hodgman, N. Cochran, B. P. Cilley, 
and G. Melton. From Chestnut 
street to Elm back street, on both 
sides of Manchester, the land brought 
a pretty fair price. The company 
deeded the land for a Calvinistic Bap- 
tist church at the north-west corner, 
and the two lots next west were 
bought by Daniel Gooden for 20 £ 
and. 15 \ cents per foot. 

Thomas R. Hubbard, Samuel P. 
Jackson, Thomas Ruudlett, Hidden 
Brown, EL L. Parker, Levi Sargent, 
and I. C. Whittemore are names of 
men, some of whom are yet alive, 
who bought laud there. Mr. Whit- 
temore paid 29£ cents per foot for a 
lot oi land at the north-east corner of 
Manchester and Elm back street. 
Joseph Mitchell, who bought the 
south-east corner exactly opposite, 
paid 26|. Joseph bought the next 
lot east for 4^ cents less than that. 
On this spot Hotel Windsor stands 
to-day. Between here and Chestnut 
street Daniel Watts, Jame3 Dudley, 
Moulton Knowles, Joshua Sawyer, 
G. B. Farnum & Co., and Charles 
Pierce were among the purchasers. 
Pierce purchased the corner lot at the 

south-east corner of Chestnut and 
Manchester streets. It was evidently 
considered particularly desirable, as 
the intermediate school was on one 
and a church on another of the four 
corners. As a consequence the land 
was not disposed of until 23 cents 
per foot had been bid by Mr. Pierce. 

Land on Merrimack .street, from 
Chestnut to Elm, brought from Yl\ to 
23 cents per foot ; but the investors 
were either people who have hitherto 
been enumerated, or who occupied no 
special prominence in the city's his- 
tory. • This has one exception, how- 

William Shepherd's name will never 
be lost sight of in Manchester as long 
as hotels are built and people dwell 
in them. He was the pioneer of the 
hotel business, aud although there 
were no French bills of fare on his 
dining-room table, a guest was always 
sure there of warm welcome, clean, 
wholesome food, a cozy bed, and a 
hearty God-speed when he left. Shep- 
herd's hotel was one of the features 
of early Manchester life. 

The old plans of the company show 
the site where his hostelry stood, 
probably the first brick building 
erected on Elm street, and it is la- 
belled " Hotel Lot." It is not known, 
but it is probable, that the company 
either gave the land to Mr. Shepherd, 
or made him a very advantageous 
offer if he would erect a hotel there- 
on. To the company's enterprise 
can therefore be credited the city's 
first large public inn. 

The investors in real estate on the 
north side of Merrimack street from 
Union to Chestnut street were people. 
of more or less prominence, Cyrus 
Barney, Alonzo Smith, W. A. Putney, 

Manchester and the Amosleag Company 


Isaac Thompkins, Dr. W. W. Brown, 
R. E. Patten, Robert Johnston, E. I. 
Morrison, and Edward McQuestion 
beiug among the number. Prices 
ruled low, and 14 cents per foot paid 
by Dr. Brown for the north-west 
corner lot at the intersection of Pine 
and Merrimack streets was as high 
as that realized for any property on 
the street. 

Coming back to Elm street again, 
we find Bell & Towns paying 40^- 
cents a foot for 3,500 feet of land at 
the junction of Hanover and Elm 
streets, where Morris block now 
stands, while the other buyers be- 
tween there and Manchester street 
include Clark & Cilley, who paid 374- 
cents a foot for 10,000 feet, Brown & 
Childs, Raymond & Thomas, and 
Parker & Sargent. The latter bought 
the corner lot on the north side of 
Manchester street at 42£ cents a foot, 
while Sargent & Darling bought 4,500 
feet across the road at 43 cents a 
foot. The land between there and 
the hotel went to Clark, Parker & 
Co., Hon. William C. Clarke, and 
Herman Foster, the latter paying 45 
cents a foot for a little strip next to 
the hotel. 

On the west side of Elm street, 
and commencing at Spring, the plot 
between that street and Water, now 
covered by the well known Smyth 
block, was bought by George Howe. 
The land from Water street to Me- 
chanic street, facing Elm, was sold 
to Brown, Bunton & Barnes. From 
Mechanic to Stark street, Burnham & 
Means, Jacob F. James, O. W. Bay- 
ley, Brown, Judkins & Co., S. D. 
Bell, and Colby, Clough & Marshall 
were the buyers. 

Elm street from Stark to Market 

was taken up with Patten's block and 
the town-house as it was called then. 
The lot opposite the town-house, at 
the south- west corner of Market and 
Elm, was bought by R. II . Ayer for 
46J cents a foot. Other buyers were 
Seth Emery, J. A. Burnham, S. K. 
Jones, M. Fellows, E. Whittier, and 
L. Mallard. These are not all the 
owners, of course, the Methodist so- 
ciety securing a piece of land there 
5,000 feet in size, paying 31 cents a 

In this resume the reader will have 
obtained a good idea of what sort of 
material the early buyers of real 
estate in the city were comprised. 
They were, as a class, shrewd, level- 
headed men ; and although in some 
few instances, as on Vine street, the 
returns have not been as heavy as in 
the Elm street sales, still it will be 
found that but few of the buyers 
turned their land over to a second 
party without making a pretty penny 
in the transaction. Of course this 
list does not include the buyers ou all 
the streets named. An effort has 
been made to get at the more or less 
representative men, and in every case 
where given the figures are accurate. 

Enough instances have been cited 
to show that land has appreciated in 
Manchester to an enormous extent 
under the rule of this so called ter- 
rible monopoly, the Amoskeag cor- 
poration, and that in place of being 
a modern Old Man of the Sea on the 
back of the Sailor Industry, it has 
been the fairy princess at the touch 
of whose wand a barren New Hamp- 
shire waste has been made to blossom 
as the rose. 

The statement is not extravagant. 
Churches, school-houses, city libra- 

2S0 Manchester and the. Amoskeag Company. 

ries, commons, are generally reek- the Amoskeag company. Some of 
oned as among a city's permanent these houses have been converted 
improvements. They are the jewels since their original establishment to 
in her crown, as it were. AYheuce did other uses, but the most of them are 
Manchester get her commons? Echo still doing noble duty in the training 
answers back, " From the Amoskeag of young or maturer ideas how to 
corporation." Her school-houses? shoot. Among the schools whose 
"From the Amoskeag corporation." identity has been merged in other 
Her city hall? " From the Amoskeag institutions is the school-house set 
corporation." Her city library ? Still down as located on Coucord street. 
"From the Amoskeag corporation." This is the lot where the Unitarian 
And so the list might be built up ad church stands to-day, but it was orig- 
infinitum. For some of this property inally set apart for a school-house 
the city paid a nominal sum, to be lot, and is so indicated on the corn- 
sure, while in other cases the land pany's plans. The other is the inter- 
was either given outright, or deeded mediate school at the corner of Man- 
to the municipality for $1. In either Chester and Chestnut streets, now oc- 
case the city obtained the land far cupied as the Castle of Justice by 
below its actual value, either to build City Marshal Longa and the police 
upon or to hold for a rise. Here are department. The prices paid by the 
a few more statistics. • city for some of these lots have been 
In the first place, take the size of obtained for the benefit of the read- 
all the commons in the city, with the ers of this article, and they are here- 
Valley cemetery, all of which were a with submitted : 

free gift to Manchester from the Ash street school lot, §2,300 ; Lin- 
company : coin street school lot, $1,600; Beech 
Feet. Acres, street school lot, $600 ; North Main 
Concord s-juar' 300 x 670 4.61 street school lot, original purchase, 

Hanover square 2(0x490 2 94 ' o i 

Merrimack square 400x570 5 80 $1,000; old Bridge Street School lot, 

Tremont square 44o? 4 x J20 2.2o ° 

Park square 3iu x 490 3.48 present ward three room, $500 ; forty- 
Total 19 14 foot addition, $333; Park street 

Valley cemetery 19 70 

grammar school lot, $1,200: Spring 
This statement also brings out an- street school lot, #1.700.04 ; the Low- 
other interesting fact, that the total ell street school lot (old high school) 
area of Valley cemetery is a trifle was a gift to the city ; the training 
greater than all the commons of the school lot on Merrimack street cost 
city put together — a fact not gener- $650 ; the old intermediate school lot 
erally known. on Manchester street, $500 ; the 

Spruce street lot, which the French- 

6CII00L-H0USES. n -,- , i l <- 

Canadians have now purchased, cost 

It will readily be seen by a glance 6 cents a foot: the old school-house 

at the accompanying list that the lot on Concord street, where the Uni- 

majority of the substantial lot of tarian church is, $540. The areas of 

knowledge-boxes owned by the city each of these lots, with several oth- 

were erected on land obtained from ers whose prices I have not set forth, 

Manchester and the 

are appended as a matter of ref- 
erence : 

Lot. Sq. ft. 

Sprin ? street 13.674 

Franklin street 19,200 

Lincoln street 40.000 

Ash street 57.530 

UiVh school 54.000 

Blodget street 9.000 

Lowell street 9,650 

Training-school 12,600 

Manchester street 7,500 

Webster street 55,714*J 

North Main street 40,293 

School street 12.176 

Amoskeng village 6.000 

German school, west side 10. 1ST 

Bridge street 10,000 

Concord street 13.500 

Spruce street 15,000 

Next to school-bouses — and a por- 
tion of the community, when they say 
next in this connection, mean ahead 
of — come the churches. Manchester 
is noted for her elegant sanctuaries, 
and a large number of them are built 
upon land deeded them by the Amos- 
keag company. In some instances 
the lot has been practically a free 
gift. In other cases the societies 
have paid a minimum sum per foot 
for their little section of God's green 
acre ; but in every case a most lib- 
eral policy has been pursued by the 
directors of the corporation towards 
all religious organizations. The fol- 
lowing is a list of churches that have 
erected edifices on land obtained of 
the company, with the size of the lots 
in square feet in each instance : 


Sq. ft. 
St. Paul's old lot, Elm street (Tewk.-bury 

block). 10.000 

Universalis, Lowe 11 -rreet lo.OOO 

Crace Episcopal, Lowell street 10,000 

Franklin street' lo 000 

Hanover street, old lot 15^000 

Unitarian. Merrimack and Chestnut, now 

First Free Bupti-t 12,600 

Free Baptist. Merrimack and Pine, now 

Christian church. 9,000 

City Mission chapel. Merrimack and Beech 12,600 

St. Ann's, Union street 11 700 

St. Augustine. Beech and Spruce streets.. 13J00O 
St. Mary, west side, church, school, and 

parsona/e 219 500 

Cerm m Pre.-bj tf-rian 10,000 

Swedish, on Sagamore street lo)&50 

Old Baptist, Manchester and Chestnut 

<., ? treets 10,000 

M.Jamts 11,000 

Amoskeag Company. 281 

Westminster Presbyterian 10.000 

Advent church. Pearl street 7, 41*6 34 

Grace church pa rs on ;i^e 10,000 

Mt. St. Mary's convent 12,600 

Unfortunately, a town the size of 
Manchester has in it another element 
besides that which patronizes the 
pulpit and the school teacher. For 
their express comfort a very commo- 
dious and substantial building has 
been erected by the county of Hills- 
borough in South Manchester; and 
that, too, was built on land bought 
of the Amoskeag corporation, and 
for which $3,000 was paid. The 
plot of earth which the county jail 
Lolds down is 147,000 square feet in 
surface area, or 3.37 acres, while the 
court-house, for which $11,750 more 
was paid, comprises but 19,000 feet. 
Other public buildings and lots ob- 
tained from the Amoskeag include 
the laud on which that moth-eaten 
and venerated old relic, the City Hall 
of Manchester, rears its (alleged) 
proud head, and for which the city 
paid $2,500, the city library, cover- 
ing a space of 15,200 square feet, 
the ward five ward-room on Lake 
avenue, 3,000 feet, the city lot on 
Franklin street, 43,656 square feet, 
and a lot on Sagamore street, bought 
for a gravel bank, 10,000 feet. 

We have now covered the public 
buildings, institutions, and areas of 
the city, and if the reader will kindly 
turn his attention to the corporation 
property in Manchester obtained of 
the Amoskeag company, the writer 
will endeavor to bring this somewhat 
extended article to a close. 

In starting in on this tack it may 
be well to say that the Amoskeag 
company itself, with its own plant, 
including its industrial arteries on 
both sides of the river, the boarding- 


Manchester and the Amoskeag Company. 

houses, store-rooms, etc., occupies 
about one hundred acres, this includ- 
ing a twenty-acre piece leased to ex- 
Gov. Cheney at Amoskeag. 

A resume follows in acres, not 
alone of the amouut of land covered 
by all of the manufacturing and rail- 
road corporations of the city, which 
was in each and every instance ob- 
tained of this gigantic land trust, but 
also the laud utilized on the east side 
of the river for all purposes. It is 
as follows : 


Concord Railroad 34 22 

Manchester & Lawrence Railroad 7 11 

Concord & Portsmouth Railroad 2 4-> 

Manchester & North Weare Railroad .60 

Manchester Mills and Print Works 24 09 

Stark .Mills 11.15 

Antory 4 9i> 

Langdon 6.52 

Paper Mills 1 c -3 

Gas Company 

Forsaith Machine Co 

Hodge's Shop 

Hutchinson Brothers 

Lowell's Ma chine- Shop 

A. P. Olzendam 

Locomotive Works 


1 80 




, 1 . S*> 


10 45 


Cemetery 10 TO 

Schools 7-4S 

Churches 4 47 

Citv 3.38 

Jaillot '. 3.37 

Other purposes, house lots 325 29 

Streets 2-50 17 

Total 750.53 

These are facts that have, many of 
them, never been figured out before, 
even by the company's engineers, and 
they are of much historical value. 
The areas given above of the land 
occupied and owned by these differ- 
ent corporations are just as nearly 
correct as it was possible to get them, 
and hence the statements made can 
be relied on. 

Some idea may be obtained of the 
character of this corporation's deal- 
ing with the city, when the thought is 
grasped that in the single acreage of 
streets which have been sciven to the 

city without a cent of damage, forty- 
one and one quarter miles of fifty- 
foot streets could be laid out. No pri- 
vate corporation could ever afford to 
make any such concessions. This is 
on the east side alone, too. On the 
west side the total acreage given up 
to streets is 36.90, which, reduced to 
thoroughfares of an average width of 
fifty feet, would give six and one 
tenth miles, a distance as great as 
from here to GoftVs Falls and half 
way back again. 

From the above resume it would 
appear that the Amoskeag had orig- 
inally on the west side of the Mer- 
rimack between 700 and 750 acres. 
They have sold land for the follow- 
ing purposes : 

School-house lots 

Church lots 

Manufacturing companies 


Taken up by streets 

Sq. ft Acres. 

58,469 1 34 

204.099 6. 06 

692,^02 15 90 

2,263.294 51 95 

1,610,520 36 90 

Total 112 15 

leaving unsold there from 600 to 650 
acres at the present time. 

Ou this side the river there has 
been sold out of the original 1,561.56 
acres, 500.36 acres for all purposes, 
which, with 250.17 acres of streets, 
makes a total of 750.53 acres, and 
leaving 811 acres unsold. 

It appears, therefore, that after a 
half century of land sales the Amos- 
keag company still has nearly 1,500 
acres left unsold on its hands, a fact 
which augurs well for the future pros- 
perity of Manchester ; for certain it 
is, that as long as the Amoskeag com- 
pany keeps up its present system of 
liberality, both to the city and to the 
individual, Manchester, her men and 
her measures, cannot but prosper. 


Lord Bangs, 

By the Author of "The Widow Wyse." 
Chapter IV. opinion she would just gloat over it. I 

AT MADAME CHAUDET's. kD ° W J USt h ° W 7°° feel 5 J OU kn ° W X 

told vou that I had been very muck 
«Oh } dear!" said Maude Eaton with tried [ Papa is j ust as kind as he can 

a groan, as she sank into a chair, just be? and so is Eclith? and aunt 8arah 

as Margery had folded up the letter dotes on me . bufc there is one pers0Q 

to her sister, " how I envy you. You 
have a clear sister to write to, some- 
body you love, while I have to write 
to my father's wife and call her 
mamma ! I do n't feel mamma at all ; I 
keep saying Mrs. Eaton to myself all 
the time I am writing. I am the most 
miserable girl in the world. Papa 
loves me, but he does n't understand. 
Anybody would think to read that " — 
throwing down the letter she held in 
her hand — "that that woman loves 
me as she docs her own daughter ; and 
she makes papa believe it too !" 

whom I perfectly hate, and I would n't 
for the world have him know that he 
disturbed me in the least." 

" Oh ! is it a he?" broke in Maude, 
drying her tears, and looking the 
picture of eagerness. "How perfect- 
ly delicious! Have you quarrelled? 
What is his name, and how does he 
look? Oh, you sly girl! tell me all 
about it. I won't give you a minute's 
peace until you do." 

" Oh ! it is n't what you think, at 
all," answered Margery with great 
disnitv , u he is to be m} T brother-in- 

"IIow hypocritical!" ejaculated law. I did not mean to speak of it 

Margery, sympathetically. Maude at all, but I will tell you, for you are 

sighed, picked up the letter, and read my dearest friend, and always will be, 

with a scornful look on her face, " I so you would have to know about it 

hope that you are growing more rec- sooner or later." 

onciled to your papa's decision"— Then followed a minute description 
"Papa's decision ; hear that !"— ^ and of Prince Charlie, his powers of fas- 
will, in time, become fond of your cination and many accomplishments, 
school. You know, my dear child, and graphic pictures of their unpleas- 
that we would not consent to your ant encounters. 

leaving us did we not feel that it was " I can't remember the time when 

just the discipline you need. Do try we didn't quarrel," she said, as she 

to feel that it is quite as hard for us finished her story, " and I can't re- 

to send you away as for you to go,"— member when he was n't to blame r 

and here Maude burst into a passion and yet [ have to suffer for it ! " 

of tears. Margery was on her knees "I do u't see how you could help 

by the side of her friend in a moment, falling in love with him, if he is as 

and, putting her arms about her, fascinating as you say," said Maude, 

cried,— "O Maudie, don't! I would "Oh! I have no doubt that you 

n't care! — and do n't ever let her know would fall in love with him if you 

she makes you miserable. It's my should see him," answered Margery, 

1 Copyright, 13S9. 


My Lord Batiks. 

in a tone of hopeless resignation ; 
*' everybody does ; but I told you I 
hated him. People do n't usually fall 
in love with those they hate. But 
you should know Geoffrey," she went 
on, her face lighting up. " Geoffrey 
is just perfect. He is Charlie Bangs's 
cousin, and I don't mind telling you 
that if I ever marry, I shall marry 
Geoffrey Thorpe. "Wait a minute, I 
will show you his photograph." 

44 Oh, do!" answered Maude, 4k I 
am in & perfect fever to see it." 

After ruraagiug about, through 
various drawers and boxes — Margery 
was not very methodical — she found 
what she sought, and handed it to her 

"Why, he is old!" exclaimed 
Maude, with the utmost surprise in 
her tone. 

4 * He is only thirty-two ! " said Mar- 

" And you are fourteen ! " answered 
Maude, laughing. 44 I am sixteen, 
and I would n't marry a man as old 
as that — no, not even to spite Mrs. 

k 'I shall be fifteen in three months," 
said Margery with great dignity, 
44 and you do n't know Geoffrey 

There was a slight tap at the door, 
and the simultaneous appearance of 
Mademoiselle Louise. 

"Young ladies, young ladies, it is 
the study hour, aud I hear voices as 
I pass. Conversation is not permit- 

44 But, dear Mademoiselle," inter- 
rupted Margery with a little grieved 
pout, which was vastly becoming, 
4 * my eyes were so tired, I thought 
you would n't mind if — if Maude 
should study aloud." 

44 Oh ! if that was all " began 


4; Oh, thank you so much ! " said the 
little hypocrite, rising impulsively, 
and seizing her hands. Then we may 
study that way sometimes, just to rest 
each other? It will be such a com- 
fort ! " 

There was a low, rippling laugh 
from Maude, as Mademoiselle's foot- 
steps died away. 

44 How awfully clever you are, 
Margery. I should never have 
thought of such a scheme. I was 
scared out of my wits. You do tell 
the loveliest little white lies. How do 
you do it?" 

44 Oh ! it comes uaturally enough," 
answered Margery, rather proud of 
her achievements in that direction ; 
44 one has to do it in such a dreadful 
place as this. I feel perfectly justi- 
fied in telling anything short of a 
downright falsehood. Of course I 
would n't do that, unless — unless I 
found it absolutely necessary." 

44 Oh ! I wish I were like you," said 
Maude, with a little sigh of envy. 44 1 
do believe that you would be able to 
manage even my step-mother. She 
always seems to know when I fib to 
her. She has the calmest, most exas- 
perating eyes — eyes that look you 
through and through. I am so trans- 
parent I can never conceal anything, 
while you, if you are not absolutely 
dense^ you are at least opaque." 

44 Thanks," said Margery, dryly. 
44 I am awfully obliged : nobody ever 
complimented me that way before." 

44 Now, Margery, you know what I 
mean," answered poor Maude, in a 
disturbed tone of voice. * 4 Of course 

I did n't mean that that it was 

natural ; but vou have the art." 



** Pray do n't contradict yourself, 
Maude," interrupted Margery, wick- 
edly. " If I am k artful,' I can't be so 
very * dense.' " 

But Maude was really distressed. 
She was not very brilliant, and she 
bowed before Margery's undeniable 
cleverness with a mild kind of wor- 
ship, which was very agreeable to that 
young lady's vanity. So Maude was 
soothed after the manner of school- 
girls who have slight misunderstand- 
ings, and all was clear again. 

It seems strange, sometimes, to see 
how persistently women carry out the 
laws of contrast. Notice, for in- 

stance, the intimate friend of a noted 
beauty. Is she, by chance, famed 
for her personal attractions? Far 
from it. And have you never wonder- 
ed at the strange, unconcealed antipa- 
thy of many a brilliant woman for her 
admired intellectual sister? Ah! we 
love incense too well to be willing to 
share it. 

There were far more attractive girls 
than Maude Eaton at Madame Chau- 
det's. She was known as l * Margery 
Josselyn's little toady," and Marge- 
ry, as we have learned, " just loved 

[To be continued.] 


[From the German of Emil Claar.J 
By La uk a Garland Carr. 

See thy own shade on the wall flitting by ! 

See the smoke-towers, ever fadiug, asceud ! 
See the clouds melt, with no trace, from the sky I 

So is thv life in becnnuiuor aud end. 

It is to me as, with no choice, 

I must go on from place to place, 

And at strange doors, with humble voice, 
Beg for love's crumbs with wistful face. 

Yes, I could beg of Spring, to-day, 

From her fresh flowers one bloom to part ' r 

And of the sun one warming ray — 
So cold, so withered is my heart! 

Here is my home ; here I abide, 
With house and land in fair array. 

But there is something here beside — 
Unasked, uu wished, yet aye to stay 

aso Advertisement. 

There stands my house amid its grounds 
A pleasant place, and fair to see ; 

But just as sure, within these bounds, 
My grave is waiting, waiting me ! 

It is as if Death hovered nigh 

In some dark corner, watchful, still, 

As spiders wait the hapless fly, 

To wind and bind them at their will. 

I walk home from the ball — from the dances ; 

Grief comes again ! 
Of the joy, mirth, light, come back no glances 

Only the pain I 

I walk home ; there is croaking — a raven ; 

While white, light, 
Down comes the snow as if it would graven 

All things from sight. 

With thy thick fall, with thy wild art, 

O silent snow ! 
Cover my head ; cover my heart ; 

Cover my woe ! 


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I 13 

DA:-. . . HAM, 

si Old Con 




Ttrooted to Literature, biography, History, and .State Progress. 

VOL. II. (New Series.) 

Vol. XII. 



Nos. 11, 12 


Lake Winnipiseogee is one of the 
best known lakes in the United States, 
and by many travellers is considered 
the most beautiful sheet of water in 
the world. It is elevated five hun- 
dred feet above the ocean, and has an 
area of over fifty square miles. It is 
dotted with wooded islands, and over- 
looked on every side by hills and 
mountains. All through the summer 
months its surface is traversed by 
sail-boats and steamers, while its 
shores are fringed by charming re- 
sorts, where annually gather many 
thousand pleasure- and health-seek- 
ers. One of the pioneers in popu- 
larizing the lake was Captain W . 
A. Sanborn. From the History of 
Belknap County is taken the follow- 
ing sketch of his life : 

It is fitting that there should be 
a record of Captain Sanborn, who 
was so widely and pleasantly known, 
and so intimately identified with 
steamboat navigation on Lake Winni- 
piseogee, and to whose energy and 
enterprise the/Ylevelopment of that 
beautiful summer resort, Weirs, is 
largely due. 

Winborn Adams Sanborn, whose 
life commenced December 13, 1810, 
in Gilford, was the oldest of the four 
sons of Samuel Oilman and Sally 
(Mason) Sanborn. The Sanborn 
family is of English origin, the name 
being derived from the parish bearing 
the name Sanborn. The emigrant, 
John (son of John, who married, in 
England, the daughter of Rev. 
Stephen Bachilor), came to America 
in 1632, and to Hampton in 1640. 
He was a man of note, with the title 
of lieutenant. One of his descend- 
ants in the seventh generation was 
Samuel Oilman Sanborn, a man 
of marked ability, who was born 
March 20, 1787, on the Sanborn 
homestead, in Gilford, which was the 
first land cleared in the Weirs dis- 
trict, and the home of his ancestors 
from the first settlement. When a 
mere lad, his ardent desire was for 
an education, and, in response to his 
earnest request, he was permitted to 
attend the academy at Sanboruton 
Square for a few terms. The sacri- 
fices his parents made in order to pay 
his expenses were amply rewarded 
by his progress. He was for many 


Capt. Winhorn Adams Sanborn, 

years a successful teacher. He was 
a man of intelligence in public affairs, 
served his town many years as select- 
man and representative, held a com- 
mission as justice of the peace for a 
long period, and was universally 
known as " 'Squire " Sanborn. After 
a useful, honored, and respected life, 
he died at the age of eighty-two, up- 
on the farm where he and his wife 
had lived for nearly -ixty years. 

Sally (Mason) Sanborn, his wife, 
was the daughter of Captain Lemuel 
B. and Molly (Chamberlain) Mason, 
of Durham. Captain Mason was 
among the early settlers of Gilford. 
He was a Revolutionary soldier, hav- 
ing joined the Continental army at 
Portsmouth when only sixteen years 
of age, and remained inconstant ser- 
vice till the close of the war. He 
also enlisted aud took part in the war 
of 1812. When the division of Gil- 
manton took place, according to the 
family tradition, corroborated by the 
testimony of the old inhabitants, he 
was invited to name the new town, 
which he called Gilford, from the bat- 
tle of Guilford Court House, S. C, 
in which he was an active participant. 

W inborn Adams Sanborn (8) re- 
ceived his name in remembrance of 
the gallant Lieutenant-Colonel Win- 
born Adams, who bravely fought and 
lost his life during the Revolution, at 
Stillwater. His early life was passed 
upon the farm aiding his father in 
his labors. His opportunities for 
learning were extremely limited, and 
his only chance for an education, 
beyond a few weeks at the district 
school each year, was one term at 
" Master " Leavitt's select school at 
Meredith, and two terms at the Gil- 
ford academv. Books and news- 

papers were scarce ; but the few that 
fell into his hands were eagerly 
perused, aud their contents carefully 
stored in his memory. 

By improving his leisure moments, 
he became a man of rare intelligence. 
To the last of his days he never 
allowed a newspaper to be carelessly 
destroyed. When only seventeen he 
began teaching, and for several win- 
ters taught in Gilford and adjoining 

His life was uneventful, and his ac- 
tive and energetic nature was not 
content with quietude, and, at the 
age of twenty, he left home to carve 
out his future, aloue and unaided. 
With his love of adventure, he went 
to Massachusetts and engaged as a 
common sailor for a twelve-months 
voyage, on an East India trading ves- 
sel bound from Salem to Bombay, 
Iudia. To a country boy, who had 
never been beyond the capital of his 
own state, a sea-fariug life was par- 
ticularly attractive ; but, to gratify 
his parents, he relinquished his plan 
of following the sea as a vocation, 
after this voyage. His neatly written 
log-book is still preserved. 

In 1833 he became the first com- 
mander of the •• Belknap," the first 
steamboat on Lake Wiunipiseogee. 
At the end of two seasons he gave 
up his position, and, with his love of 
adventure still unabated, started 
West. He first stopped at Wheeling, 
Va., where he at once secured a situ- 
ation as assistant teacher in Wheel- 
ing academy ; theu, allured by the 
letters of a friend, he journeyed to 
St. Louis. He readily found employ- 
ment, but was soon compelled to re- 
turn home on account of ill-health. 
The eutire journey, going and re- 

Caj>l. Winborn Adams Sanborn, 


turning, from New Hampshire to 
St. Louis, was by stage over the Al- 
leghany Mountains. (Postage be- 
tween the two places was twenty-five 
ceuts a letter.) 

On arriving in New Hampshire, he 
resumed the command of the 4i Bel- 
knap." After a few seasons he left 
this position to establish himself as a 
U country trader" at Alton Bay. 
In this undertaking, he was financial- 
ly unsuccessful ; but, with unfalter- 
ing courage, he tried again, this time 
as book-keeper for "Isaac & Seth 
Adams," iron founders, of South Bos- 
ton, Mass. Here, by faithful dis- 
charge of his duties, he won the con- 
fidence of his employers, and the 
strong friendship thus formed con- 
tinued to the end of their lives. 

All his leisure moments were now 
given to the study of machinery, and 
in a short time he became the engi- 
neer of one of the harbor steamers. 
He soon procured a better situation, 
as engineer of the steamer k ' Deca- 
tur," running between Boston and 
Newburyport, and retained this posi- 
tion until he was offered, and accept- 
ed, a more lucrative one as engineer 
of the steamer •'Ohio" on the same 
route. While here, a long and dis- 
tressing illness began, and he once 
more returned to his honje in Gilford, 
where for two years he was unable 
to attend to any business. 

In the winter and spring of 1851 
he superintended the construction of 
the "Dover" at Alton Bay, and on 
its completion became its captain, 
and continued in that office for sever- 
al summerSv-his winters being mainly 
passed upon his farm in Gilford. 

In the fall of 1852 his friends and 
old employers, Isaac and Seth Adams, 

needed a man of trust, and secured 
htm to superintend the construction 
of machinery in Cienfuegos, Cuba, 
where he passed several months. In 
1863 he had become a large stock- 
holder in, and the captain of, the 
" Lady of the Lake," for many years 
the largest steamer on Lake Winni- 

In the fall of 1869 Captain San- 
born, with his brother, went on a 
pleasure trip to Florida, and, while 
there, fouud a good opening for the 
lumber business. The next spring, 
1870, he formed a partnership with 
Charles L. Hoyt. a fellow-townsman, 
purchased a saw-mill, and commenced 
the manufacture of lumber in Fernan- 
dina. When he relinquished naviga- 
tion, in 1869, he fully expected to 
devote himself to Florida interests 
exclusively ; but his natural liking for 
a seaman's life, and force of habit, 
were too strong for this, and in 1878 
he again became captain of the " Lady 
of the Lake," which position he occu- 
pied until the time of his death. 

As captain he came in contact with 
people from all parts of the United 
States, and his courtesy, combined 
with his extensive knowledge gained 
by travel, reading, and discriminating 
powers of observation, speedily won 
their friendship. During this time, 
however, he continued the Southern 
business, which had now become ex- 
tensive, embracing the manufacture 
and wholesaling of lumber, mer- 
chandising, etc. 

In 1880, in addition to his many 
other cares, he conceived the idea of 
building a hotel at Weirs. With him 
to think was to act, and in six weeks 
from the time the sills were laid, 
Hotel Weirs was ready for occupancy. 


Soldiers' Monument at Deny. 

Of all bis enterprises, this interested 
and pleased him the most. In 1889 
the name of the house was changed 
to "Sanborn hotel " in honor of its 

In 1835, Captain Sanborn married 
Lavinia Pcaslee Hoyt, a very fine 
looking and intelligent woman, ouly 
daughter of James Hoyt, Jr., and 
his wife Ruth (Aver) Gordon. Mrs. 
Sanborn was born ir Gilford, and 
died on the home farm, April 20, 
1877. Of their two children, the son 
died in infancy ; the daughter, Ellen 
E., married Captain John S. Wad- 
leigh, the present commander of the 
" Lady of the Lake." 

While in the full possession of all 
his faculties, after a brief illness, 
Captain Sanborn met death as brave- 
ly as he had life, at Fernandina, 
Florida, February 21, 1882. His 
remains were brought to Gilford, and 
deposited, with Masonic rites, in the 
family burial-place, March 3, 1882. 

In politics, Captain Sanborn was 

one of the " Old Guard " abolitionists- 
He represented his native town two 
years in the legislature. He was 
for many years an active member of 
Mount Horeb Commandery of Knight 
Templars, F. & A. M. He was de- 
cided in his views, yet charitable to 
all ; in religion, a " liberal ; " sincere 
in his friendships ; generous to the 
needy, yet unostentatious in his giv- 
ing. He was courageous, self-reliant, 
strong in his convictious, and his 
keen observation and well balanced 
mind enabled him to decide promptly 
aud justly in matters of importance. 
He possessed the soundest common- 
sense, and that practical view of 
matters that made him competent to 
guide his own affairs with discretion, 
and give helpful advice and counsel 
to others. The humane side of his 
being was quickly and energetically 
responsive. All the ties of nature 
and friendship rooted deeply in his 
soul, and whoever won his confidence 
found in him a rare and valued friend. 


The movement towards the erection place in which she had so long resid- 
of the monument in Deny began ed. The town appropriated 82,000 
about three years ago, and had its to add to this sum. The committee, 
origin in- the brain and purse of a wo- appointed for the purpose of super- 
man. Miss Emma L. Taylor was for vising the erection of the memorial, 
many years preceptress of the Adams consisted of Robert H. Clark, Tappan 
Female Seminary in Derry. After its R. Robie, Joseph R. Clark, Gilman 
unfortunate financial difficulties be- A. Wheeler, Henry S. Wheeler, from 
gan, she weut to live with her sister, the board of selectmen, Edward T. 
the wife of ex-Governor Fairbanks, at Parker, James C. Taylor, Benjamin 
St. Johnsbury, Vt. Upon her death, Chase, Jr., of the trustees of the 
which occurred three years ago, it Taylor fund, Capt. Isaiah A. Dustin, 
was found that she had left $1,000 Past Commander Reuben E. Sheldon, 
to build a soldiers' monument in the and Major Edward L. Jom.-s. secre- 


Soldiers' Monument at Derry 


tary, from the Grand Array of the 

This committee contracted with 
Frederick & Field, of Quincy, Mass., 
for a monument, at the cost of 

On Monday, October 1, 1889, the 
monument was dedicated with appro- 
priate ceremonies, under direction of 
the state officers of the Grand Army 
of the Republic, consisting of Col. 
James F. Grimes, Department Com- 
mander, Thomas Cogswell, Senior 
Yice-Commander, George E. Hodg- 
dou, Juuior Vice-Commander, Gen. 
James Minot, Adjutant, Reuben E. 
Sheldon, Officer of the Guard, Rev. 
James K. Ewer, Chaplain. 

The Grand Army officers were met 
at the depot, at 12 m., by Major 
Jones, and escorted to the hotel for 
dinner, after which they were taken 
to the town hall at the upper village, 
where they met Post 45 of Derry, 
and the visiting veterans of Salem, 
Londonderry, Harapstead. Chester, 
and Auburn, and Camp Charles Fran- 
cis Adams, Sons of Veterans, form- 
ing in procession, with music by the 
Derry Cornet Band, marched to the 
monument, which stands on a slight 
elevation, about one hundred feet 
from tho road, at Derry East Village, 
about a mile from Derry Depot. Near 
by and in the rear of the granite shaft 
is the old First church, an orthodox 
edifice, in which doubtless Jonathan 
Edwards's most fiery anathemas were 
hurled at the sturdy und somuolent 
ancestors of the same boys who 
fought so gallantly for the stars and 
stripes from '61 to '65. Back of the 
church is an old grave-yard, in whose 
historic depths one can find the dust 
of the pioneers who went to their 

long reward more than a century and 
a half ago, some of the stones dating 
back to 1735. 

Major E. L. Jones was chairman 
of the Committee of Arrangements. 
Gilman A. Wheeler, president of the 
day, in a patriotic speech, tendered 
the monument to the department 
officers in behalf of the Grand Army, 
Col. Grimes making a fit reply. 
The dedicatory exercises followed ac- 
cording to the G. A. R. ritual, includ- 
ing prayer by Chaplain Ewer, and an 
eloquent and forceful address from 
the lips of Col. Daniel Hall, of Dover, 
the orator of the day. There was a 
large assemblage present, and the 
event went off very happily. 

The monument is a solid granite 
shaft surmounted by the bronze figure 
of an infantryman, with a bronze 
tablet on each of its four faces. It 
is eight feet square at the base, and 
stands twenty-five feet six inches high 
above the foundation, the granite 
pedestal being eighteen feet two 
inches high, and the bronze statute 
seven feet four inches in height. The 
stone is of the finest Quincy granite, 
and the cornices above the bronze 
tablets and at the foot of the cap on 
which the soldier stands are highly 
polished. The bronze is the so-called 
United States standard. 

The north face of the monument is 
the front of the shaft, and bears at 
the base the figures 1889, denoting 
the date of erection. On the tablet 
above are the honored names of those 
who were killed in action or died in 
the service, and just above is a hand- 
some bronze trophy, the American 
eagle, bearing in his talons the cus- 
tomary spears, while over his head is 
the dedicatory inscription as follows : 


Soldiers' Monument at Dcrry. 

Ix Honor 


Dekry, N. H., 

who fought for the 


At the foot of the cap on which the 
soldier stands, and on each of its 
other three faces, are five stars. These 
have no special significance, but were 
placed here in order to relieve the 
foot of the pedestal of some of its 
bareness. The figure of the soldier 
was modelled by the Henri Bernard 
Co., of Sixteeuth street, New York. 
It represents an infantrymau obeying 
the command "At Rest.'-' The butt 
of his gun rests beside his right foot, 
while both hands clasp the muzzle. 
The bayonet is in its scabbard, and 
his cartridge-belt and box, as well as 
his cap-box and canteen, are in their 
customary places. He has the fatigue 
uniform of the United States Infant- 
ry, and wears on his head a cap em- 
blazoned with the cross of the Fifth 
Corps. The statue is not duplicated 
in New England, but it is understood 
that on the Gettysburg battlefield the 
121st New York has caused to be 
erected a memorial precisely similar. 
The strong and clear-cut lineaments 
of the face are set off with a mous- 
tache, and everything about the pose 
and form of the figure is suggestive 
of the typical beau-ideal of the Amer- 
ican soldier. Being a trifle over seven 
feet tall, it is neither the heroic nor 
the life-size, but from its elevation 
from the ground it appears to much 
more nearly approximate the latter 
than the former. On each of the 
three sides of the shaft are navy, cav- 
alry, and artillery emblems, while the 
American eagle tskes up the fourth. 

The four tablets upon the monument 
bear the following names : 

North face. Killed in Actiou — Geo. 
Emerson, Jacob B. Hall, Wm. Now- 
ell, George E. Upton. 

Died in Service — David II. Adams, 
James Adams, Jacob S. Bartell, Na- 
thaniel E. Brickett, John S. Bean, 
Thomas G. Dustin, William H. Day, 
George E. Floyd, Dwight E. Hale, 
Henry Hayes, William Marshall, 
Joseph W. Nowell, John H. Parker, 
Joseph C. Sawyer, William H. Ste- 
vens, James Stevens, Edgar H. Shep- 
ard, Frank A. Taylor, Willis I. Tay- 
lor, George L. Warner. 

West face. Honorably Discharged — 
Joseph Arnold, Horace F. Abbott, 
Charles B. Adams, George H. Adams, 
Morrison Alexander, Frank G. Ad- 
ams, Charles Aldrich, Charles R. Ad- 
ams. Geo. H. Butter-field, George F. 
Boyd, Nathaniel H. Brown, Alba II. 
Batchelder, John Bowley, George R. 
Barker, John Christy, Edward L. 
Currier, William W. Cook, Rodney 
Campbell, George W. Carr, David S. 
Clark, Warren E. Clark, J. Charles 
Currier, James H. Crombie, Harlan 
P. Clark, Henry A. Cunningham, 
William B. Coggswell, Isaiah A. Dus- 
tin. John T. G. Dinsmore, Jr., Henry 
G. Dillenback, Theodore Dinsmore, 
Alvin II. Davis, George M. Davis, 
Albert A. Davis, Frederick Davis, 
Albert D. W. Emerson, James Ev- 
ans, George O. Everett, James H. 
Eaton, Nathan F. Flanders, Henry 
Forger, George E. Fitch. 

South face. Honorably Discharged — 
Lewis Foster, Nelson Foster, Jere- 
miah Garvin, Fred D. Gregg, Daniel 
G. George, Emmonds Hill, Benja- 
min W. Holmes, Warren P. Home, 
John L. Halston. Chas. Hatch, George 

Soldiers' Monument at Derry. 


I. Merrick, William A. Hill, William 
M. Howe, William K. Haves, Sam- 
uel Harvey, George A. Hill, Philip 
Jones, Simeon F. Kendall, Louis 
Londeau, Frank A. Lincoln, John H. 
Lowe, John S. Loverin, Charles S. 
Mahaffey, George W. McKinuey, 
Stephen Mills, Wm. Major, Decatur 
McCartey, Wm. A. McMurphy, Ten- 
ney Major, George E. Merrill, Na- 
thau Morse, James ^. Morrill, George 
Major, Robert W. McMurphy, Henry 
McMurphy, John R. Moulton, Henry 
M. Moulton, Herman Nichols, Per- 
kins Nichols, C. E. Nesmith, Chas. 
A. Nowell, Lewis Nesmith, Daniel 
Owens, Francis Owens, Loami G. 

East face. Benjamin F. Pettingill, 
Wm. II . Palmer, Luke Poor, John 
Parker, Benj. F. Rowe, Chas. B. 
Radcliffe, Chas. S. Reynolds, Nehe- 
miah L. Richardson, George W. Ran- 
dall, Matthew Senter, Benjamin H. 
Smith, Charles P. Stevens, Edwin R. 
Stevens, George W. Smith, Enoch 
Stevens, David C. Stevens, George 
F. Stevens, Henry A. G. Storer, 
Daniel Shattuck, Luther C. Stevens, 
Marcellus C. Shattuck, Robert H. 
Smith, Thomas H. Simmington, 
George S. True, Henry Taylor, 
George B. Tuttle, Horace Tilton, 
Allen C. Taylor, William II. Thomp- 
son, Job F. Thomas, Thomas Lyrie, 
Norris E. Wiggin, John J. White, 

Timothy II. Wiggin, Charles Wiggin, 
Charles F. Wheeler, Caleb F. Whid- 
den, John E. Webster, William II. 
Wilson, Augustus A. Woodward, 
Kimball Wilson. 
In all, 153. 

The Woman's Relief Corps, No. 
19, entertained Camp Charles Francis 
Adams Sons of Veterans, the ladies 
of Relief Corps 41, and Post 33 of 
Hampstead, Post 41 of Londonderry, 
Post 45 of Derry, Post 60 of Salem, 
and Post 74 of Chester and Auburn. 
The festivities of the day closed with 
a dance, participated iu by the Camp 
Sons of Veterans, the Londonderry 
Post, and others. 

Although the history of Derry in 
the Civil War is one of which her cit- 
izens may well feel proud, yet this is 
Derry's first and only tribute to her 
warriors, dead or living. To their 
memory and honor a grateful people 
have reared an enduring monument 
of granite and bronze ; — not that 
their fame needed this substantial 
tribute, but that the generations to 
come, as they look upon the simple 
but commanding figure that graces 
the top of the memorial, may learn a 
new meaning in the term "American 
patriotism," and be filled with a par- 
donable pride at the thought that 
their fathers aided in sustaining the 
integrity of the Union. 

294 Jack's Doves. 

By Laura Garland Carr. 

They flutter down along the walk, 
They wait, expectant, on the sheds, 

With step and twirl and low dove talk, 
And watchful turn of gentle heads ; 

But there 's no sign at pane or door ; 

That shrill, gay call resounds no more, 
For Jack — is dead. 

They circle high o'er roof and tree, 

Their white wings catch the morning light,. 

And villagers who glance to see, 

Grow sad and thoughtful at the sight. 

Well known as their own broods and herds 

Are these, Jack's petted, fancy birds — 
And Jack is dead. 

Among the draggled, homeless flocks 
That haunt the busy, public way, 

Their dainty plumage only mocks 
Their fallen state, as day by day 

They snatch the crumbs, scanty and small r 

That chance or pity's hand lets fall, 
Now Jack is dead. 

One, looking from her dwelling-place, 

Sees the bright gleam of those fair wings r 

And blinding tears course down her face, 
Telling the grief that vision brings. 

"O doves !" she cries, "our fate is one ! 

What friend have we beneath the sun 
Now Jack is dead ? " 

She has no part with kith or kin, 
She cannot join the funeral train, 

Her humble lot no thought can win 
From thern save that of cold disdain ; 

And careless Jack, who loved her well, 

No record made the truth to tell, 
And Jack is dead. 

Ancient Church Lore of Nczi 



By Austin L Batchejlder. 

Among all the subjects of interest 
which attach themselves to the early 
history of New England, none is 
more interesting than that of the 
early church, with its quaint old cus- 
toms and regulations. 

When we behold the sanctuaries of 
to-day, in all their magnificence of 
style and architecture ; when we enter 
them and behold their richly carpeted 
floors, and their walls painted and 
frescoed in all the brightness and 
glory of art ; when we seat ourselves 
on soft cushions, in the centre, as it 
were, of a galaxy of beauty, and 
listen to the rich tones of cultivated 
voices, or hear the proud notes of 
the magnificent organ filling the 
church with a flood of harmony, do 
we recognize the religious privileges 
we enjoy at the present time? And 
may we not well spend a little time 
in contrasting them with those of our 
Puritan forefathers, and, perhaps, 
at the same time learn from them a 
lesson in spiritual devotion ? In 
those days the connection between 
the school-house aud the church was 
very close. Education and religion 
went hand in hand. It was not 
strange to see the two buildings 
standing side by side. The meeting- 
house was the place of worship first 
of all, but it was the place for all 
town business, the rallying point for 
every loyal concern, the centre of all 
civil affairs. The magistrates often 
held court there. The whipping-post 
and the pillory were set up in its 
yard, and well to the front. The 
pound for cattle occupied a corner, 

the school-house by its side, and 
behind all. on the green slope facing 
the east, they laid their friends to 
rest, when, weary of life, they fell 

The meeting-houses in those days 
were peculiar buildings, constructed 
according to the special needs of the 
place where located. They were 
usually built large enough to contain 
a good sized room below and several 
short galleries above. The windows 
consisted of small diamond panes 
set in sashes of lead. There were 
usually two entrances, one by which 
the ladies entered, and one for the 
men. The floors of some meeting- 
houses were first supplied with seats, 
and pews were afterward separately 
set up by individuals, as they ob- 
tained permission of the town. By 
this means the interior came at 
length to present a singular appear- 
ance. Some of the pews were large 
and some small ; some square and 
some oblong ; some with seats on 
three sides and some with a seat on 
one side ; some with oak panels 
and some with large pine oues ; and 
most of them surmounted by a little 
balustrade, with small columns of 
various patterns, according to the 
taste of the proprietors. Most of 
the square pews had a chair in the 
centre, for the comfort of the old 
lady or gentleman, the master or 
mistress of the family, by whom it 
was occupied. 

Usually one or two pews were ele- 
vated above the stairs in one corner 
near to the ceiling, and devoted ex- 



Ancient Church Lore of New England. 

prcssly to the use of black people. 
The galleries often were extended 
on three sides, and supported by oak 
columns, and guarded by a turned 
balustrade. They were ascended by 
two flights of stairs, usually one in 
each corner of the south side. These 
galleries were furnished with long 
seats or benches. The pulpit com- 
monly stood on the north side of the 
house, and was often large and 
roomy. Many, however, had a desk 
in place of a pulpit. 

On the top of some of the meeting- 
houses enormous beams of oak, trav- 
ersing the roof in all directions, 
might be seen. The light from the 
diamond-shaped windows in the ga- 
bles shining down upon the great 
oak beams presented quite a pict- 
uresque appearance. Others had an 
upper room where powder was com- 
monly stored, — this room being usu- 
ally designated as the " powder- 
room." As fires were never kindled 
in the early meeting-houses, it was 
considered the safest place to deposit 
such a dangerous article as powder. 
The sacredness of the place did not, 
however, allay the fears of the con- 
gregation, who left the house when- 
ever a thunder-shower occurred. 

Beneath the pulpit was the elders' 
seat, and lower still the deacons' 
seat. Usually a small bell hung iu a 
small cupola, which was rung by a 
rope descending in the centre of the 
room below. 

At that time the introduction of a 
stove for the purpose of rendering 
the house comfortable during the 
winter mouths would probably have 
been regarded as an imputation upon 
the piety of the congregation. In- 
deed, warming the meeting-house is 

quite' a modern innovation, and with- 
in the memory of many people now 
living the little ;i foot-stove " was 
considered as essential an element of 
a lady's Sabbath paraphernalia as 
the muff and hymn-book. 

It will be noticed that what we 
give the name of church to to-day 
was then always designated as meet- 
ing-house. The first departure from 
the primitive simplicity of long seats, 
in the occupancy of which the sexes 
were not permitted to mingle, ap- 
peared in the erection of the square pen 
pew, with its open-work top, through 
which graceless urchins played at 
" bo-peep" with others as graceless as 
themselves, and its '* leaning-board " 
and 4t hinge-seats," whose " slam 
down " at the close of each prayer 
produced reports not dissimilar to 
the irregular musketry of undisci- 
plined militia. In these enclosures 
favored individuals gathered their 
families around them, to the scandal, 
doubtless, of many envious spirits. 

Great importance in some places 
was given to " seating the worship- 
pers," and a committee was chosen to 
seat the married persons, and another 
committee the unmarried ones. They 
were usually seated according to the 
degrees of dignities which the hus- 
band had, the women being seated 
separate from the men, and also sepa- 
rated so that the unmarried might 
not crowd the married ones. In 
seine places the highest pews brought 
£lo, and the others gradually les- 
sened in value as they approached 
the doors. Although the mention of 
dignities may cause some to smile, 
yet substantially the same custom 
prevails in our day, certain seats in 
all our churches being deemed more 

Ancient Church Lore of New England, 


fashionable and more valuable than 
others. The system of seating the 
worshippers was in those days, how- 
ever, quite an art in itself, and in 
some towns the following system of 
seating by degrees was strictly ad- 
hered to : 

1. " That every male be allowed 
one degree for every complete year 
of age he exceeds twenty-one." 

2. ll That he be allowed for a cap- 
tain's commission tw^Ve degrees ; 
for a lieutenant's, eight degrees ; and 
for an ensign's, four degrees. " 

3. " That he be allowed three de- 
grees for every shilling of real estate 
in his last parish tax, and one de- 
gree for every shilling for personal 
estate and faculty." 

4. " Every six degrees for estate 
and faculty of a parent alive, to 
make one degree among his sons, or, 
where there were no sons, among the 

5. " Every generation of prede- 
cessors, heretofore living in the town, 
to make one degree for every male 
descendant that was seated. That 
parentage be regarded no farther 
otherwise than to turn the scale be- 
tweeu competition for the same seat." 

G. "That taxes for polls of sons 
and servants shall give no advance- 
ment for masters or fathers, because 
such sons or servants have seats." 

7. w That no degree be allowed on 
account of any one's predecessors 
having paid towards building the 
meeting-house, because it had fallen 
down, but for the continual repairs 

8. "That some suitable abatement 
in degrees be made where it was well 
known that the person was greatly in 

9. " That the proprietor of land in 
any other parish shall be allowed as 
much as he would be if it lay in the 
parish ; but if rented out, only one 
half as ranch." 

10. t; Married women to be seated 
agreeable to the rank of their hus- 
bands, and widows in the same de- 
gree as though their husbands were 

11. wt That the foremost magistrate 
seat (so called) shall be the highest 
in rank, and the other three in suc- 
cessive order." 

12. " That the next in rank shall 
be in the foremost of the front seats 
below, then the fore front seat in the 
front gallery, then the fore seat in 
the side gallery." 

13. " That the side seat below 
shall be for old men, the foremost 
first or highest, and the others in 

14. " That the seats behind the 
fore frout seat below shall be for 
middle-aged men, according to their 

15. " That the second or third 
seats in front and side galleries shall 
be for younger men, to rank alter- 
nately the second from the first and 
the third next." 

A record was kept of each family 
and its respective degrees. This 
system seems to cover all except the 
black people, of whom there were a 
few kept in each town as slaves ; 
but these probably ranked all alike, 
and occupied their corner seat uncon- 
cerned with such distinctions, and 
very likely enjoyed their seat fully 
as much as the rest. This system of 
seating by degrees had quite a dash 
of the English custom in it, and we 
find it was discarded after a few 


Ancient Church Lore of JVczv Jin gland. 

years, and no distinctions made or 

The unsocial method of ' 4 seating 
the meeting " necessarily separated 
the heads of families from their chil- 
dren, who were placed on benches 
in' the aisle or required to sit on the 
pulpit stairs. As might be expected, 
this arrangement was fruitful of dis- 
turbance, alike anuoying to the min- 
ister and scandalous in the eyes of 
the devout. To remedy the evil 
the boys were given the back seats 
in the gallery, and a man set to 
keep an eye on them and to acquaint 
parents with any disturbance the first 
time, and the magistrate at the sec- 
ond offence. Nevertheless, " boys 
would be boys" in those days as well 
as now, if we are to judge from the 
following, taken from the Salem rec- 
ords : 

"April 26th, 1073, It was ordered. 
That all ye boys of ye towne are and 
shall bee appointed to sitt upon ye three 
pake of staires in ye meeting-house on ye 
Lord's day, and Wm. Lord is appointed 
to look to ye boyes yt sitt upon ye pulpit 
staires, and for ye other staires, Keuben 
Gappy is to look to and order soe many 
of ye boyes as may be convenient, and if 
any are unruly, to present their names as 
ye law directs." 

The Sabbath was strictly kept in 
those days. In some places two 
men, called tithing-men, were ap- 
pointed to walk forth on the Sabbath, 
tk and to take notice of such as lye at 
home or in the fields without giving 
good account thereof, and to take 
the names of such persous, and to 
present them to the magistrate, 
whereby they may be accordingly 
proceeded against." As a badge of 
office these tithing-men carried a 

black staff two feet long, tipped at 
one end with brass about three 
inches. In many towns a constable 
was stationed at each church door at 
the close of the sermon to allow none 
to go out till all the exercises were 
finished. In one or two towns we 
find that a constable was also ap- 
pointed to keep the dogs out of the 

Orders were, in some places, to fine 
all who denied gospel doctrine, or 
renounced the church, state, minis- 
try, and ordinances ; and who inter- 
rupted or opposed a miuister in time 
of worship. If the offence was re- 
peated, they were to be fined more 
heavily, or stand two hours on a 
block of wood four feet high, with 
the inscription in capital letters on 
the breast, " A Wanton Gospellor." 

The office of first deacon was then 
considered of very great importance, 
the deacons being considered as 
among the great men of the town. 
The office of sexton was peculiarly 
important at this time. Besides 
keeping the key of the meeting- 
house, ringing the bell, sweeping and 
sanding the floor, etc., it was his 
peculiar duty to keep and, on the 
Sabbath, to turn the glass. The 
hour-glass, which the more conven- 
ient clock has displaced, was turned 
by him at the naming of the text in 
full view of the minister. If he com- 
pleted his discourse '' before the 
sands had all run out," he was there- 
by admonished that he had not com- 
plied with the reasonable expecta- 
tions of his hearers, whether sleeping 
or waking, both classes having tacitly 
contracted for an hours enjoyment 
in their own peculiar way. If his 
zeal inclined him to go beyond the 

Ancient Church Lore of JYezv England. 


standard measure, the turning of the 
glass by the faithful sexton reminded 
him that he was asking more of the 
patience of his hearers than they 
tacitly had agreed to give. Instances 
were not rare, however, when, in 
those days when long sermons were 
less alarming than in this age of 
dispatch, as has been facetiously re- 
marked, both preachers and hearers 
were well contented to take the sec- 
ond and even the third glass together. 
In compensation for his labors, the 
sexton usually received a peck of 
corn per annum from each house- 
holder, this being as valuable as 
mouey, and more plentiful. 

In some places it was customary 
during public services for a persou to 
go about the meeting-house to wake 
the sleepers. He bore a long wand, 
on one end of which was a ball and 
on the other end a fox tail, and woe 
unto all who were caught napping. 
When he observed a man asleep, he 
hit him quite a gentle rap on the 
head with the knob ; and roused the 
slumbering sensibilities of the women 
by drawing the brush slightly across 
their faces. 

The church service in those days 
usually consisted of three ' ; Pewter 
Tankards," rive w; Pewter Beakers," 
two " Pewter Platters," a iw Pewter 
Basin" for baptisms, and a cloth for 
the communion table. 

Some of the hymn-books then in 
use were Sternhold and Hopkins's, 
Ravense raft's, arid "Watts's Hymns. 

The singing was conducted by one 
of the deacons, who officiated as chor- 
ister to the congregation. He read 
the hymn, line by line, and t; set the 
tune," in which each member joined 
by rote, in kev and measure not 

always the most exact or harmonious. 
This method of singing gave way 
about 1774 to choir singing. Later 
the singing was to the accompani- 
ment of an orchestra, consisting of 
flutes, violins, and a bass-viol, the 
size of the orchestra varying accord- 
ing to the musical talent of the town. 
On some old church books such items 
as these may be seen : 

-Voted £l-6s, to repair the bass-viol 
and the singers-seats." 

"Voted — that the meet ting-house be 
ceiled up to the wall plates, rabbitted, 
and the windows glazed." 

"Voted — that Mrs. have liberty 

to make a convenient seat by the chief 
pillar," etc. 

It appears that contributions were 
as necessary to church service in 
those days as at present. The cus- 
tom then was for the people to carry 
their offerings to the deacon, who sat 
in his pew close to the desk or pulpit 
and held a money-box in his hand, in 
which the people as they passed put 
their offerings, — some one shilling, 
some two shillings, and occasionally 
some wealthy member dropped in a 
half crown. The people, in order 
to do this with requisite decorum, 
marched two by two up one aisle and 
down another, — the magistrates first, 
then the elders, then the remain- 
ing congregation, the people from 
the galleries coming last. It was 
also customary to have a box put 
near the door to receive strangers' 
money. In those days great atten- 
tion was duly given to the minister's 
dignity. We read of one minister's 
being dismissed, because, in making a 
call, instead of entering the yard by 
the £ate as a clergyman should do, 
he 4t clambered over the rails of the 



Ancient Church Lore of Nezv England. 

fence," much to the lowering of the 
dignity of his profession. The cler- 
gymen, as a rule, were men who took 
enlarged views of their duties and 
responsibilities as pastors aud citi- 
zens, and were usually dearly loved 
and respected. The dress of the 
clergy was black, and knee-breeches, 
cocked hats, and silver knee-buckles 
were much worn by the chief men of 
the times. 

In those days the Sabbath was 
strictly a day of sacred rest. Before 
sunset on Saturday the toils of the 
week were closed. The meat and 
vegetables were brought from the eel- and prepared, as far as possible, 
for the Sunday dinner ; and when 
the Sabbath sun arose the stillness 
of the day was not permitted to be 
disturbed by unnecessary noise. No 
member of the family was excused 
from meeting except for sickness ; 
the Bible and religious books eng^ed 
the attention of each between the 
seasons of worship ; rambling in the 
fields, riding for pleasure, and visits, 
except to the cemetery, were prohib- 
ited ; the children were " catechised" 
and questioned concerning the ser- 
mon, and at an early hour retired to 
repose. They were a prayerful peo- 
ple, and there were but few dwellings 
in which a family altar was not to be 

Since then the times and customs 

have completely changed. The "good- 
wife " and modest maiden no longer 
mount the tastefully trimmed pillion, 
as, at the church bell's bidding, 
"good-man" and "intended" con- 
vey them to the sanctuary. The jolt- 
ing-chair has yielded precedence to 
the chaise and carriage. The flow- 
ing wig and venerable cocked hat 
are among the things that were. The 
huckster's stand and the portable 
" bar," emitting its alcoholic fumes, 
have ceased to collect a motley group 
of patrons at the church door on 
ordination days, blending, as it were, 
pandemonium with paradise. Hoops 
and pattens, tunics and scarlet rid- 
ing-cloaks, rufiled bosoms and cuffs, 
knee-breeches and silver buckles, 
embroidered vests and neckties, pow- 
dered hair and cues, have all mir- 
rored the fashion of their times, and 
given place to the less stately, but 
perhaps not less graceful, costume of 
the present. 

The primitive churches have given 
place to noble and vast churches and 
cathedrals, but the religious church 
of preceding generations has doubt- 
less contributed essentially to the 
soundness of moral sentiment at the 
present day ; and we owe it princi- 
pally to this that our New England 
institutions of religion are at this 
time, for the most part, liberally 

In die n JVa m cs . 


By Hon. Samuel Abbott Green, Boston. 

The Reverend John Wilson, first 
minister of Boston, owned two large 
tracts of land in what is now 
Merrimack, New Hampshire, but 
which then came within the limits 
of Massachusetts. They contained, 
both together, one thousand acres ; 
and Mr. Wilson's title was confirmed 
by the general court, at a session 
beginning on October 16, 1GG0. A 
grant was made to him during the 
summer of 1639, more than twenty 
years previously ; but, owing to 
ft seuerall disappointments," the laud 
had been neither surveyed nor se- 

In the Suffolk registry of deeds 
there is a record of the sale of this 
land, on December 3, 1G60, to Simon 
Lynde, a merchant of Boston ; and 
as the description of the property 
mentions three Iudian names, of 
which two are still in use, I make 
the following extract from the deed, 
in order to show their antiquity and 
to prolong their continued applica- 
tion : 

one thousand acres of land bee it more 
or lesse scittuated lying & being about 
term miles more or lesse from Groatten 
being laid out in two seuerall places (to 
witt) three hundred acres of meadow & 
vpland lying at or vpon pennechuck 
brooke neere South eggenocke Riuer 
bounded w th the wildernes & a pond 
lying towards the southwest Corner 
thereof and the bound tree marked w th 
the Letter L and seuen hundred acres of 
meadow & vpland and entervaile scittuat 
lying & being about one mile & halfe 
Distant from the aforementioned three 
hundred acres of laud vpon Southhea- 

ganock Riuer aforesajd the Riuer Run- 
ning thr° the Same and the place Called 
by the Indians Quo-qunna-pussackessa 
nay-noy bounded vpon the westward w th 
the land or farme of Cap* w m Dauis of 
Boston easterly : 

(Suffolk Deeds, Liber III. page 449.) 

Both Pennichuck pond, in Hollis, 
New Hampshire, and Pennichuck 
brook, running from the pond into 
the Merrimack river and forming the 
boundary line between the city of 
Nashua and the town of Merrimack, 
keep one of these three names fa- 
miliar to the present generation. 
" South eggenocke" and "Souths 
heaganock," — different forms of the 
same word, — represent another of 
these names, which is now known as 
"Souhegan," and applied to a well 
known river in Hillsborough county, 
New Hampshire. The name "Quo- 
qunna-pussackessa nay-noy," as giv- 
eu in the deed, is written "quohquima- 
paskessa-nahnoy " in the general court 
records ; and these two forms of an 
Indian word are sufficiently similar to 
establish their identity. I am not 
aware that any trace of this name 
still survives in the geographical 
nomenclature of the neighborhood. 
The " pond lying towards the south- 
west Corner " of the first parcel of 
land mentioned in the deed is Penni- 
chuck pond, and so called in the 
colonial records. 

Geographical names of Indian 
origin furnish now one of the few 
links in New England that connect 
modem times with the prehistoric 
period. In the absence of any cor- 

302 \l7ute Lies. 

rect standard either of pronunciation of old Indian dwellings are eagerly 
or spelling, which always character- picked up by the archaeologist for 
izes an unwritten language, these critical examination, so any f rag- 
words have been greatly distorted and meutary facts about the Indian 
changed, and thus have lost much of names of places are worth saving by 
their original meaning, but their root the antiquary and scholar for their 
generally remains. As the shards historical and philological value, 
that lie scattered around the sites 

By Helen Mar Bean. 

With languorous grace she sits within 
The window's wide embrasure, — 

A dainty maid, with tawny hair, 
And eyes of purest azure. 

She holds a volume in her hand, 

And idly turns the pages, 
Uncaring, though the book contain 

The wisdom of the sages. 

Unmoved she hears the fire-bells ring 

With wild, discordant jangle, 
And 'neath the window, where she sits, 

The newsboys shout and wrangle. 

Hundreds have passed, gone up and down, 
And, though her fellow-creatures, 

No flush of interest or surprise 
Disturbs the pale, calm features. 

Not one of all that moving throng 

Can stir her heart's pulsation 
One tiny throb, or light her eyes 

With ray of animation. 

She throws the musty book aside 

With gesture of refusal, 
As though its precious contents are 

Unworthy her perusal. 

Then lifts her eyes, with careless glance, 
When, through the long, curved lashes, 

Like tiny spark from smitten Hint, 
A conscious gleam quick flashes, 

White Lies. 303 

And through her veins the eager blood 

A crimsou torrent rushes, 
Staining her cheeks and forehead fair 

With waves of burning blushes. 

What is it that has thus disturbed 

My lady's calm composure ? 
('T is well there are no eves to see 

Her heart's complete disclosure.) 

Full two squares off she spies a form, 
Tall, straight, aud well appointed. 

(It's strange how very quick to see 
Are eyes with love anointed.) 

Soon, with all doubts and fears removed, 
Amidst the crowd, vast, surging, 

She sees him coming straight to her, 
With steps which need no urging. 

And now the inconsistent maid 

Ignores her sweet confession, 
And sinks upon her cushioned chair 

With perfect self-possession ; 

Picks up the old, discarded book, 

And slowly turns the pages, 
And reads, with thoughtful, earnest eyes,. 

The wisdom of the sages. 

" Ah ! is it you ? " raising at last 

Those eyes of purest azure, 
In which he reads a mild surprise 

Instead of eager pleasure. 

" I 'm glad you 've come/' she says to him 

In accents soft and lazy. 
" 1' ve pored over this wise old book 

Until my mind 's grown hazy. 

44 1 hoped that somethiug would occur 

To rouse me from inaction, 
I 'm sure I welcome anything 

In the wav of a distraction." 


The Battle of Bunker Hill. 

[From the Port Folio for March, 1S1S-] 


Written for the Port Folio, at the request of the Editor, 

By II. Dearborn, Maj. Gen. U. S. Army. 

On the 16th of June, 1775, it was 
determined that a fortified post should 
be established at or near Bunker's 
Hill. A detachment of the army was 
ordered to advance early in the even- 
ing of that day, and commence the 
erection of a strong work on the 
heights in the rear of Charlestown, at 
that time called Breed's Hill ; but 
from its proximity to Bunker Hill the 
battle has taken its name from the 
latter eminence, which overlooks it. 

The work was commenced and car- 
ried on under the direction of such 
engineers as we were able to procure 
at that time. It was a square re- 
doubt, the curtaius of which were 
about sixty or seventy feet in extent, 
with an intrenchment, or breast-work, 
extending fifty or sixty feet from 
the northern angle, towards Mystic 

In the course of the nisfht the ram- 

were promptly made for effecting this 
importaut object. The movements of 
the British troops, indicating an 
attack, were soon discovered ; in con- 
sequence of which, orders were imme- 
diately issued for the march of a con- 
siderable part of our army to rein- 
force the detachment at the redoubts 
on Breed's Hill ; but such was the im- 
perfect state of discipline, the want of 
knowledge in military science, and 
the deficiency of the materials of war, 
that the movement of the troops was 
extremely irregular and devoid of 
everything like concert, each regi- 
ment advancing accordiug to the 
opinions, feelings, or caprice of its 

Colonel Stark's * regiment was 
quartered in Medford, distant about 
four miles from the point of anticipat- 
ed attack. It then consisted of thir- 
teen companies, and was probably 

parts had been raised to the height of the largest regiment in the army. 

six or seven feet, with a small diich 

at their base, but it was yet in a 

rude and imperfect state. Being in 

full view from the northern heights of 

Boston, it was discovered bv the eue- 

About ten o'clock in the morning he 
received orders to march. The regi- 
ment being destitute of ammunition, 
it was formed in front of a house 
occupied as an arsenal, where each 
my as soon as day-light appeared, man received a gill cup full of powder, 
and a determination was immediately fifteen balls, and one flint, 
formed by General Gage for dislodg- The several captains were then 
ing our troops from this new and ordered to march their companies 
alarming position. Arrangements to their respective quarters, and make 

1 We appeu'i the author's foot-note, as found in the Port Folio.— Ed. G. M. 

ThU distinguished veteran is still alive, in the ninety-first year of hi? aje, and reader* in the state of 
Kew Hampshire. He is one of the only taree surviving general officers of the Revolutionary War. The 
othr-r two are Maj. G>-::. St. C'iair, who lives in the interior uf Pennsylvania, and Brig. Gen. Huntington, 
of Connecticut. 

The Battle of Bunker Hill. 


up their powder and ball into cart- 
ridges with the greatest possible dis- 
patch. As there were scarcely two 
muskets in the company of equal cal- 
libre, it was necessary to reduce the 
size of the balls for many of them : 
and as but a small proportion of the 
men had cartridge boxes, the remain- 
der made use of powder horns and 
ball pouches. 

After completing the necessary 
preparations for action, the regi- 
meut formed, and marched about one 
o'clock. When it reached Charles- 
town Neck we found two regiments 
halted, in consequence of a heavy 
enfilading lire thrown across it, of 
round, bar, and chain shot, from the 
Lively frigate and floating batteries 
anchored in Charles river, and a float- 
ing batterv lviug in the river Mvstic. 
Major M'Clary went forward, and ob- 
served to the commanders, if they did 
not intend to move on, he wished them 
to open and let- our regiment pass: 
the latter was immediately done. My 
company being in front, I marched by 
the side of Colonel Stark, who mov- 
ing with a very deliberate pace, I sug- 
gested the propriety of quickening the 
march of the regiment, that it might 
sooner be relieved from the galling 
cross fire of the enemy. With a look 
peculiar to himself, he fixed his eyes 
upon me, and observed with great 
composure, t? Dearborn, one fresh 
man in action is worth tea fatigued 
ones," and continued to advance in 
the same cool and collected manner. 
When we reached the top of Bunker's 
Hill, where General Putnam had taken 
his station, the regiment halted for a 
few moments for the rear to conic up. 

Soon after, the enemy were discov- 
ered to have landed on the shore 

of Morton's point in front of Breed's 
Hill, under cover of a tremendous fire 
of shot and shell from a battery 
on Copp's Hill, in Boston, which had 
opened on the redoubt at day-break. 
Major-General Howe and Brigadier- 
General Pigot were the commanders 
of the British forces which first land- 
ed, consisting of four battalions of 
infantry, with a train of field artil- 
lery. They formed as they disem- 
barked, but remained in that position 
until they were reinforced by another 

At this moment the veteran and 
gallant Colonel Stark harangued his 
regiment in a short but animated 
address ; then directed them to give 
three cheers, and make a rapid move- 
ment to the rail fence which ran from 
the left, and about 40 yards in the 
rear, of the redoubt towards Mystic 
river. Part of the grass, having been 
recently cut, lay in windrows and 
cocks on the fields. Another fence 
was taken up, the rails run through 
the one in front, aud the hay mown 
in the vicinity suspended upon them 
from the bottom to the top, which 
had the appearauce of a breast-work, 
but was, in fact, no real cover to 
the men ; it however served as a de- 
ception on the enemy. This was 
done by the direction of the k ' com- 
mittee of safety " of which William 
Wiuthrop, Esq., who then and now 
lives in Cambridge, was one, as he 
has within a few years informed me. 

At the moment our regiment was 
formed in the rear of the rail fence, 
with one other small regiment from 
New Hampshire, under the command 
of Colonel Reed, the fire commenced 
between the left wing of the Brit- 
ish army commanded by General 


The Battle of Bunker Hill. 

Howe, and the troops in the redoubt 
under Colonel Prescott, while a col- 
umn of the enemy was advancing 
on our left on the shore of Mystic 
river, with an evident intention of 
turning our left wing, and that vete- 
ran and most excellent regiment of 
Welsh fusileers, so distinguished for 
its gallant conduct in the battle of 
Minden, advanced in column directly 
on the rail fence, when within 80 or 
100 yards, deployed into line with 
the precision and firmness of troops 
on parade, and opened a brisk but 
regular fire by platoons, which was 
returned by a well directed, rapid, 
and fatal discbarge from our whole 

The action soon became general 
and very heavy from right to left. 
In the course of ten or fifteen minutes 
the enemy gave way at all points, 
and retreated with great disorder, 
leaving a large number of dead and 
wounded on the field. 

The firing ceased for a short 
time, until the enemy again formed, 
advanced, and recommenced a spir- 
ited fire from his whole line. Sev- 
eral attempts were again made to 
turn our left, but the troops, having 
thrown up a slight stone wall on 
the bank of the river and laying 
down behind it, gave such a deadly 
fire as cut down almost every man 
of the party opposed to them ; while 
the fire from the redoubt and the 
rail fence was so well directed and so 
fatal, especially to the British offi- 
cers, that the whole army was com- 
pelled a second time to retreat with 
precipitation and great coufusion. 
At this time the ground occupied by 
the enemy was covered with his dead 
and wounded. Only a few small 

detached parties again advanced, 
which kept up a distant ineffectual 
scattering fire, until a strong rein- 
forcement arrived from Boston, which 
advanced on a southern declivity 
of the hill in the rear of Charles- 
town. When this column arrived 
opposite that angle of the redoubt 
which faced Charlestown, it wheeled 
by platoons to the right, and 
advanced directly upon the redoubt 
without firing a gun. By this time 
our ammunition was exhausted. A 
few men only had a charge left. 

The advancing column made an 
attempt to carry the redoubt by 
assault, but at the first onset every 
man that mounted the parapet was 
cut down by the troops within, who 
had formed on the opposite side, 
not being prepared with bayonets 
to meet a charge. 

The column wavered for a moment, 
but soon formed again, when a 
forward movement was made with 
such spirit and intrepidity as to 
render the feeble efforts of a hand- 
ful of men, without the means of 
defence, unavailing, and they fled 
through an open space, in the rear of 
the redoubt, which had been left 
for a gate-way. At this moment the 
rear of the British column advanced 
round the angle of the redoubt aud 
threw in a galling flank fire upon 
our troops as they rushed from it, 
which killed and wounded a greater 
number than had fallen before during 
the action. The whole of our line 
immediately after gave way, and 
retreated with rapidity and disorder 
towards Bunker Hill, carrying off 
as many of the wounded as pos- 
sible, so that only thirty-six or seven 
fell into the hands of the enemy, 

The Baltic of Bunker Hill. 


among whom were Lt. Col. Parker 
and two or three other officers who 
fell iu or near the redoubt. 

When the troops arrived at the 
summit of Bunker Hill, we found 
General Putnam with nearly as many 
men as had been engaged in the 
battle ; notwithstanding which no 
measures had been taken for rein- 
forcing us, nor was there a shot fired 
to cover our retreat, or any move- 
ment made to chee:c the advance 
of the enemy to this height, but, on 
the contrary, Gen. Putnam rode off, 
with a number of spades and pick- 
axes in his hands, and the troops 
that had remained with him inactive 
during the whole of the action, 
although within a few hundred yards 
of the battle-ground, and no obstacle 
to impede their movement but mus- 
ket balls. 

The whole of the troops now de- 
scended the north-western declivity of 
Buuker Hill, and recrossed the neck. 
Those of the New Hampshire line re- 
tired towards Winter Hill and the 
others on to Prospect Hill. 

Some slight works were thrown 
up in the course of the evening: 
strong advance pickets were posted 
on the roads leading to Charlestown, 
and the troops, anticipating an attack, 
rested on their arms. 

It is . a most extraordinary fact 
that the British did not make a sin- 
gle charge during the battle, which, 
if attempted, would have been deci- 
sive and fatal to the Americans, as 
they did not carry into the field fifty 
bayonets. In my company there was 
but one. 

Soon after the commencement of 
the action a detachment from a Brit- 
ish force in Boston was lauded in 

Charlestown, and within a few mo- 
ments the whole town appeared in 
a blaze. A dense column of smoke 
rose to a great height, and there being 
a gentle breeze from the south-west, 
it hung like a thunder-cloud over 
the contending armies. A very few 
houses escaped the dreadful confla- 
gration of this devoted town. 

From similar mistakes, the fixed 
ammunition furnished for field pieces 
was calculated for guns of a larger 
calibre, which prevented the use of 
field artillery, on both sides. There 
was no cavalry in either army. From 
the ships of war and the large battery 
on Copp's Hill a heavy cannonade 
was kept up upon our line and 
redoubt, from the commencement to 
the close of the action, aud during 
the retreat, but with very little 
effect, except that of killing the 
brave Major Andrew M' Clary of Col. 
Stark's regiment, soon after we re- 
tired from Bunker Hill. He was 
among the first officers of the army, 
possessing a sound judgment, of 
undaunted bravery, enterprising, ar- 
dent, and zealous both as a patriot 
and soldier. His loss was severely 
felt by his compatriots in arms, while 
his country was deprived of the ser- 
vices of one of her most promising 
and distinguished champions of lib- 

After leaving the field of battle, 
I met him and drank some spirit and 
water with him. He was animated 
and sanguine in the result of the con- 
flict for Independence, from the glo- 
rious display of valour which had 
distinguished his countrymen on that 
memorable day. 

He soon observed that the British 
troops on Bunker Hill appeared in 

3 oS 

Gen era! Pa in a m . 

motion, and he said would go and 
reconnoitre them, to see whether they 
were coining out over the neck, at the 
same time directing towards Charles- 
town. We were then at Tufts' house 
near Ploughed Mill. 1 immediately 
made a forward movement to the po- 
sition he directed me to take, and 
halted while he proceeded to the old 
pound, which stood on the site uow 
occupied as a tavern-house not far 
from the entrance to <-he neck. After 

he had satisfied himself that the ene- 
my did not intend to leave their 
strong posts on the heights, he was 
returning towards me, and, when with- 
in twelve or fifteen rods of where 
I stood, with my company, a random 
cannon shot from one of the frigates 
lying near where the centre of 
Craige's bridge now is passed direct- 
ly through his body, and put to flight 
one of the most heroic souls that ever 
animated man. 

[From the Boston Centinel.] 

Letter from President Adams. 

The following letter from the ven- nies, for if it could be said in any 
erable President Adams will lead to sense that the colonies were nnited, 
communications which will vindicate the centre of their union, the cou- 
the fame of the veteran Gen. Putnam gress at Philadelphia, had not adopted 
from the obloquy lately attempted to nor acknowledged the army at Cam- 
be cast over it, and may furnish im- bridge. It was not a New England 
portant facts in the history of the army, for New England had not asso- 
Kevolution, of great interest to pos- dated. New England had no legal 
teritv. legislature, nor any common execu- 
Quinct, June 19, 1818. tive authority, even upon the prin- 

Dear Sir : I have received your ciples of original authority, or even 

letter of the 16th inst. My letter to of original power in the people. 

Col. Daniel Putnam, of the 5th, is at Massachusetts had her army, Con- 

his and your disposal. You may pub- necticut her army, New Hampshire 

lish any part of it, or the whole, at her army, and Rhode Island her 

your discretion. 

I wish the young gentlemen of the 
age would undertake an analytical 
investigation of the constitution of 
the army at Cambridge, and of the 
detachment from it to Bunker's Hill 
and Breed's Hill on the 16th and 17th 
of June. 

The army at Cambridge was not a 
national array, for there was no na- subject to the orders of the Massa- 
tion. It was not a United States chusetts provincial congress. I de- 
array, for there were no United States, sire to know from whom Putnam re- 
It was not an armv of United Colo- ceived his commission, and from 

army. These four armies, met at 
Cambridge, and imprisoned the Brit- 
ish array in Bostou. But who was 
the sovereign of this united or rather 
congregated army, and who its com- 
mander-in-chief? It had none. Put- 
nam, Poor, and Gree rie were as in- 
dependent of Ward as Ward was of 
them. None of them but Ward was 

General Put nam. 

whom Poor received his commission? 
And I pray let the commissions of 
Ward, Putnam, Poor, and Greene be 
all produced. 

Where are the orders for taking 
possession of the heights of Charles- 
town? Who gave these orders? The 
Massachusetts provincial congress? 
No ; the} T could give no orders but 
to Gen. Ward, who could give no 
orders to Putnam, Poor, or Greene. 
Were those orders given by a com- 
mittee of the Massachusetts provin- 
cial congress? But what authority 
had that committee? The whole en- 
terprise in Charlestown must have 
been a volunteer enterprise, as the 
army at Cambridge was a volunteer 

Who was the first officer of Massa- 
chusetts on Bunker's Hill, or Breed's 
Hill? I have always understood he 
was Colonel Pomeroy, or General 
Pomeroy. Colonel Prescott might be 
the most determined, persever'iDg, 
and efficient officer of Massachu- 
setts, but Pomeroy was certainly his 
superior in command. 

But what authority had Putnam to 
command Pomeroy or Prescott? He 
offered to submit to Warren. lam 
confident the result will be to the l*on- 
our of Putnam loth as a statesman 
and warriaur. I should be glad to 
know by what authority Gerrish was 
cashiered? Was it by the provincial 
congress that he was prosecuted, tried, 
and condemned? General Washing- 
ton could not order his trial, for he 
had no authority over him. But, sir, 
I must suppress a thousand questions, 
and conclude myself your humble 


Geo. Brinley, Esq. 

Letter from Reuben Ivemp. 

An able writer in the Boston Cen- 
tiuel has undertaken in a series of 
numbers to refute the charge of cow- 
ardice brought against this distin- 
guished hero and friend of the Rev- 
olution by Gen. Dearborn. Among 
other depositions given in the 4th 
number of the series is the following 
from the lips of one of the soldiers 
actually belonging to and fighting in 
the same ranks with Gen. Dearborn. 

4t Reuben Kemp, now of Brooklyn, 
in Connecticut, but formerly of Goffs- 
town, State of New Hampshire, de- 
poseth on oath, that in 1775 he was 
a soldier in Capt. Samuel Richards' 
company and Col. Stark's (Dear- 
bom's) regiment ; — being quartered 
at Mystic, on the 17th of June, an 
alarm was given, and the regiment 
ordered to parade at the Colonel's 
quarters, when ammunition was dis- 
tributed, namely, ten bullets and a 
gill cup of powder. We sorted our 
bullets as well as we could, and 
marched to Charlestown neck. After 
we arrived at the high ground over 
the neck, we were ordered to parade 
our packs and guns, and put sentries 
over them. Here we were furnished 
with intrenching tools and began to 
throw up a breastwork, but we had 
not been more thau ten or fifteen 
minutes at work before the drums 
beat, and we were marched imme- 
diately. An officer whom I had 
never seen [hev:as in the condition of 
Dearborn and cdl Stark's troops who 
had never seen Putnam'], and whom 
they called General Putnam, seemed 
to have the ordering of things. He 
charged the men not to fire till the 
enemy came close to the works, and 
then to take good aim and make 


/&>;/. 5^5^ Johnson. 

every shot kill a man. But there 
were a few pieces discharged before 
the order was given to fire. General 
Putnam appeared very angry, and 
passed along the lines quickly, with 
his sword drawn, and threatened to 
stab any man that fired without order. 
The enemy kept firing as they ad- 
vanced, and when the}' had got 
pretty near the works we were or- 
dered to take good aim and fire. At 
this time General Putnam was con- 
stantly passing backward and for- 
ward from right to left, telling us the 
day was our own if we would stick to 
it; and it was not many minutes be- 
fore the enemy began to retreat." 

Upon being questioned whether he 
had afterwards known Putnam, and 
recoguized him to be the same officer 
who so gallantly distinguished him- 
self, he said, — 

" I saw him often after, for he 
commanded on Prospect Hill, and I 
knew him to be the same that was in 
the fight. 

(Signed) REUBEN KEMP." 

Sworn to before John Parish, Jus- 
tice of the Peace. 

Pray where was Capt. Dearborn 
that he could neither see this gallant 
officer, nor hear his orders to Dear- 
born's own regiment? 

By W. A. "Wallace. 

Hon. Jesse Johnson was the eldest 
son of Jesse Johnson, of Hampstead. 
He was born in Hampstead in 1762. 
His father purchased land in Enfield 
in 1778, and within a few years be- 
came the owner of nearly one fourth 
of the township. In 1779, Jesse, 
junior, then in his seventeenth year, 
walked from Hampstead, by blazed 
paths, through the forests to Enfield, 
to aid his father in caring for aud 
clearing tip his lands. At the age of 
twenty-two he was appointed a justice 
of the peace, and held the office dur- 
ing the remaining thirty-two years of 
his life ; was proprietors' clerk thirty 
years ; one of the town's early sur- 
veyors ; representative in the legis- 
lature ; judge of probate ; judge of 
the court of common pleas ; and in 
1812 was the nominee of his party for 

congress. He was delegate to the 
constitutional convention of 1792 
from the classed towns of Canaan 
and Enfield. Queries have been raised 
as to the purport of the instructions 
given him upon his election by the 
people. We cannot learn that he was 
instructed in reference to his action 
in the convention, and it is doubtful 
if any were given. A man so con- 
stantly in the employ of the town, 
and who was raised from one office to 
another without intermission, — whose 
character was thoroughly understood 
and held in honor and respect by his 
fellow-citizens for so many years, — 
would hardly need instructions from 
those who sent him to the constitu- 
tional convention. 

He died September 16, 1816, aged 
54 vears. 

A Remarkable History. 



It is doubtless known to many of 
the readers of the Granite Month- 
ly, that Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & 
Co., of Boston, have been for several 
years publishing an unusually full 
and elaborate 4i Narrative and Criti- 
cal History of America." It may be 
that some of them do not realize how 
important a work this is, and as we 
are confident that they will be glad 
to learn about it, we reproduce below 
a very careful and discriminating pa- 
per which recently appeared in the 
New York Evening Post. It relates 
almost exclusively to the first volume, 
which appeared a few months since, 
its publication having been postponed 
until six other volumes had been is- 
sued, so that the editor might avail 
himself of important researches only 
completed a short time ago. What 
the critic says of this volume is vir- 
tually true of all. 

In presence of a book like this, the 
seventh issue in the important series 
to which it belongs, the critic finds it 
difficult to remain faithful to his du- 
ties as a " critic." There is so much 
to laud, and so little to animadvert 
upon, that he feels himself exposed 
to the reproach of partiality. Of 
course no man is ever completely sat- 
isfied by the work of any other man, 
and the first thing one does, in exam- 
ining the doings of somebody else, is 
to try and find out wherein that some- 
body ;t seems " to display less knowl- 
edge, less experience, less depth, than 
he — the critic — might have displayed 
under similar circumstances and in 
face of the same exigencies. Bat it 

must be said of the work which Mr. 
Winsor has undertaken, that he has 
left less room for fault-fiuding of this 
narrow kind than any one who ever 
trod the difficult path of ancient 
American history. 

It is natural that the bibliographi- 
cal introduction should be furnished 
by the editor himself, since nobody 
was better fitted than he to give an 
idea of the Americana extant in libra- 
ries. It is pleasant to read the praise 
which he accords to Mr. II. II . Ban- 
croft as a collector of sources. What- 
ever may be one's opinion in regard 
to the use which Mr. Bancroft has 
made of these sources — whether his 
own conclusion suit us or not — the 
mere fact that he has gathered and 
stored them should entitle him to our 
lasting gratitude. Nobody has ever 
paid a higher tribute to Mr. Bancroft 
on this score than Mr. \Vinsor, and 
nobody was better fitted to do it. 
It is somewhat regrettable, however, 
that the list of libraries rich in Amer- 
icana does not extend beyond the 
United States. The libraries in Mex- 
ico, for instance, like the Biblioteca 
Nacional, and the private libraries of 
Don Joaquin Garcia Icazbalceta, Jose 
Maria Agreda, and of the Cura of 
xVmecameca, Fortino Hipolito Vera, 
contain rare treasures. 

The paper on li The Early Descrip- 
tions of America," also by Mr. Win- 
sor, is an admirable piece of work. 
Beautifully and appropriately illus- 
trated, and supplied with bibliographic 
notes of the highest importance, it is 
without parallel as yet for fulness 
and careful criticism of sources. The 


A Remarkable History 

reader is made acquainted, in a man- 
ner as scientific as it is vivid, with 
the development of literature pertain- 
ing to the New World in the earliest 
times. It is the best existing guide 
to preparatory studies in American 
history — studies which, to our great 
regret be it said, have been until now 
largely neglected. 

After these two introductions, fol- 
lows the chapter on "The Geographical 
Knowledge of the Ancients Consid- 
ered in Relation to the Discovery of 
America." Mr. W. H. Tiliinghast, 
to whom this chapter has been com- 
mitted, exhausts the subject so far 
as is now possible. Splendid copies 
of almost forgotten maps accompany 
the article, and the Atlantis tale, the 
legends of Saint Brandan and Saint 
McLeod or Malo, as well as the ques- 
tion of the mythical island Antillia 
with its seven cities, are very thor- 
oughly ventilated. It strikes us, how- 
ever, that, in regard to this kind of 
myths and hypotheses, the author 
might profitably have consulted the 
second edition of Garcia's ; - Oiigen 
de los Indios," so largely amplified 
and tranformed by its editor, Andres 
Gonzalez Barcia. Not only would he 
have found therein references to num- 
berless speculations concerning the 
origin of the Indians which are to-day 
lost sight of, but he would have met 
with notices of manuscript sources 
extant at the time. He, perhaps, 
also passes too lightly over the "mon- 
tagna bruna" of Dante. It should 
not be forgotten that |his allusion 
may stand in the same light as the 
remarkable passage, — 

" All altro polo, e vidi quafro atelle; " 

and that, while the latter appears 
prophetic in regard to the subsequent 

discovery of the Southern Cross, the 
former may be equally so with respect 
to a geographical fact. In all these 
legends and myths there is probably 
a diminutive grain of truth, and when- 
ever they show an exceptional per- 
sistence, it is a sign that we cannot 
absolutely discard them. Among the 
elder descriptions of the earth we 
miss the one given in 1825 A. D., by 
the Irish monk Dicuil, under the title 
<k De Mensura Orbis Terra." This 
little book (printed with an elaborate 
commentary by Letronne in 1814) is 
not a " first-hand " source ; still, it is 
valuable, and the more so because it 
contains the positive statement that 
Irish monks had gone to Iceland prior 
to the year 800. (See cap. vii, par. 
i, 6.) 

In " Precolumbian Explorations," 
Mr. "NYinsor gives a resume, accom- 
panied by the usual abundance of 
notes and bibliography. He, too, is 
silent on the subject of Dicuil, and 
does not mention among the sources 
the valuable book of Christoph Fried- 
rich Muenter, " Kirchengeschichte 
von Daeuemark und Norwegen.'' 
That author gives, among other 
things, on p. 57G of vol. i, the text 
of the bull of Pope Gregory IV, 
wherein the words " Gronandan — 
Islandon," etc., occur. It is needless 
to insist upon the general excellency 
of Mr. "Winsor's monograph, by the 
side of which such slight omissions 
are truly insiguificant. The cartog- 
raphy of Greenland is a masterpiece. 

Chapter iii, on " Mexico and Cen- 
tral America," is a very careful re- 
view by the editor of what has been 
written and suggested as to the past 
of the Mexican and Central American 
tribes. He is wisely non-committal 

A Remarkable History. 


in regard to the differences of opinion 
concerning the stage of culture of 
these tribes at the time of the con- 
quest and previously. It is not so 
much an historical as a purely ethno- 
logical question. The two " schools " 
that have arisen since Morgan's first 
radical but necessary efforts, are dis- 
tinguished from each other especially 
by the methods of research. The 
"men of Morgan," as II. H. Bancroft 
calls them, claim that ethnological 
study will enable us to reestablish the 
original condition of the Indian any- 
where ; and some even go so far as to 
assert that ethnological research will 
prove a very useful check on the 
statements of Spanish chroniclers, 
whose testimony they do not reject, 
but regard as reliable in many cases, 
provided a just and careful scrutiny 
precedes their use. In this consists 
the fundamental divergence of the 
two groups. The others separate 
documentary study from ethnology 
altogether, and even frequently fail 
to apply the most simple rules of crit- 
icism to the study of sources. But 
history can no louger be divorced 
from ethnology, especially in America, 
where the types of primitive mankind 
are still found, and may be investi- 
gated with comparative ease. 

The monograph on " The Inca 
Civilization of Peru," by Mr. Clem- 
ents R. Markham, suffers to some ex- 
tent from want of ethnological data. 
Hardly any part of the American 
continent is so neglected by ethnolo- 
gists as Peru and Bolivia, and there 
is no section of the western world 
where studies like those initiated by 
Morgan, Powell, and Cushing, upon 
existing tribes, are more needed, and 
would, at the same time, be more 

profitable. Our knowledge of ancient 
Peru and the adjoining regions is as 
yet wholly based upon books and 
ruins, with but the slightest sprink- 
ling of observations casually made 
upon the natives. 

Dr. George E. Ellis's "The Red 
Indian of North America in Contact 
with the French and English " will 
surprise nobody who has read his 
book on " The Red Man and the 
White Man in North America." Still, 
there is some improvement upon the 
latter in the short essay embodied in 
Mr. AVinsor's volume. But lack of 
practical acquaintance with Indian 
nature is here also the great draw- 

In chapter vi, " The Prehistoric 
Archaeology of North America," Prof. 
Henry W. Haynes has undertaken a 
very intricate, delicate, and difficult 
task, but the mauner in which he has 
fulfilled it is certainly worthy of the 
book in which it appears. To give 
anything like a detailed sketch of his 
valuable paper would go beyond the 
limits of a review. Very cautious and 
guarded. Prof. Haynes has handled 
this subject with as much tact as 
learning, keeping aloof from any haz- 
ardous speculation of his owu, giving 
due credit to every one for what he 
has said or done, and thus in each 
case throwing the responsibility where 
it properly belongs. 

His monograph is a fit transition 
from preceding ones to the interest- 
ing essay by Mr. Winsor on "The 
Progress of Opinion Respecting the 
Origin and Antiquity of Man in 
America." In this the editor pro- 
ceeds, in his calm, dispassionate, and 
objective manner, to exhibit the course 
taken by public and learned opinion 


The Rebellion, 

regarding tbe origin of the Indians of 
America. It is in keeping with his 
previous monographs. But we fear 
he has done injustice to old Father 
Garcia when lie says, — "lie goes over 
the supposed navigations of the Phoe- 
nicians, the identity of Peru with 
Solomon's Ophir, and the chances 
of African, Roman, and Jewish mi- 
grations, only to reject them all, and 
to favor a coming of Tartars and 
Chinese." By referring to chapter 
xxv, book 4, of the second edition, it 
becomes plain that Garcia favors, in 
fact, hardly any theory in particular, 
but admits that there is a likelihood 
in each and absolute certainty in 
none. In this respect the old Do- 
minican has set an example that 
might have profited a great many of 
his successors, amoug whom he has 
had not a few detractors. 

Lastly, there is again a bibli- 
ography, a sketch of archaeological 

museums and magazines, and a con- 
densed paper on the "Myths and Re- 
ligions of the Aborigines.*'" All three 
are by Mr. Wiusor, and breathe the 
spirit of learning, research, and honest 
criticism which characterize his and 
most of the other papers. In short, 
sincere gratitude is due to Mr. Wiusor 
for this valuable and in many respects 
model publication, which to the sci- 
entists is indispensable, and to the in- 
telligent general reader an ornament 
and a priceless guide. We will add but 
one word, in regard to the illustra- 
tions : they are all "to the point," 
and useful accompaniments of the 
text. The reproductions of title- 
pages are excellent, and the copies 
of ancient maps also. Like the pre- 
ceding volumes, this one has a special 
index, and a general index is prom- 
ised in connection with the eighth 
and final volume. 


The N. II. Adjutant-General's re- he was a cabinet-maker, and for many 

ports for 1865, 18GG, and 1868 contain years was employed in finishing 

a very' full record of the military his- pianos. In 1857, he purchased a 

tory of New Hampshire, not only dur- farm on the Souhegan river, in Mil- 

ing the war for the Union, but ford, and settled there with his 

through all the earlier wars in which, family. At the commencement of 

as province or state, New Hampshire hostilities, in 1861, he volunteered 

has taken an active part. From his services, and was appointed a 

these volumes a few biographical recruiting officer by the state authori- 

facts in regard to those heroes who ties. He soon raised a full company, 

suffered or died for their country dur- which was assigned to the Third 

ing the Rebellion have been taken. Regiment; and August 22, 1861, he 

was commissioned captain. He was 

Lieut. -Colonel Josiah I. Plimp- promoted to Major, June 27, 1862, 

ton, of jthe Third Regiment N. H. and to lieutenant-colonei, April 6, 

V., was born in West Cambridge, 1864. He was killed at the battle of 

Mass., December 27, 1825. By trade Deep Run, Virginia, August 16, 

The Rebellion 


1864, being shot through the heart. 
11 At the moment he fell, he was in 
the most advanced position of out- 
forces, and was actively engaged in 
moving his command in order, and in 
rallying and in encouraging his men." 
His remains rest in Milford. 

Colonel Louis Bell, of the Fourth 
Regiment, son of Gen. Samuel Bell, 
was born in Chester, "larch 8, 1837 ; 
fitted for college at Derry ; graduat- 
ed at Brown University in 1853 ; read 
law in Charlestowu and Manchester ; 
was admitted to the bar; and settled 
in Farmington. In 18G0 he was 
solicitor for Strafford county. Pie 
was commissioned, April 30, 1861, 
captain of Company A, First Regi- 
ment ; and was mustered out August 
9, 1861. He was commissioned 
September 3, 1861, lieutenant-col- 
onel of the Fourth, and, May 16, 
1862, was promoted to Colonel. He 
commanded a brigade at the siege, on 
Morris Island, of Forts Wagner and 
Gregg, in 1863. 

In the spring of 18G4 he joined 
the Army of the Potomac, and com- 
manded a brigade until his death. 
For some time he commanded a divi- 
sion in the Army of the James. In 
the expedition against Fort Fisher, 
Colonel Bell received a bullet wound 
through the lungs, January 15, 1864, 
and died the next day. His commis- 
sion of brevet-brigadier general ar- 
rived the day he was wounded. He 
was buried in Chester. 

Colonel Louis Bell was the brother 
of U S. Senator James Bell, and of 
Chief -Justice Samuel Dana Bell. 
He married the (^tighter of Rev. Dr. 
Nathaniel Boutom As a lawyer, he 
41 possessed quick decision, sincerity, 

aud uprightness of character ; as a 
soldier, he was fearless aud accom- 

Major Charles W". Sawyer, of 
the Fourth, sou of Hou. Thomas E. 
Sawyer, of Dover, was born May 19 T 
1832. He was engaged in business 
in Manchester aud Boston for a num- 
ber of years before the war, being 
chosen a representative to the Mas- 
sachusetts legislature in I860. He 
volunteered ; and was commissioned 
by Governor Goodwin as first 
lieutenant of Company B, First Reg- 
iment N. H. V. He recruited Com- 
pany A, of the Fourth, and was com- 
missioned captain, Sept. 20, 1861. 
He was promoted to Major, Decem- 
ber 1, 1863. He was mortally 
wounded May 16, 1864, at Drury's 
Bluff, and died June 22. 

He was a strict disciplinarian, firm 
yet generous, kind to his men, 
thoughtful of their welfare, respected 
and loved by them. He was an ar- 
dent and devoted patriot. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Henry II. 
Pearson, of the Sixth, was a student 
at Phillips Exeter Academy in 1861. 
He was born in Newport, 111., Feb. 
2\], 1840. When the flag was insult- 
ed at Fort Sumter, he left Exeter 
for the seat of war, where he volun- 
teered, and served until after the bat- 
tle of Bull Run. In the fall he re- 
turned to New Hampshire, raised 
Company C of the Sixth, and was 
commissioned captain, Nov. 30, 
1861. He was promoted to lieuten- 
ant-colonel, October 15, 1862; and 
was shot through the head, May '2G, 
1864, about 12 miles from Richmond, 
Va. He was buried on the banks of 
the North Anna. 


Davis Centennial Celeb rati on. 


This celebration was held on Sep- 
tember 4, 1889. in the town of War- 
ner, at the grove on the Davis Cen- 
tennial Hill, about two miles west 
from Warner depot, on the road to 
Henniker. The day was all that 
conld be desired ; there was a light 
south wind that made the grove de- 
lightfully cool and pleasant. Nearly 
three hundred people were present 
from different parts of New England. 
The forenoon was devoted to the 
interchange of greetings and sociabil- 
ity. At 12 o'clock all partook of a 
lunch furnished by Mr. and Mrs. 

At 1 o'clock the meeting was called 
to order by S. W. S hat tuck, who 
briefly stated the object of the gath- 
ering. After prayer by Rev. Robert 
Beuuett, and the singing of an an- 
them by Charles F. Davis and wife, 
and their daughters, Ida C, Marion, 
and Sadie, the chairmau introduced 
Major Samuel Davis as president of 
the day, who made some interesting 
remarks appropriate to the occasion. 

F. Evans Davis was then called 
upon, who briefly thanked the audi- 
ence for the attendance, aud regard 
for the Davis family, after which an 
historical address was delivered by 
A. P. Davis, Esq. ; recitation, by 
Sadie Davis : music, by Ida C. and 
Marion Davis ; poem, by Dr. J. M. 
Rix ; essay, by Esther A. Shattuck ; 
music; remarks by Rev. A. E. Hall; 
remarks by Charles F. Davis, Esq. ; 
song by Sadie Davis ; remarks by 
Rev. Robert^Bennett, B. F. Heath, 
Esq., Dr. J. R. Cogswell, S. C. Pat- 

tee, Esq., and others; music and 

On the platform were John Shep- 
ard Davis, Esq., of Bradford Pond, 
who is in the 87th year of his age, 
and Sargent Badger, Esq., who is in 
his 83d year. They were both look- 
ing well and hearty. 

At the conclusion of the exercises 
in the grove, the whole party, under 
the leadership of Dr. J. INI. Rix and 
Miss Sadie Davis, marched to the 
brow of the hill, where a flag had 
been thrown to the breeze. After 
saluting the flag with three hearty 
cheers, the hill was dedicated by pil- 
ing up rocks by the people, and drop- 
ping a spray of evergreen by Sadie 
Davis. The celebration ended with 
the singing by the assembly of "Amer- 
ca" and " Old Hundred." 


Mr. President: It has been the im- 
memorial custom of men in all stages 
of civilization to celebrate the occur- 
rence of notable events in their his- 
tory. The Jews, the tribes of the 
desert, the North American Indians, 
white, black, and red men, the world 
over, under all conditions of intellect- 
ual development and growth, from 
the lowest to the highest, all have 
their jubilees and centennial celebra- 
tions. Americans celebrate annually 
the event of the 4th of July, 177t>. 
As a nation, we have just finished a 
series of imposing centennial cele- 
brations, beginning with the Centen- 
nial of 187G, the Surrender of Corn- 
wallis in 1883, and ending with the 

Davis Centennial Celebration. 


celebration of the Inauguration of 
Washington, in April, 1889. Iu the 
light of such precedents, we meet to- 
day to celebrate an important local 
and family event in Warner. 

In accepting the invitation of our 
host to address you on this occasion, 
commemorative of the event we cele- 
brate, I have thought it most appro- 
priate to answer, as well as I can, 
the inquiry which is constantly in 
the minds of the descendants of the 
original settlers of Warner, Who 
were they, what were they, and 
where did they originate? He was 
a true philosopher who said, "The 
greatest study of man is man." To 
us, who point with pride to our noble 
Pilgrim ancestry, and the noble men 
who, with indomitable courage, more 
than a century ago, brought civiliza- 
tion into this then an unbroken wilder- 
ness, the study of those men should 
be our greatest pleasure. 

In order to impart information and 
better answer the inquiries suggested, 
I have explored records and tradi- 
tions and all known sources of infor- 
mation relating to family histories, 
and realize as never before the force 
of the observation of Plutarch, when 
he said, "The family historian who 
attempts to trace the line of descent 
through centuries, will find himself 
finally lost in the shadowy uncer- 
tainties of tradition." This being the 
first event of the kind intended to 
commemorate the settlement of any 
distinctive family in Warner, and in- 
cidentally the settlement of the town 
itself, which began over one hundred 
and fifty years ago, I have thought 
the importance of the event and its 
inf requeue v, from a historical point 
of view, would warrant me in present- 

ing the result of my research some- 
what at length, possibly tediously so 
to some. 

We celebrate to-day the fact that 
one hundred years have passed since 
Francis Davis, on the 11th day of 
July, 1780, brought his family upon 
this tract, of land and made it his 
home. This town was almost unin- 
habited, and was substantially a wil- 
derness, only broken here and there 
by settlers' clearings, when, in 1787, 
Francis Davis bought of his uncle, 
Gideon Davis, for less than one hun- 
dred dollars, and began to clear and 
make productive, these broad and fer- 
tile acres, the title to which has ever 
since been in his family. 

If there is a race of men who have 
made an ineffaceable and sublime rec- 
ord upon the pages of history, it was 
the Pilgrims, who with courage that 
knew no discouragement, zeal that 
knew no abatement, and faith as 
sublime as the heavens are high, 
founded New England in a wilder- 
ness ; and their sous, who, actuated 
by the same lofty courage, zeal, and 
faith, left the sea-coast towns, and, 
in the interior of a state so forbid- 
ding as was New Hampshire, cut out 
of the forest and rescued from a state 
of nature a soil so unpromising and 
unpropitious as was this, when on 
that 11th day of July, the young 
wife of Francis Davis, with two 
children in her arms, rode on the 
back of a horse, upon this hill over- 
looking this deep valley at her feet, 
with the Mink Hills towering above 
her at the west, and Kearsarge stand- 
ing a grim, barren sentinel, at the 
North, to take up her home in a log 
cabin, whose open door welcomed her 
and her young husband to the trials 


Davis Centennial Celebration 

aud hardships of pioneer life. This 
picture is that of one hundred other 
families, who, between 1750 aud 1800, 
came to Warner as pioneer settlers. 

To know the early history of those 
brave men who cleared this town of 
the original forest, who built the hun- 
dreds of miles of roads and the 
thousands of miles of stone wall, and 
founded here a community as rugged 
and honest as their ancestors were 
noble and courageous, has been with 
me more or less a study for several 
years. It was the same interest 
which led Gov. Harriman to preface 
the history of those first settlers in 
his 4k History of Warner" as follows : 
" A peculiar interest attaches to those 
who happen to have been the first 
settlers in any town or place. We 
naturally desire to know who they 
were, where they came from, aud how 
they fared." An interest in one's 
ancestry is common to all intelligent 
people. A man without pride of an- 
cestry is like John -Randolph's mule, 
that had no ancestry and would have 
no posterity. 

The early genealogical history of 
the one hundred families who com- 
prised the first settlers of Warner is 
more one of tradition than of well 
authenticated record. Our Warner 
settlers were poor men, and sons of 
the sturdy race of men who followed 
in the wake of the Mayflower, across 
a trackless ocean, to enjoy in Amer- 
ica the rights of conscience which 
were denied them at home. They 
came here during the giant political 
upheaval in England, which sent 
Charles to the scaffold and made 
Cromwell a king. It is to be remem- 
bered always, thattJur New England 
progenitors, as a whole, were the poor 

men of England. They did not find 
their origin with the aristocratic fam- 
ilies of the world, and so their sympa- 
thies, during the civil war which 
shook the throne of England as 
never before, were with Cromwell 
and his pious soldiery. As a late 
English historian well says, — " Dur- 
ing the civil war in England, which 
resulted in the subversion of mon- 
archy, the Puritan colonists of New 
England, as might have been expect- 
ed from their well known republican 
principles, were attached to the cause 
of Parliament and of Cromwell, while 
Virginia adhered to royalty." 

The men who followed Cromwell 
and the leaders of the Mayflower par- 
ty, and their sons who settled War- 
ner, had no bigoted aristocratic fam- 
ilies back of them. Their family rec- 
ords were to be made. They were 
poor, and had little time to think of 
their ancestors, while starvation in 
Warner forests stared them in the 
face, unless every moment was de- 
voted to the most diligent physical 
labor. So they left little record evi- 
dence by which we can satisfy our- 
selves as to who they were, what they 
were, and where they originated. 

The early genealogical history of 
the Davis family — as that branch of it 
more especially represented here to- 
day by the descendants of the five 
Davis settlers, who between 1762 and 
1790 settled in Warner — is more or 
less shrouded in the uncertainties of 
tradition, for there is little reliable 
record evidence on which to base con- 
clusions. The story, as it has passed 
from father to son during the nearly 
ten generations that have appeared 
and passed off the stage of life since 
the settlement of New England 

Davis Centennial Celebration. 


began, is conflicting, for each branch 
of the original family has a some- 
what different tradition. I give von 
these several traditions, with such 
substantial evidence in favor of each 
as the most diligent effort and labor 
can rescue almost from oblivion, 
allowing every one the liberty of 
choice of uncertainties. The story 
current in the family of Captain 
Francis Davis, the pioneer settler of 
Warner, and its first citizen during 
the Revolutionary War, aud until he 
died in 1784, and therefore entitled 
to great weight, is, that Philip Davis, 
born in 1626, and son of Philip, born 
about 1590, in 1638 left South Hamp- 
ton, England, in the ship Confidence, 
John Johnson, master, and settled in 
Amesbury, Mass. So far as we know 
this is pure tradition, and not substan- 
tiated by a particle of record evidence, 
for the records of Essex county and 
of Amesbury, Mass., nowhere before 
1725 refer to a Philip Davis. It is 
hardly possible that a man could 
have lived there, who was twelve 
years old in 1638 when he came there, 
if at all, and the founder of so nu- 
merous a family, without owning laud, 
or without a family, some of whose 
births and deaths would have been on 
record, and without leaving an estate 
to settle in the probate court. Au- 
other tradition is, that Philip Davis, 
of Cardigan, Wales, in 1676. sent to 
America his three sons, — Gideon, 
Philip, and Francis, — and that Gideon 
died at sea. There is no record evi- 
dence in support of this tradition. 
There is record evidence which tends 
to weaken these traditions, and to 
build up another., held to by some of 
the family. There is record evidence 
in Amesbnrv, and in Essex county, 

that one Willi Davis took the free- 
man's oath in 16-45, twenty-five years 
after Plymouth ; that one Francis 
Davis, and one Samuel Davis, who the 
record says "were sons of the first 
settlers," took the freeman's oath in 
December, 1677, before Col. Pike in 
Salem ; that one Francis Davis owned 
laud in Amesbury about 1680 ; that 
one Fraucis Davis, third son of 
Francis, was boru September 29, 
1687 ; that one Fraucis Davis, about 
1717, married one Joanna Ord- 
way, of Haverhill, and that their 
first child, Gideon Davis, was born 
iu 1718. This is all matter of public 
record, and is not tradition. Four 
of the five Davis settlers, who origi- 
nally settled in Warner, came from 
the marriage of Francis Davis, born 
in 16S7, to Joanna Ordway. That 
fact is unquestionable. The father 
of this Francis, born in 1687, was 
•also Francis, who the record says in 
1677 was " a son of a first settler." 
There is evidence showing he was 
born about 1655, and that he was 
a son of Willi Davis, who took the 
oath in 1645. 

Now, in the face of these conflict- 
ing stories, and of the fact that no 
human being can shed additional light 
from actual knowledge, and that no 
records on earth, other than those 
we have exhausted, can be fouud, 
what test shall we apply to determine 
whether Philip Davis or Willi Davis 
was the New England progenitor of 
the Francis Davis, born in 1655, and 
who was the first born in New Eng- 
land to whom we trace the line of de- 
scent clearly? Pecord evidence, in 
law, is always the best evidence. 
We have record evidence (not. how- 
ever, complete), which joined with tra- 

Davis Centennial Celebration. 

dition and logical conclusions from 
known facts, that points with almost 
absolute certainty, that Willi Davis 
was the New England progenitor of 
our family. Doubtless he was a 
Welch man, as that impression has 
always been in the family, and we 
believe the lad who left England in 
1638 for America was not Philip 
Davis, but was Willi Davis, who took 
the oath in 1G45, whose son Francis 
was born in 1655, and who took the 
oath iu 1677, and whose son Francis 
was born in 1687, who married Joan- 
na Old way in 1717, whose first son, 
Gideon, was born in 1718. 

We have reached this conclusion 
after a careful sifting of all the evi- 
dence, both traditional, inferential, 
and record. 

In 1680 there were living in Ames- 
bury at least four Davises who were 
heads of families, viz., Francis, John. 
Jeremiah, and Samuel. I thiuk they 
were brothers and sons of Willi 
Davis. It is certain that a child of 
this Francis came to Warner, and 
three of his grandsons, each with a 
family. I think a son of John Davis 
also came here, and so Capt. Francis 
Davis and Gideon Davis, Francis 
Davis, Robert Davis, and John Davis, 
the first settlers, were related, and 
were from the same original stock. 
The descendants of Capt. Francis 
Davis at Davisville, of Francis Davis 
here represented by Francis E. Davis, 
of Gideon Davis by Moses E. Davis, 
of Robert Davis by H. H. Davis, and 
of John Davis by the wife of Moses 
E. Davis, and of Samuel Davis by 
the President of the day, cau kfc clasp 
hands across the bloody chasm" and 
revivify the broken ties. It is indis- 
putable that Francis Davis's son 

Francis, born in 1687, about 1717 
married Joanna Ordway, and settled 
down to the joys of wedded life at 
" Birching Meadows," so called, in 
the West Parish in Amesbury. and 
on the aucient road leading through 
that old town to Haverhill. 

There Francis aud Joanna raised 
a family of boys as follows : Gideon 
born in 1718, Francis in 1723, Philip 
in 1725; and girls, — Gertrude in 
1719, Annie in 1721, and Joanna in 
1731. Amesbury records are our 
authority. It was this Francis, and 
three sons of this Gideon, who came 
to Warner. Taking these boys in 
the order of birth, we have found no 
evidence when Gideou married. His 
wife's given name was Elizabeth. 
Gideon died in Amesbury just before 
1790. His wife Elizabeth died in 
Warner about the year 1800, in the 
family of her son Francis. Her 
remains are in an unmarked grave at 
the " Parade" cemetery, along with 
those of her sons Francis, Gideon, 
and Robert. 

Amesbury records of births be^in 
in 1686, and they show that Gideon 
and Elizabeth Davis had children as 
follows: Ruth born in 1745, Gideon 
in 1747, Robert in 1751, Francis in 
1754, and Anna in 1761. 

Francis Davis born in 16*7, died 
about 1771. Of his wife, Joanna, I 
have been unable to find any data of 
the time of death. None of the sons 
of Francis and Joanna came to War- 
ner, except Captain Francis. 

Three of the sons of Gideon and 
Elizabeth Davis came to Warner 
between 1780 and 1790, and settled 
here, viz., Gideon in 1783, Francis 
in 1789, and Robert about 1790. 
Gideon settled on the farm now 




Davis Centennial Celebration . 


owned by Moses E. Davis at Water- 
loo, where he died in 18*23. His wife 
was Mary Cheney, of Plaistow, who 
died in 1834. Francis Davis married 
Judith Foster, and settled on the 
farm now the property of his grand- 
sou, Francis E. Davis. He died in 
1 797, suddenly. Robert Davis settled 
on the farm now owned by John Os- 
good. He married Betsey Currier. 
He was found dead in his field early 
in this century. The late Benjamin 
and Timothy Davis were his sons. 

The sons of Gideon Davis, who 
came to Warner in 1 '83, were John, 
born in 1775, Robert, born in Ames- 
bury, in 1778 ; Gideon, bom in 1785, 
and Moses, iu 1790, were born in 
Warner. His daughters were Molly, 
born in 1773, Ruth, 1782, in Ames- 
bury; Olive, 1784, and Anna, 1790, 
in Warner. 

GideoD Davis was a first-class 
mechanic, and was equally at home 
as a blacksmith, a carpenter, a 
mason, and a builder, his time being 
principally employed in the service of 
his neighbors, who at that early pe- 
riod found great need of such a man. 

The children of Francis and Judith 
Davis were Hannah, born in 1781, 
William F. in 1783, Judith in 1787, 
born in Araesbury; Susannah in 
1790, Anna in 1792, Francis in 1794, 
Judith in 179G — eight in all. 

Francis Davis brought with him, 
when he moved to Warner, his aged 
mother. He died suddenly in 1797, 
leaving the support of his large fam- 
ily to his widow, and the eldest boy, 
William Foster Davis, who bravely 
took up the load and carried it hero- 
ically through. 

Jot n Davis, born in 1775, eldest ^on 
Of Gideon aud Ruth, like his father, 

was a skilled mechanic, whom he suc- 
ceeded as the " boss" mechanic in 
Warner, and for a half century was 
the master builder and master mason 
of Warner and surrounding towns. 
He was a man of large capacity for 
business. Had he lived in our day, 
his mechanical gifts would have given 
him a leading position among skilled 
and expert mechanics. He died in 
1S65, without an enemy, and respect- 
ed by all, with a reputation for keen 
and incisive wit and repartee second 
to no other man's. His wife was 
Rachel Benuett, of Sandown. Captain 
Francis Davis, aud three sons of Gid- 
eon Davis,— Gideon, Francis, and 
Robert, — and John Davis, who was a 
Revolutionary soldier, and came to 
Warner in 1788, and who left a large 
family, were the progenitors of the 
Davises of Warner; and I think it 
probable that the Bradford Pond 
Davis family, represented here by 
our worthy president, were from the 
Amesbury stock. 

William Foster Davis, born in 1783, 
married Susanna Collins, and had 
eight children, represented here by 
Francis E. Davis, and a large number 
of his descendants. He died in 1861, 
a highly respected citizen. His wife 
died in 18G0. 

Francis Davis, who figured so prom- 
inently in the first settlement of the 
town, came to Warner in 1763 with 
his family, having been here many 
times before as agent of the propri- 
etors of the town, and located at 
Davisvilie. It was his energy, enter- 
prise, and push that finally succeed- 
ed, after many trials and failures, in 
securing a permanent lodgment of 
white men in Warner. He was the 
first Davis in town, as he has been 


Davis Centennial Celebration, 

the most illustrious. He was the 
leading citizen until he died in 1784: 
As agent of the embryo town, he pro- 
cured from Gov. Wentworth, in 1774, 
the town charter. He called the first 
meeting of the town, was the mod- 
erator at its first meeting, was its 
first representative in the legislature 
and in the constitutional convention, 
was chairman of the committee of 
safety during the Revolution, and 
captain of its soldiers by command 
of the king. lie was a patriot. He 
furnished three sons for the Continen- 
tal army, — Francis and Wells, who 
were at Bunker Hill, and Aquila, who 
enlisted in 1777. In view of his great 
public services there would be much 
more propriety in naming the town 
Davistown than Warner. There is 
no patent on this suggestion. 

Francis Davis was drowned while 
on his return to his New Hampshire 
home from his old home in Amesbury. 
"Warner records say " Capt. Francis 
Davis departed this life on Friday 
ye 26th day of Nov. 178-1. Burried 
on Friday ye 10th day of Dec. 
1784 in ye 0"2nd year of his age." 
He left a very large family, among 
whom the most distinguished was 
Gen. Aquila Davis, a soldier in the 
War of 1812. 

I have thus sketched briefly some 
of the historical characters of the 
town as they are seemingly related to 
us. Time will not permit me to ex- 
plore the history of subsequent gener- 
ations. The early Davises were a 
very prolific people. Their children's 
children's children are as numerous 
as the sands on the sea-shore. The 
Davis family has been from the begin- 
ning by far the most numerous of any 
in town. The name is more frequent- 

ly met with in the early aud late rec- 
ords of the town than any other, 
whether we examine the early pro- 
prietors' records, the records of births, 
of town-meetings before and after the 
incorporation in 1774, the check-lists 
and tax-lists, going back nearly one 
hundred and fifty years. 

In conclusion, it is enough to say 
of them that they have been always 
self-supporting. The poor-house, the 
asylum for the insane, the jail, and 
the penitentiary have never been 
inhabited by any of the descendants 
of the Davis who founded the family. 
They have composed a patriotic, self- 
sacrificing, public-spirited, intelligent, 
and respectable yeomanry. Beyond 
this my native sense of modesty as 
a Davis kt to the manner born" will 
not allow me to go. 

So much for historical